natural environment
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Chunyu Zong ◽  
Yuyao Hu ◽  
Xingliang Jiang ◽  
Richang Xian ◽  
Zongyuan Liu ◽  

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 580
Michał Gołębiewski ◽  
Marta Galant-Gołębiewska ◽  
Remigiusz Jasiński

Protection of the natural environment is a key activity driving development in the transport discipline today. The use of simulators to train civil aviation pilots provides an excellent opportunity to maintain the balance between efficiency and limit the negative impact of transport on the environment. Therefore, we decided to determine the impact of selected simulations of air operations on energy consumption. The aim of the research was to determine the energy consumption of the flight simulator depending on the type of flight operation and configuration used. We also decided to compare the obtained result with the energy consumption of an aircraft of a similar class, performing a similar aviation operation and other means of transport. In order to obtain the results, a research plan was proposed consisting of 12 scenarios differing in the simulated aircraft model, weather conditions and the use of the simulator motion platform. In each of the scenarios, energy consumption was measured, taking into account the individual components of the simulator. The research showed that the use of a flight simulator has a much smaller negative impact on the natural environment than flying in a traditional plane. Use of a motion platform indicated a change in energy consumption of approximately 40% (in general, flight simulator configuration can change energy consumption by up to 50%). The deterioration of weather conditions during the simulation caused an increase in energy consumption of 14% when motion was disabled and 18% when motion was enabled. Energy consumption in the initial stages of pilot training can be reduced by 97% by using flight simulators compared to aircraft training.

Татьяна Николаевна Ворожцова ◽  
Дмитрий Вячеславович Пестерев ◽  
Владимир Русланович Кузьмин

В статье рассматриваются возможности применения семантического моделирования, включающего, в частности, онтологическое и когнитивное моделирование для поддержки совместных исследований энергетических и социо-экологических систем. Работа посвящена использованию онтологического инжиниринга для структурирования знаний предметных областей и когнитивного моделирования в исследованиях влияния функционирования энергетических объектов на природную среду и человека. Онтологическое моделирование используется для выявления, описания и согласования базовых понятий предметных областей исследований и позволяет систематизировать и наглядно представить взаимосвязи между элементами природной среды, объектами энергетики и их характеристиками, факторами воздействия и методами их расчета. Когнитивное моделирование используется для выявления структуры причинно-следственных связей между факторами, влияющими на устойчивость системы. The article discusses the possibilities of applying semantic modeling, including, in particular, ontological and cognitive modeling to support joint research of energy and socio-ecological systems. The work is devoted to the use of ontological engineering for structuring knowledge of subject areas and cognitive modeling in studies of the impact of the functioning of energy facilities on the natural environment and humans. Ontological modeling is used to identify, describe and coordinate the basic concepts of subject areas of research and allows you to systematize and visualize the relationship between elements of the natural environment, energy facilities and their characteristics, impact factors and methods of their calculation. Cognitive modeling is used to identify the structure of causal relationships between factors affecting the stability of the system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Kaoru Isa ◽  
Kota Tokuoka ◽  
Sakura Ikeda ◽  
Sara Karimi ◽  
Kenta Kobayashi ◽  

In our previous study, we showed that the defense responses induced by the selective optogenetic activation of the uncrossed output pathway from the deeper layer of the superior colliculus were environment dependent in the mouse. In a small closed box, the stimulus frequently induced flight (fast forward run away) responses, while in a large open field, the stimulus tended to induce backward retreat responses. We tested a hypothesis that the amygdala is involved in such environment dependency of the innate defense responses. For this purpose, we made a bilateral lesion of the amygdala induced by the ibotenic acid injections in male mice. As a result, in the mice with lesions of substantial portions of the basolateral and basomedial complex, the flight responses in the closed box disappeared and retreat responses were mainly induced. The retreat responses on the open platform were unchanged. Classically, the amygdala has been considered to be involved in the memory-dependent contextual modulation of the fear responses. In contrast, the present results suggest a novel view on the role of the amygdala in which the amygdala plays a key role in sensing the current environmental setting for making a quick decision of action upon emergency, which is critical for survival in the natural environment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 671
Eija Yli-Panula ◽  
Eila Jeronen ◽  
Eila Matikainen ◽  
Christel Persson

In the context of landscape, both the natural environment and the built environment can be linked with human health and well-being. This connection has been studied among adults, but no research has been conducted on young people. To fill this gap, this case study aimed to elucidate students’ views on landscapes worth conserving and the landscapes that affect and support their well-being. The participants (n = 538) were Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish students from grades 3–6. The students drew the landscapes they wanted to conserve. The drawn landscapes and the welfare-supporting features they contained were analysed using inductive and abductive content analyses. The students from all three countries preferred water, forest and yard landscapes. In the drawings of natural landscapes, the most recurring themes were sunrise or sunset, forest, beach and mountain landscapes. Physical well-being was manifested in the opportunity to jog and walk. Social well-being was reflected in the presence of friends, relatives and animals. Therapeutically important well-being-related spaces—the so-called green (natural areas), blue (aquatic environments) and white (e.g., snow) areas—were also depicted in the participants’ drawings. It can be concluded that the drawn landscapes reflect several values that promote students’ well-being.

Ryan J. Scalsky ◽  
Yi-Ju Chen ◽  
Zhekang Ying ◽  
James A. Perry ◽  
Charles C. Hong

COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic with considerable impact. Studies have examined the influence of socioeconomic status and air pollution on COVID-19 risk but in low detail. This study seeks to further elucidate the nuances of socioeconomic status, as defined by the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), air pollution, and their relationship. We examined the effect of IMD and air pollution on the likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 among 66,732 UKB participants tested for SARS-CoV-2 from 16 March 2020 through 16 March 2021. Logistic regression was performed controlling for age, sex, ancestry and IMD or air pollution in the respective models. IMD and its sub-scores were significantly associated with increased risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. All particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels were associated with increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Measures of green space and natural environment around participants’ homes were associated with reduced likelihood of SARS-CoV-2. Socioeconomic status and air pollution have independent effects on the risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Green space and natural environment space in the proximity of people’s homes may mediate the effect of air pollution on the risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 57
Ju-hyoung Lee ◽  
Marady Cheng ◽  
Muhammad Nur Syamsi ◽  
Ki Hwan Lee ◽  
Thu Rain Aung ◽  

In modern society, the opportunity to experience nature is separate from everyday life, requiring time and effort. Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, restrictions on freedom of activity and communication around the world have become a crisis, causing a nature deficit by accelerating the process of separation from nature. At the same time, the pandemic has increased people’s motivation to return to nature, providing an opportunity to seek experiences and health recovery in nature. The authors conducted an international cross-sectional study in five Asian countries, investigating changes in the perception of recreational activities and health restoration in the natural environment, one of the many effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on human society. An online survey, completed by 524 respondents, has confirmed the efficacy of the SEM model, which includes COVID-19 stress, increased indoor activity, a preference for the natural environment, and the perception of health recovery. Although the five countries had different response values for each theme, the stress caused by restricted activities and communication during the pandemic was linked to a preference for natural experiences and the motivation to visit natural environments in all five countries, ultimately affecting perceptions of health recovery in nature. This study has shown that the COVID-19 pandemic, a disaster afflicting all human civilization, has changed people’s perceptions by enhancing their preference for natural recreational activities and health. It has accelerated people’s return to nature and fostered a positive perception of nature’s ability to promote good health.

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