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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Serena Ceola ◽  
Alessio Domeneghetti ◽  
Guy J. P. Schumann

River floods are one of the most devastating extreme hydrological events, with oftentimes remarkably negative effects for human society and the environment. Economic losses and social consequences, in terms of affected people and human fatalities, are increasing worldwide due to climate change and urbanization processes. Long-term dynamics of flood risk are intimately driven by the temporal evolution of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Although needed for effective flood risk management, a comprehensive long-term analysis of all these components is not straightforward, mostly due to a lack of hydrological data, exposure information, and large computational resources required for 2-D flood model simulations at adequately high resolution over large spatial scales. This study tries to overcome these limitations and attempts to investigate the dynamics of different flood risk components in the Murray-Darling basin (MDB, Australia) in the period 1973–2014. To this aim, the LISFLOOD-FP model, i.e., a large-scale 2-D hydrodynamic model, and satellite-derived built-up data are employed. Results show that the maximum extension of flooded areas decreases in time, without revealing any significant geographical transfer of inundated areas across the study period. Despite this, a remarkable increment of built-up areas characterizes MDB, with larger annual increments across not-flooded locations compared to flooded areas. When combining flood hazard and exposure, we find that the overall extension of areas exposed to high flood risk more than doubled within the study period, thus highlighting the need for improving flood risk awareness and flood mitigation strategies in the near future.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Eden Yin ◽  
Abeer Mahrous

PurposeDespite the growing importance of workplace spirituality, organisations have been reluctant to integrate spirituality into their workplaces; this paper discusses how to integrate spirituality into the workplace.Design/methodology/approachThis is a theoretical paper that builds its arguments on the synthesis of workplace spirituality and contemporary management paradigms.FindingsThe study argues that workplace spirituality is an extremely important driving force for the sustainable and healthy growth of any organisation; however, infusing workplace spirituality into companies in the industrial and digital eras would be a futile effort, as industrial organisations are built on an ethos highly incongruent with spiritual principles. Therefore, in the post-digital era, spirituality-driven organisations (SDOs) will emerge, marking the beginning of a true “spiritual paradigm” for business and human society at large. The study also elaborates on the characteristics of the post-digital era and the nature of SDOs.Originality/valueWorkplace spirituality has been a research topic for years but has never gained sufficient momentum. The Covid-19 global pandemic has made workplace spirituality a more pertinent issue on corporate agendas. Therefore, this paper provides the theoretical foundation to embed workplace spirituality in contemporary management thoughts and practices.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (2) ◽  
pp. 2016
Burapha Phajuy ◽  
Vimoltip Singtuen

One of the oldest lime manufactures in Chiang Mai Province is located in a hillside village, Ban Pong, Hang Dong District, the western part of Chiang Mai City. Villagers still have conserved traditional production methods using wood-fired kilns and the primary material selection, an Ordovician marble. There are 2 massive amounts of carbonate rocks distributed in Chiang Mai Province; Permian limestone and Ordovician marble. However, the Ordovician carbonate rocks in Ban Pong were selected to produce high-quality lime by their primitive method (man-made) for a long time. Petrographical studies suggest that the Ordovician rock samples show a granoblastic texture with a slightly foliation represents by mica flakes. They are made up mainly of calcite, with very small amounts of quartz, muscovite, talc, and opaque minerals that can be identified as marble. The mineral compositions are according to the value of CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, K2O, and Fe2O3 in whole-rock analysis by XRF. The geochemical data suggest that marble in the Ban Pong area has a high CaO ratio and contains small amounts of muscovite, quartz, talc, and opaque minerals that may reduce the decomposition temperature during the calcination process. The Ordovician marble in Ban Pong is an appropriate raw material for traditional lime manufacture to saving energy in the production system. HIGHLIGHTS Limestone has been a geologic material in the lime industry from the past to the presence of human society Villagers in Ban Pong (Chiang Mai Province, Thailand) selected the western Ordovician limestone mountains to produce lime by a primitive process instead of the eastern Permian limestone mountains The mineral- and chemical compositions of the Ordovician limestones were intensively analyzed to characterize the suitable raw materials for a primitive lime kiln The mineral composition indicated that the Ordovician limestone in this area is metamorphosed into an impure fine-grained marble GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT

2022 ◽  

Sir William Gerard Golding (1911–1993), the writer of Lord of the Flies (LOTF), occupies a pivotal position within the post–World War II canon of writers. Though Golding does not seem to belong to any particular “school” or movement of fiction writers who wrote at the height of Cold War and its aftermath per se, he is a staple in high school, college, and university curricula all over the globe. His magnum opus, Lord of the Flies (1954), transformed him into a writer who commands worldwide attention. In the book he attacked the belief in any stable notions of civilization, society, and culture, and was keen to show the innate depravity of the human spirit. His trilogy To the Ends of the Earth, which comprises Rites of Passage (1980), Close Quarters (1987) and Fire Down Below (1989), further explores his themes of the civilizing process and class consciousness, while the travelogue An Egyptian Journal (1985) shows his fascination for the ancient land and his journey there after he won the Nobel Prize in 1983. His famous quote about humanity, “Man produces evil as a bee produces honey,” speaks of his disbelief in the progress and the health of modern civilization and any stable notions of human progress. His Nobel Prize citation stated it was given “for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in a world of today,” thus summarizing his lifelong mission as a writer. Golding’s themes are class consciousness, human society (particularly what happens to it in isolation), modern and postmodern trauma with respect to human dreams and aspirations, and, lastly, the entire notion of “civilization” itself. His fiction has been analyzed with recourse to anthropology, psychoanalysis, postmodernism, narratology, trauma studies, and queer scholarship. Critical commentary on Golding continues to grow, especially around LOTF, due to its continued relevance owing to themes of violence, totalitarianism, queer studies, and its apocalyptic vision. It should be stressed, however, that compared to LOTF, his only play, The Brass Butterfly (1958), his Poems (1934) and his other nonfiction, such as A Moving Target (1982) and The Hot Gates (1965), the three short narratives in The Scorpion God (1971), and even his posthumous The Double Tongue (1995), have received scant attention. Though the themes of the essential drama of human conflict played against the backdrop of morality, human choice, and postmodern trauma that remain foundational to human existence might be applied to any 20thcentury writer, they are particularly germane to Golding’s works.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261916
Sarah Weir ◽  
Sharon E. Kessler

The media is a powerful force that can affect the welfare of the domiciled dog population. Dogs have long been in human stories and their depictions can create demand for the breeds shown. While previous research has found that this effect can last for up to ten years after the release of a movie, how this phenomenon occurs is unknown. This paper examines if how a dog is portrayed in a movie is associated with a subsequent change in American Kennel Club breed registrations for that breed. Following a systematic literature review, four key themes were identified in how dogs are portrayed in the media; dogs portrayed as heroes, as anthropomorphised, as embodying the ideals of Western societies (Whiteness and heteronormativity) and as boundaries between wilderness and human society. Forty movies from between 1930 to 2004 were analysed, resulting in 95 dog characters scored, and hierarchical multiple linear regression was run. Movies with dogs portrayed as heroes were followed by significant increases in the number of American Kennel Club breed registrations for the breed shown, while anthropomorphised dogs were followed by significant decreases in the number of dogs registered for up to five years after a movie’s release. These results indicate that how dogs are portrayed may be an important driver of demand for breeds. Future work should investigate whether these portrayals may have negative welfare implications for real dogs by leading to owners having unrealistic expectations for dogs or increasing demand for dogs with in-breeding related disorders.

Jaroslava Janků ◽  
Jan Jehlička ◽  
Kristina Heřmanová ◽  
Daniel Toth ◽  
Mansoor Maitah ◽  

The environment is changing quickly and it is ever more burdened in connection with the greater needs of human society. This fact has increased efforts to improve the management of land and natural resources and the necessity to evaluate them. Land valuations become more important as the land consumption increases. Soil needs to be evaluated in the whole context of how its quality is affected and the values it provides. The concept of ecosystem services offers this holistic view. This paper defines ecosystem services (ES), the various linkages between soil properties, their functions and benefits, the assessment of soil quality using indicators and then briefly mentions EU environmental assessment methods and terms used in the context of ES. The article also mentions frameworks with which to assess and evaluate the soil quality that can be divided into two groups. The first group is comprised of a framework of indicators that describe the current state of the soil system assessment for evaluating the quality of the agricultural land. This is based on a detailed measurement of the terrain, a statistical analysis of soil databases or processing the status of specific threats to the soil. The second group is comprised of a framework of indicators focused on changes in the soil quality and applied soil management. These frameworks deal with the productivity of the soil in various systems of farming, compare agricultural systems or discuss the advantages of soil biota as indicators of soil quality in detail. Many of the designs of the soil quality indicators focus on the soil management in the context of a single discipline such as agriculture or water pollution. There are concepts for considering the soil quality in regional planning.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 761
Magdalena Sustkova-Fiserova ◽  
Chrysostomos Charalambous ◽  
Anna Khryakova ◽  
Alina Certilina ◽  
Marek Lapka ◽  

Drug addiction causes constant serious health, social, and economic burden within the human society. The current drug dependence pharmacotherapies, particularly relapse prevention, remain limited, unsatisfactory, unreliable for opioids and tobacco, and even symptomatic for stimulants and cannabinoids, thus, new more effective treatment strategies are researched. The antagonism of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type A (GHS-R1A) has been recently proposed as a novel alcohol addiction treatment strategy, and it has been intensively studied in experimental models of other addictive drugs, such as nicotine, stimulants, opioids and cannabinoids. The role of ghrelin signaling in these drugs effects has also been investigated. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of preclinical and clinical studies focused on ghrelin’s/GHS-R1A possible involvement in these nonalcohol addictive drugs reinforcing effects and addiction. Although the investigation is still in its early stage, majority of the existing reviewed experimental results from rodents with the addition of few human studies, that searched correlations between the genetic variations of the ghrelin signaling or the ghrelin blood content with the addictive drugs effects, have indicated the importance of the ghrelin’s/GHS-R1As involvement in the nonalcohol abused drugs pro-addictive effects. Further research is necessary to elucidate the exact involved mechanisms and to verify the future potential utilization and safety of the GHS-R1A antagonism use for these drug addiction therapies, particularly for reducing the risk of relapse.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-6
Astafyeva Olga Nikolaevna ◽  
Belyakova Irina

The article is devoted to the problems of transformation and phenomenon of complication of intercultural communication models. The significance of the study lies in the fact that intercultural communication through the prism of cultural and civilizational developments reflects the sociocultural changes taking place at all levels of social development. The problem of application of theoretical knowledge about the communicative paradigm of modern culture with its polylogical core for the development of a specific model of intercultural communication and effective cultural policy relates to the difficulties of achieving compliance of the research results with the real state of the sociocultural environment. Basing on the previous and current research approaches and taking into consideration a systemic and synergistic approach as well as a dialogue concept, the authors aim to investigate theoretical modeling of intercultural interaction. As a result of investigation, the authors conclude that the study of models of intercultural interaction cannot be carried out without understanding the principles and factors of the dynamics of cultural changes in the modern world which allows us to consider the transition from a dialogue model to a polylogue model as a natural stage in the dynamics of culture. Also, the methodological set of philosophical and cultural studies of the dynamics of modern culture is proved as constantly expanding due to the new tendencies, like total digitalization. It is stated that overcoming outdated models of intercultural interaction and adopting the new ones is a long process that must be tested by the human society

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Junpei Shinji ◽  
Ryutaro Kamiyama ◽  
Tsubasa Nakamura ◽  
Kenshiro Yamanaka ◽  
Takahiro Matsui

The importance of local knowledge as a relevant information resource for ecosystem conditions has recently been the focus of sustainable ecosystem management. However, the accuracy of economic evaluation based on local knowledge regarding ecosystems has not yet been discussed, despite most activities in human society, including ecological conservation, being monetarily mediated. This study reports the correspondence between the economic value estimated by the fisher community and the analyzed environmental factors in the marine areas sectioned for oyster farming in Japan. At the study site, community-agreed usage fees for the area sections showed a gradient from the inner to the outer part of the bay. Our numerical modeling showed that the gradient of the economic value correlated with oyster feeding efficiency, indicating that a better location for feeding was empirically evaluated at a high price by the local fisher community. This suggests that the economic evaluation based on the local knowledge was biologically reasonable and could be a reliable information source for the aim of the area use in the study site.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Xie Yang ◽  
Zhang Jie ◽  
Chen Xiao

AbstractSpatial agglomeration phenomena on the earth permeate in various fields of the natural and human world, yet their researches in human society are relatively few with the focus mainly on the economic concept of “industrial clusters”. Precise quantitative descriptions, in-depth logical analyses and proper application approaches for urban planning are lacked in various intra-urban spatial agglomeration phenomena. By using over 10 million POIs in the mainland China, 18 grid network models with two varieties of spatial relationships (co-location/adjacent) are constructed in this article. 23 typical place communities are extracted based on complex network analysis, and four types of agglomeration driving forces are summarized. A comprehensive demonstration displaying the application process of co-location/adjacent place matrices in auxiliary decision of the implanted place types is carried out with the example of the revitalization project of Taoxichuan Area in the city of Jingdezhen.

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