Very few studies have been carried out on asthma and allergies in pre-schoolchildren. This is the first study of pre-school children with asthma and allergies in the United Arab Emirates. We studied 4,000 pre-schoolchildren from the United Arab Emirates: Dubai, Sharjah, Abu Dhabi, and Al-Ain. The ages of the study group were between 1-5 years, and were 2,000 boys and 2,000 girls; they were randomly selected from kindergartens and nurseries. We used the standardised International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The mean (SD) age, height, weight and BMI were 3.3 (1.4) years, 92.0 (1.3) cm, 17.3 (5.2) kg, and 23.4 (9.3). The prevalence rates of “wheeze ever”, “current wheeze”, “speech limitation”, “asthma” , “dry night cough”, and “exercise-induced asthma” were 40.4%, 43.8%, 37.6%, 26.5%, 36.1, and 37.6%, respectively. Boys had a significantly higher prevalence of wheeze ever and current wheeze than girls. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of speech limitation than boys. The prevalence rates of “rhinitis ever”, “current rhinitis”, “itchy watery eyes” and “hay fever” were 42%, 40.5%, 39.1% and 46.9%, respectively. Boys had significantly higher prevalence rates of “rhinitis ever”, “current rhinitis”, and “itchy watery eyes” than girls. The prevalence rates of “rash ever”, “current rash” and “eczema ever” were 38.9%, 33.7% and 58.0%, respectively. Boys had significantly higher prevalence rates of rash ever, current rash, and eczema ever than girls. Children who were exposed to parental smoking have significantly higher prevalence rates of asthma, wheezing, and cough than those whom were not exposed. Children who breastfed more than 10 months had a significantly lower prevalence rates of “wheeze ever”, “current wheeze”, “speech limitation”, and “asthma”, than those whom breastfed less than 10 months. The prevalence rates of asthma, rhinitis and eczema were very high. Breastfeeding was found to be protective for asthma. The study can be used as a baseline intervention project to reduce incidents of asthma and allergies in these children and to establish atopic march in order to implement strategies to improve the respiratory health and allergies in these children. Keywords: asthma, wheeze, night cough, rhinitis, eczema, pre-school children, paediatric asthma
BackgroundSomatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP) represent a non-invasive tool to assess neural responses elicited by somatosensory stimuli acquired via electrophysiological recordings. To date, there is no comprehensive evaluation of SEPs for the diagnostic investigation of exercise-induced functional neuroplasticity. This systematic review aims at highlighting the potential of SEP measurements as a diagnostic tool to investigate exercise-induced functional neuroplasticity of the sensorimotor system by reviewing studies comparing SEP parameters between athletes and healthy controls who are not involved in organized sports as well as between athlete cohorts of different sport disciplines.MethodsA systematic literature search was conducted across three electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus) by two independent researchers. Three hundred and ninety-seven records were identified, of which 10 cross-sectional studies were considered eligible.ResultsDifferences in SEP amplitudes and latencies between athletes and healthy controls or between athletes of different cohorts as well as associations between SEP parameters and demographic/behavioral variables (years of training, hours of training per week & reaction time) were observed in seven out of 10 included studies. In particular, several studies highlight differences in short- and long-latency SEP parameters, as well as high-frequency oscillations (HFO) when comparing athletes and healthy controls. Neuroplastic differences in athletes appear to be modality-specific as well as dependent on training regimens and sport-specific requirements. This is exemplified by differences in SEP parameters of various athlete populations after stimulation of their primarily trained limb.ConclusionTaken together, the existing literature suggests that athletes show specific functional neuroplasticity in the somatosensory system. Therefore, this systematic review highlights the potential of SEP measurements as an easy-to-use and inexpensive diagnostic tool to investigate functional neuroplasticity in the sensorimotor system of athletes. However, there are limitations regarding the small sample sizes and inconsistent methodology of SEP measurements in the studies reviewed. Therefore, future intervention studies are needed to verify and extend the conclusions drawn here.
Endurance exercise triggers skeletal muscle adaptations, including enhanced insulin signaling, glucose metabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis. However, exercise-induced skeletal muscle adaptations may not occur in some cases, a condition known as exercise-resistance. Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl metabolite and has detrimental effects on the body such as causing diabetic complications, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation. This study aimed to clarify the effect of methylglyoxal on skeletal muscle molecular adaptations following endurance exercise. Mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 12 per group): sedentary control group, voluntary exercise group, MG-treated group, and MG-treated with voluntary exercise group. Mice in the voluntary exercise group were housed in a cage with a running wheel, while mice in the MG-treated groups received drinking water containing 1% MG. Four weeks of voluntary exercise induced several molecular adaptations in the plantaris muscle, including increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α), mitochondria complex proteins, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), 72-kDa heat shock protein (HSP72), hexokinase II, and glyoxalase 1; this also enhanced insulin-stimulated Akt Ser473 phosphorylation and citrate synthase activity. However, these adaptations were suppressed with MG treatment. In the soleus muscle, the exercise-induced increases in the expression of TLR4, HSP72, and advanced glycation end products receptor 1 were inhibited with MG treatment. These findings suggest that MG is a factor that inhibits endurance exercise-induced molecular responses including mitochondrial adaptations, insulin signaling activation, and the upregulation of several proteins related to mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose handling, and glycation in primarily fast-twitch skeletal muscle.
Increasing evidence suggests that regular physical exercise not only reduces the risk of cancer but also improves functional capacity, treatment efficacy and disease outcome in cancer patients. At least partially, these effects are mediated by the secretome of the tissues responding to exercise. The secreted molecules can be released in a carrier-free form or enclosed into extracellular vesicles (EVs). Several recent studies have shown that EVs are actively released into circulation during physical exercise. Here, we for the first time investigated the effects of exercise-induced EVs on the progression of cancer in an F344 rat model of metastatic prostate cancer. Although we did not observe a consistent increase in the circulating EV levels, RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated substantial changes in the RNA content of EVs collected before and immediately after forced wheel running exercise as well as differences between EVs from runners at resting state and sedentary rats. The major RNA biotype in EVs was mRNA, followed by miRNA and rRNA. Molecular functions of differentially expressed RNAs reflected various physiological processes including protein folding, metabolism and regulation of immune responses triggered by the exercise in the parental cells. Intravenous administration of exercise-induced EVs into F344 rats with orthotopically injected syngeneic prostate cancer cells PLS10, demonstrated reduction of the primary tumor volume by 35% and possibly—attenuation of lung metastases. Hence, our data provide the first evidence that exercise-induced EVs may modulate tumor physiology and delay the progression of cancer.
Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of interest due to their minimally invasive sampling procedure. Previous studies have investigated the impact of exercise, with evidence suggesting that breath VOCs reflect exercise-induced metabolic activity. However, these studies have yet to investigate the impact of maximal exercise to exhaustion on breath VOCs, which was the main aim of this study. Two-litre breath samples were collected onto thermal desorption tubes using a portable breath collection unit. Samples were collected pre-exercise, and at 10 and 60 min following a maximal exercise test (VO2MAX). Breath VOCs were analysed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a non-targeted approach. Data showed a tendency for reduced isoprene in samples at 10 min post-exercise, with a return to baseline by 60 min. However, inter-individual variation meant differences between baseline and 10 min could not be confirmed, although the 10 and 60 min timepoints were different (p = 0.041). In addition, baseline samples showed a tendency for both acetone and isoprene to be reduced in those with higher absolute VO2MAX scores (mL(O2)/min), although with restricted statistical power. Baseline samples could not differentiate between relative VO2MAX scores (mL(O2)/kg/min). In conclusion, these data support that isoprene levels are dynamic in response to exercise.
AbstractThe physiological effects of physical exercise are ubiquitously reported as beneficial to the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. Exercise is widely promoted by medical professionals to aid both physical and emotional wellbeing; however, mechanisms through which this is achieved are less well understood. Despite numerous beneficial attributes, certain types of exercise can inflict significant significant physiological stress. Several studies document a key relationship between exercise and immune activation. Activation of the innate immune system occurs in response to exercise and it is proposed this is largely mediated by cytokine signalling. Cytokines are typically classified according to their inflammatory properties and evidence has shown that cytokines expressed in response to exercise are diverse and may act to propagate, modulate or mitigate inflammation in musculoskeletal health. The review summarizes the existing literature on the relationship between exercise and the immune system with emphasis on how exercise-induced cytokine expression modulates inflammation and the immune response.
The aim of this study was to identify clinical factors associated with exercise-induced vasculitis (EIV). This study included EIV cases and controls matched for age. Cases included were all members of a hiking club and participated in extended hiking trips. Exercise-induced vasculitis was diagnosed based on clinical signs occurring only after prolonged walks. Chronic venous disease was defined using the Clinical Etiological Anatomical Pathophysiologic classification. This study included 162 hikers: 32 EIV cases and 130 matched controls. Mean age at EIV diagnosis was 47.1 years and 24 (75.0%) of EIV cases were women. Chronic venous disease was present in 19 (57.6%) of EIV cases vs 39 (30.0%) in controls ( P = .001); those with EIV had significantly more saphenous vein insufficiency and C3 venous insufficiency than controls, 85.0 vs 52.6% and 8 (25.0%) vs 13 (10.0%) ( P = .02), respectively. For EIV cases, mean walking distance per hike was significantly higher than for controls ( P = .002). Exercise-induced vasculitis symptoms were typical with rash and/or purpura on the leg in warm conditions. Lesions spontaneously disappear in <10 days. In this study, EIV cases had more chronic venous disease and longer mean walking distances than controls.