Fire Spread
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2021 ◽  
Vol 234 ◽  
pp. 111724
Author(s):  
Abdelrahman Abouali ◽  
Domingos Xavier Viegas ◽  
Jorge Rafael Raposo

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
pp. 1431
Author(s):  
Liyang Sun ◽  
Congcong Xu ◽  
Yanglangxing He ◽  
Yanjun Zhao ◽  
Yuan Xu ◽  
...  

The popular simulation process that uses traditional cellular automata with a fixed time step to simulate forest fire spread may be limited in its ability to reflect the characteristics of actual fire development. This study combines cellular automata with an existing forest fire model to construct an improved forest fire spread model, which calculates a speed change rate index based on the meteorological factors that affect the spread of forest fires and the actual environment of the current location of the spread. The proposed model can adaptively adjust the time step of cellular automata through the speed change rate index, simulating forest fire spread more in line with the actual fire development trends while ensuring accuracy. When used to analyze a forest fire that occurred in Mianning County, Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan Province in 2020, our model exhibited simulation accuracy of 96.9%, and kappa coefficient of 0.6214. The simulated fire situation adapted well to the complex and dynamic fire environment, accurately depicting the detailed fire situation. The algorithm can be used to simulate and predict the spread of forest fires, ensuring the accuracy of spread simulation and helping decision makers formulate reasonable plans.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
Author(s):  
J. Morgan Varner ◽  
Jeffrey M. Kane ◽  
Jesse K. Kreye ◽  
Timothy M. Shearman

Widespread fire exclusion and land-use activities across many southeastern United States forested ecosystems have resulted in altered species composition and structure. These changes in composition and structure have been implicated in positive fire-vegetation feedbacks termed “mesophication” where fire spread and intensity are diminished. In forests and woodlands, inherent flammability of different species is the mechanistic driver of mesophication. To date, there has been limited work on documenting the high diversity of flammability among species in the region, limiting the ability to differentiate among species to restore fuels that sustain fire regimes. Here, we coalesce disparate flammability data and add missing species across the spectrum from species that facilitate fire (so called “pyrophytes”) to those that dampen fire (so called “mesophytes”). We present data on 50 important tree species from across the southeast, all burned using identical laboratory methods. We divide our results for four dominant ecosystems: Coastal Plain uplands, oak-hickory woodlands, Appalachian forests, and bottomland forests. Across ecosystems, the most flammable species were American chestnut (Castanea dentata), a suite of pines (Pinus palustris, P. elliottii, P. serotina, and P. rigida), several oaks (Q. laevis, Q. falcata, Q. margaretta, and Q. alba), and sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum). At the mesophytic end, the least flammable species were Tsuga canadensis, Acer rubrum, and several other hardwoods previously implicated in mesophication. Each of the four ecosystems we studied contained species that spanned the pyrophytic to mesophytic gradient. These data fill in some key holes in our understanding of southeastern fire adaptations, but also provide context for restoration decisions and fire management prioritization efforts to restore and sustain fire-prone ecosystems of the region.


Fire ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 69
Author(s):  
Daryn Sagel ◽  
Kevin Speer ◽  
Scott Pokswinski ◽  
Bryan Quaife

Most wildland and prescribed fire spread occurs through ground fuels, and the rate of spread (RoS) in such environments is often summarized with empirical models that assume uniform environmental conditions and produce a unique RoS. On the other hand, representing the effects of local, small-scale variations of fuel and wind experienced in the field is challenging and, for landscape-scale models, impractical. Moreover, the level of uncertainty associated with characterizing RoS and flame dynamics in the presence of turbulent flow demonstrates the need for further understanding of fire dynamics at small scales in realistic settings. This work describes adapted computer vision techniques used to form fine-scale measurements of the spatially and temporally varying RoS in a natural setting. These algorithms are applied to infrared and visible images of a small-scale prescribed burn of a quasi-homogeneous pine needle bed under stationary wind conditions. A large number of distinct fire front displacements are then used statistically to analyze the fire spread. We find that the fine-scale forward RoS is characterized by an exponential distribution, suggesting a model for fire spread as a random process at this scale.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258060
Author(s):  
Denys Yemshanov ◽  
Ning Liu ◽  
Daniel K. Thompson ◽  
Marc-André Parisien ◽  
Quinn E. Barber ◽  
...  

Although wildfires are an important ecological process in forested regions worldwide, they can cause significant economic damage and frequently create widespread health impacts. We propose a network optimization approach to plan wildfire fuel treatments that minimize the risk of fire spread in forested landscapes under an upper bound for total treated area. We used simulation modeling to estimate the probability of fire spread between pairs of forest sites and formulated a modified Critical Node Detection (CND) model that uses these estimated probabilities to find a pattern of fuel reduction treatments that minimizes the likely spread of fires across a landscape. We also present a problem formulation that includes control of the size and spatial contiguity of fuel treatments. We demonstrate the approach with a case study in Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, Canada, where we investigated prescribed burn options for reducing the risk of wildfire spread in the park area. Our results provide new insights into cost-effective planning to mitigate wildfire risk in forest landscapes. The approach should be applicable to other ecosystems with frequent wildfires.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (19) ◽  
pp. 9263
Author(s):  
Marion Charlier ◽  
Jean-Marc Franssen ◽  
Fabien Dumont ◽  
Ali Nadjai ◽  
Olivier Vassart

The term “travelling fire” is used to label fires which burn locally and move across the floor over a period of time in large compartments. Through experimental and numerical campaigns and while observing the tragic travelling fire events, it became clear that such fires imply a transient heating of the surrounding structure. The necessity to better characterize the thermal impact generated on the structure by a travelling fire motivated the development of an analytical model allowing to capture, in a simple manner, the multidimensional transient heating of a structure considering the effect of the ventilation. This paper first presents the basic assumptions of a new analytical model which is based on the virtual solid flame concept; a comparison of the steel temperatures measured during a travelling fire test in a steel-framed building with the ones obtained analytically is then presented. The limitations inherent to the analyticity of the model are also discussed. This paper suggests that the developed analytical model can allow for both an acceptable representation of the travelling fire in terms of fire spread and steel temperatures while not being computationally demanding, making it potentially desirable for pre-design.


2021 ◽  
pp. 103470
Author(s):  
Qianqian He ◽  
Naian Liu ◽  
Xiaodong Xie ◽  
Linhe Zhang ◽  
Yang Zhang ◽  
...  

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