Fire Safety
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2021 ◽  
Vol 147 (10) ◽  
pp. 04021118
Author(s):  
Jaehong Kim ◽  
Yongwei Shan ◽  
Sohee Kim ◽  
Dongwoo Song ◽  
Haejun Park ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Md. Zahid Hasan ◽  
Rubel Ahammed

Purpose The Purpose of this research is to initiate the “Fourth Industrial Revolution” by using the Internet of things (IoT), which can be applied to flammable gas condition monitoring and detection of gas leakage and activate fire extinguisher in case of fire accidents. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) leakage and explosions cause many injuries and death each year. By developing an automated and remote LPG ppm condition monitoring and fire extinguisher activation system with the help of a cyber-physical system, the rate of accidents and injuries can be reduced to a significant amount. Design/methodology/approach The IoT enabled the sensors to transmit LPG concentration value reading to a mobile app or cloud server and control actuators by connecting all in the same network. In case of a fire accident, the solenoid valve automatically or can be activated by an android application manually, which will be pre-installed in mobile phones. Another advantage of this system is that the gas cylinder or flammable particle source can be closed by closing the solenoid valves attached to their outlets. The first challenge of Industry 4.0 is to develop a cyber-physical system where all physical entities can be monitored and controlled over the internet or another way remotely or from a single point. Findings This fire extinguisher system can be used everywhere and in all types of firefighting because all types of fire extinguishers are commercially available in cylinders where solenoid valves can be used instead of conventional valves. This system will reduce human effort in the fire safety system and reduce the number of losses owing to fire accidents by taking all actions automatically and from a safe distance. The reliability analysis of this system indicated that the working condition for the best outcome is 20–35°C and the baud rate of the controller should be 11.5 kHz. Originality/value The study of pieces of the literature summarizes that this work is unique in terms of the application of Industry 4.0 in the fire safety system and reliability analysis of this system helped to determine the operating condition for the best performance of this system. Some LPG condition monitoring system was developed using IoT before but had many limitations such as working capability during load shading or emergency cases.


Author(s):  
M. V. Borodin ◽  
S. Yu. Zakharov ◽  
R. P. Belikov ◽  
V. I. Bobrovsky

THE PURPOSE. To determine the number of reconstructed, newly installed and replaced 10 / 0.4 kV transformer substations, consider an improved technology for installing a "pillow" under the foundation of a kiosk-type 10 / 0.4 kV transformer substation and determine the time spent on its installation. METHODS. The article presents an analysis of data on the number of reconstructed, newly installed and replaced 10 / 0.4 kV transformer substations, an algorithm for installing an improved "pillow" under the foundation of a 10 / 0.4 kV kiosk-type transformer substation. RESULTS. In the course of the experiment on the installation of an improved "pillow" under the foundation of the CTS, the time of work was determined. The total time spent on the construction of an improved "pillow" under the foundation of a kiosk-type CTS was 580 minutes, which is just over 9.5 hours. Also the standardized time of work during the installation of an improved "pillow" under the foundation of a kiosk-type CTS Also, the standardized time for performing work during the installation of an improved "pillow" under the foundation of a kiosk- type package transformer substation has been proposed. CONCLUSIONS. The use of the data presented in the article on the number of reconstructed, newly installed and replaced 10 / 0.4 kV transformer substations will allow scientists and specialists to develop and propose new methods of reconstruction and construction technologies for various transformer substations, as well as determine the economic efficiency of new foundations for transformer substations. The technology of kiosk-type CTS foundation installation described in the article will allow not only to increase the operational characteristics of the CTS, but also ensure the fire safety of the installed equipment. The technical solution specified in the article can be used during the reconstruction and construction of a 10 / 0.4 kV kiosk-type package transformer substation. The proposed algorithm for mounting an improved "pillow" under the foundation of a kiosk-type package transformer substation is universal, since it can be used at a package transformer substation of various capacities.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 412
Author(s):  
Vaulin Vladimir Ivanovich ◽  
Singeev Sergey Aleksandrovich

Background: The article presents the results of a study of ensuring fire safety in medical and preventive institutions (LPI) on the example of the central city hospital.Objectives: Research is aimed at improving the fire safety of hospital complexes and hospitals in modern conditions.Materials and Methods: The study used the methods of system analysis of scientific research and statistical data on ensuring fire safety, methods of structural analysis of the practice of ensuring fire safety of hospital complexes, mathematical methods for calculating the evacuation of people from a building and the spread of a fire in a building, methods for calculating the economic efficiency of means of support fire safety.Results and Discussion: Based on the analysis of fire statistics in healthcare facilities in Russia, it is concluded that it is advisable to improve the fire safety of hospitals and hospital complexes in modern conditions. The point of view is expressed that along with the fact that fire safety in hospitals is observed, the analysis indicates the existing problems in the practice of implementation.Conclusion: In order to increase the level of fire safety, it is possible to introduce: a modern fire alarm system; video of control systems and monitoring of safety of objects on the territory of the medical facility; installation of automatic fire extinguishing systems in fire-hazardous premises; installation of additional emergency lighting and reflectors indicating the direction of evacuation in case of fire and smoke; carrying out organizational and practical measures to ensure the safety of patients in a medical institution in an emergency situation (ES), namely, it is proposed to develop a memo of actions for patients in the hospital complex on inpatient treatment in case of an emergency with a list in the instruction log; provision of medical facilities with individual rescue equipment and provision of hospitals and hospital complexes with highrise buildings with modern evacuation means.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 412-417


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
Hope Emeka Amanze ◽  
Ernest I. Achalu

The study investigated the influence of demographic variables on fire safety hazards exposure and control among workers of petrol filling stations in Port Harcourt metropolis. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Eight (8) hypotheses were used for the study. Research instrument was a self-structured questionnaire captioned Demographic Variables and Fire Hazards Exposure and Adherence to Control Measures among workers of Petrol filling stations in Port Harcourt Metropolis (DVFHECQ). The reliability of the instrument yielded 0.81. Descriptive statistics were used to answer the research questions while inferential statistics of Z-test and ANOVA were used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. The study showed a significant difference based on age, educational status and marital status of the respondents. However, there was no significant difference in exposure to fire safety hazards based on gender, Also, there was a significant difference on adherence to fire safety control measures based on age, educational status and marital status. It is therefore recommended that age, educational status and marital status should be considered as parameters in the employment of petrol filling station workers in Port Harcourt metropolis. <p> </p><p><strong> Article visualizations:</strong></p><p><img src="/-counters-/edu_01/0780/a.php" alt="Hit counter" /></p>


Fire Safety ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 38 ◽  
pp. 12-17
Author(s):  
O. Miller ◽  
A. Kharchuk

Introduction. The concept of the SES stipulates that officials exercising state supervision (control) are obliged to detect and prevent violations of fire and technogenic safety requirements established by law [14]. Іn such situations, he bears full responsibility for violation of the requirements of fire, technogenic safety established by the legislation.Purpose. To propose an algorithm of actions of authorized officials during state supervision (control) in the field of technogenic and fire safety during the practical implementation of the provisions of the Civil Protection Code of Ukraine (further- the CZU Code) and the Law of Ukraine "On Basic Principles of State Supervision (Control)" Dated April 5, 2007 (further- Memorandum № 877).Methods. Analysis of existing regulations governing the implementation of state supervision (control) in the field of tech-nogenic and fire safety and its practical implementation by authorized officials of the SESResults. Ways to improve the activities of state supervision (control) in the field of fire and technogenic safety and the powers of officials to implement it are considered. The main directions of implementation of preventive measures by state supervision bodies are given. The necessity of using a new approach to the state management of fire, technogenic safety and civil protection is highlighted. Conclusion. Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine "On approval of the Instruction on registration of materials on administrative offences and recognition as invalid of some orders of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine" from 27.07.2016 № 725 should be supplemented with a clause on the interaction of article 185-14КУпАП. "Creation of obstacles in the activity of authorized officials of the central body of executive power, which implements the state policy on state supervision (control) in the field of fire and technogenic safety, related to conducting inspections".  


2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (3) ◽  
pp. 41-53
Author(s):  
G. V. Plotnikova ◽  
K. L. Kuznetsov ◽  
S. S. Timofeeva ◽  
R. O. Morozov ◽  
A. A. Shekov

Introduction. The relevance of the topic, addressed in the article, is backed by the fact that modern heating systems, such as the underfloor heating, remain potential sources of fire, despite the improvement in their designs. The purpose of the study is to identify the causes of fires that occur in the process of operation of modern heating systems “Underfloor Heating”; to analyze and generalize the conclusions made by the fire safety experts in respect of the heating systems analyzed in the article.Materials and methods. To assess the flammability of the infrared film underfloor heating, an experiment was conducted by the experts: the process of underfloor heating was simulated under normal environmental conditions at room temperature.Results and discussion. The experiment has shown that the floor covering, made of the material capable of accumulating heat, is the most dangerous one, although its small area prevents its disconnection from the thermal sensor. When dismantling the construction, the co-authors found out that the foil insulator had been melting in the area of maximal temperatures. Over the course of seven hours of operation, the temperature exceeded 120 ºC, and after that the odor of products of thermal decomposition of a synthetic product appeared.Conclusions. Despite all the features of advanced underfloor heating systems, their automated operation and transformation, they remain potentially flammable. Modern underfloor heating systems can take fire both as a result of violation of the fire precautions in case of non-compliance with the requirements for the operation of heating devices, and as a result of overheated film heaters located under the floor covering.


2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (3) ◽  
pp. 65-75
Author(s):  
V. I. Prisadkov ◽  
S. V. Muslakova ◽  
D. V. Ushakov ◽  
A. A. Abashkin ◽  
K. V. Prisadkov

Introduction. Two-storey church buildings, that date back to the past centuries, are usually regarded as monuments of history and architecture. Their facades cannot be changed when buildings are adapted for modern use. The ground floor of a church building is used as a warm winter church, and the first floor is an unheated summer church. The evacuation of church members from the ground floor in case of fire is organized in accordance with fire safety regulations. If the area of the upper church floor is 80…200 m2 or more, the number of people may exceed 100 people there. As a rule, the upper church has one evacuation exit, which is contrary to the fire safety regulations, that prescribe the availability of several exits from the upper church floor when the number of people there exceeds fifty. The purpose of the article is to propose fire safety amendments in respect of cultural heritage monuments, so that the acceptable number of people inside a church building, that has one exit, can exceed fifty.Theoretical foundations of amendments to fire safety regulations. Methods of flexible fire safety control, applied today, allow for the regulatory harmonization of the requirements applicable to the adaptation of immovable cultural heritage for modern use. The level of individual risk is the fire safety criterion for a two-storey church building.Substantiation of effectiveness of the fire safety system. A system of measures is proposed to ensure the fire safety of two-storey church buildings. The proposals will allow to increase the number of people on the first floor, so that it can exceed fifty. The case of a functional church is analyzed, which demonstrates methods of increasing the number of people inside it to one hundred. The results of modeling the process of evacuation from the upper church floor are presented.Conclusions. An individual risk, arising in a church building that has one exit, is analyzed, and the implementation of the fire safety criterion is substantiated. Draft amendments to the fire safety regulations have been proposed, so that the number of people inside a church building, that has one exit, can exceed fifty.


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