Fire Extinguishing
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Science ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 373 (6553) ◽  
pp. 406.4-407
Marc S. Lavine

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 412
Vaulin Vladimir Ivanovich ◽  
Singeev Sergey Aleksandrovich

Background: The article presents the results of a study of ensuring fire safety in medical and preventive institutions (LPI) on the example of the central city hospital.Objectives: Research is aimed at improving the fire safety of hospital complexes and hospitals in modern conditions.Materials and Methods: The study used the methods of system analysis of scientific research and statistical data on ensuring fire safety, methods of structural analysis of the practice of ensuring fire safety of hospital complexes, mathematical methods for calculating the evacuation of people from a building and the spread of a fire in a building, methods for calculating the economic efficiency of means of support fire safety.Results and Discussion: Based on the analysis of fire statistics in healthcare facilities in Russia, it is concluded that it is advisable to improve the fire safety of hospitals and hospital complexes in modern conditions. The point of view is expressed that along with the fact that fire safety in hospitals is observed, the analysis indicates the existing problems in the practice of implementation.Conclusion: In order to increase the level of fire safety, it is possible to introduce: a modern fire alarm system; video of control systems and monitoring of safety of objects on the territory of the medical facility; installation of automatic fire extinguishing systems in fire-hazardous premises; installation of additional emergency lighting and reflectors indicating the direction of evacuation in case of fire and smoke; carrying out organizational and practical measures to ensure the safety of patients in a medical institution in an emergency situation (ES), namely, it is proposed to develop a memo of actions for patients in the hospital complex on inpatient treatment in case of an emergency with a list in the instruction log; provision of medical facilities with individual rescue equipment and provision of hospitals and hospital complexes with highrise buildings with modern evacuation means.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 412-417

2021 ◽  
pp. 073490412110301
Yawei Wang ◽  
Gaowan Zou ◽  
Conglin Liu ◽  
Y Gao

The Halon 1301 fixed gas fire extinguishing system used in ship engine rooms has been banned from production all over the world, because halon destroys the ozone layer. Therefore, it is necessary to find an environmentally friendly, compatible and efficient alternative firefighting system. In this study, we performed fire extinguishing tests in an ISO9705 standard room for four alternative fire extinguishing agents, as well as Halon 1301. The fire extinguishing efficiency of each agent was determined based on its cooling effect, dilution effect of oxygen concentration, the extinguishing time of the oil pool fire and the re-ignition probability of the wood stack. The test results provide data support for the selection of alternatives of Halon 1301 from the aspect of fire extinguishing efficiency. Among these results, Novec 1230 had the best ability to put out the oil pool fire, and HFC-227ea suppressed the wood stack fire the best. The difference between the cooling ability of each fire extinguishing agent was small, and the inert gas (IG-541) displayed the best ability to dilute oxygen. Hot aerosol required the longest time to extinguish fire. Consequently, under the existing design standards, HFC-227ea had the better firefighting efficiency, more suitable to replace Halon 1301.

A. I. Kitsak

The relevance of the work is due to the lack of a physical interpretation of the process of extinguishing jet burning systems with fire extinguishing powders, which is important for ensuring effective fire extinguishing at gas and oil complexes and hazardous chemical industries. A mathematical model of the reaction kinetics of heterogeneous inhibition of active flame centers of a jet burning system by fire extinguishing powder particles in an unsteady mode is considered in the approximation of a purely molecular transfer of matter in the reaction zone. The regularities of the mechanism of heterogeneous inhibition of the active flame centers by the particles of the extinguishing powder under conditions when the active particles of the combustion products participate not only in diffuse, but also in convective transport are established. It is shown, that the convective motion of the active flame centers increases the reaction rate of heterogeneous inhibition of their particles of the extinguishing agent. The results obtained allow us to optimize the conditions for the supply of fire extinguishing powder to the jet burning medium for effective flame suppression.

2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (3) ◽  
pp. 31-40
E. V. Stepanov ◽  
D V. Tarakanov ◽  
N. G. Topolskiy

Introduction. One of the main objectives, pursued by the information analysis support extended to smoke divers, is the preparation of indoor routes. Technical capabilities, represented by advanced remote monitoring systems, provide a fire extinguishing manager with the necessary information about the point of fire origin and mathematical tools allow to predict fire spreading characteristics. The goal of this work is to develop an algorithm for the preparation of an optimal indoor route for smoke divers to support management decisions in the event of fire. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to develop the theoretical framework and implement it in a software programme.Theoretical foundations. The theory of cellular automata is employed in this paper to simulate the routes of smoke divers inside a building. A cellular automaton with a Moore neighborhood is applied. We use differential equations, similar to the Kolmogorov equations, to monitor the fire parameters.Results and discussions. A modified wave algorithm was developed to determine the optimal indoor route. The software tool was applied to simulate the route of gas divers. Coefficients of importance were applied in the process of mathematical modeling; they took account of the prioritized work to be performed by smoke divers.Conclusions. The results of the study suggest that the algorithm allows to identify the optimal itinerary, thereby enabling the decision maker, responsible for sending teams of smoke divers to the work performance location, to make a reasonable choice of the point of entry for the personnel and machinery, as well as their itinerary inside the building.

2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (3) ◽  
pp. 54-64
S. G. Tsarichenko ◽  
A. V. Ostrovoy ◽  
S. V. Karasev ◽  
M. L. Pugachev

Introduction. Fires in high-rise buildings and structures constitute a grave danger both to the people inside, valuables, and the building structure. More often than not, fires develop on the external surface of construction facilities that are in operation or inside those facilities that are under construction, and they give rise to the problem of using standard fire extinguishing solutions and require the employment of mobile machinery by fast response units of the fire-fighting service who apply fire extinguishing agents from the outside of a building. The purpose of this article is to substantiate the in expediency of, or, on the contrary, the need to make the proposed amendments to Federal Law No. 123-FZ of July 22, 2008 “Technical Regulation of Fire Safety Requirements”.The scope of the problem. The analysis of the effectiveness of various methods of application of fire extinguishing agents used to extinguish outdoor fires in high-rise buildings has shown the insufficiently high efficiency of ground-mounted machinery, which preconditions the need to make an enquiry into the possibility of using aircraft to extinguish high-rise buildings and structures. Given the need to ensure effective fire extinguishing, meet safety and economic feasibility requirements, an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (AURA) was selected as the delivery vehicle. Systems using various fire extinguishing agents and methods of their application were used for fire extinguishing purposes, including a pulsed water application system, capsules containing the fire extinguishing composition, high-pressure water mist and compressed air foam. Their applicability at the height of 300 meters has determined their choice.Research results. The testing task was to confirm the possibility of application of fire extinguishing agents to the fire seat in the course of the flight of an unmanned aerial vehicle, to identify the effectiveness of fire extinguishing agents and to assess the stability of extinguishing agents applied to the fire seat. To ensure safety, testing was carried out at the height not exceeding 10 m, and the results confirmed the possibility of using the above substances to extinguish fires.Conclusions. The research has confirmed the possibility of using unmanned aerial vehicles and various methods of fire extinguishing by means of the horizontal application of extinguishing agents inside high-rise buildings and structures, if extinguishing agents are applied from outside of a construction facility.

The protection of housesfrom thefire is a major challenge due to the growing population andgrowth of number of buildings. The gas detection and circuit breaking definitely will be the first step to reduce this problem. Furthermore it is more useful to provide much more security to the mines with less cost and without sacrificing the quality of equipment.The project presents a new way for securing the domestic and industrial buildings from causing the fire and providing the information to the user as soon as it detects the gas and fire. It also uses the IOT system, when identified the fire and informing the user through an application.As soon as the gas is detected the module turns off the nearby circuit board using H-bridge, so that nearby electrical devices would not cause any type of the causes for the fire. The usage of the low power devices would not consume much of the power. It also turns on the ventilator fan for exhausting of the gases.Using this kind of modules would enhance the opportunities for the safety of thebuildings and saving more lives.In this paper we have designed Internet of Things based system which enables the early detection of fire and gas leaks.

iScience ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 102854
Junchao Zhao ◽  
Feng Xue ◽  
Yangyang Fu ◽  
Yuan Cheng ◽  
Hui Yang ◽  

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