Fire Extinguishing
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Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 2967
Author(s):  
Kun Xiang ◽  
Pan Geng ◽  
Xuan Sun ◽  
Shasha Yuan ◽  
Peng Du ◽  
...  

The biofilms generated in a fire extinguishing water supply system can cause corrosion and a reduction in the water supply capacity; thus, degrading the system performance. To mitigate microbial corrosion, appropriate disinfection measures are necessary. In this study, the secondary addition of chlorine is employed to investigate the kinetics of chlorine decay, and shock disinfection is applied to investigate the removal efficiency of corrosion bacteria, and the microbial composition of a biofilm on the pipe wall was also clarified. The results show that the residual chlorine content in the secondary chlorination process was directly correlated with the decay rate of residual chlorine and the corrosion rate of the pipe wall. Additionally, the chlorine impact disinfection method could reduce the electrochemical corrosion phenomenon of the pipe wall. When the concentration of chlorine was 3 mg/L, the removal rate of corrosion bacteria was higher in 60 min than in 30 min. Specifically, most of the bacteria were inactivated in 60 min and the biofilm was severely damaged. Shock disinfection could significantly inactivate all microflora in the biofilm; the relative abundances of microflora varied significantly, while the change of microflora at the phylum level was insignificant. This study can provide theoretical support for the secondary addition of chlorine and shock disinfection in a fire extinguishing water supply system.


2021 ◽  
pp. 2109378
Author(s):  
Xuyang Liu ◽  
Xueying Zheng ◽  
Ya Deng ◽  
Xiao Qin ◽  
Ying Huang ◽  
...  

Actuators ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 275
Author(s):  
Dong-Hun Lee ◽  
Thinh Huynh ◽  
Young-Bok Kim ◽  
Chakir Soumayya

This paper presents the design and modeling of a flying-type fire extinguishing system. Fire accidents present very hazardous environments, and firefighters are in danger of losing their lives while putting out the fire. Strict safety measures should be considered to guarantee safe working conditions for firefighters, which is not the case every time, as fatalities and casualties are still being recorded. For this reason, a novel fire extinguishing system is proposed to provide more safe firefighting and survivor searches. The system studied in this paper is a pilot model that consists of a water jet-based actuation system to control the flying motion of the robot. The dynamic model of this flying robot is derived using the actuation forces, water jet system characteristics, and related information. The mathematical system model is detailed, a sliding-mode control system and a proportional-integral-derivative controller are designed, and comparative simulation tests are carried out.


Author(s):  
V. V. Bulgakov

The article deals with topical issues of improving the level of training of cadets of educational institutions of the State Fire Service of the EMERCOM of Russia for professional activities in the field of fire fighting. The application of the implemented disciplinary approach, which assumes a time-dispersed nature of studying various disciplines in the field of fire fighting, does not allow you to get concentrated knowledge, skills and sufficient experience in performing combat operations to extinguish fires, which affects the professional readiness of graduates for practical activities. The purpose of the study is to form a subject-professional approach that will allow, through the optional hours of the main educational program on the basis of previously formed skills and abilities, to implement through training courses concentrated training in the field of fire fighting to improve the professional readiness of graduates. To increase the level of professional readiness of graduates, the author studied the experience of practical training in the field of fire fighting, analyzed the activities of fire and rescue units in extinguishing, studied normative documents and scientific works in the subject area, has developed a subject-professional approach for concentrated training, as well as the subject-matter and content of training courses, has formed an evaluation tool for students. The author proposes to implement a subject-professional approach through the development and implementation of basic, special and additional training courses, for the formation of which modular, competence-based and contextual approaches were used, aimed at maximum professional orientation of training, courses that allow to increase the competence of graduates in the field of fire fighting. The author also proposes to implement the subjects of the training courses through practical classes based on the game forms of training that increase the educational and professional motivation of students. The author concludes that in order to increase the effectiveness and further development of the subject-professional approach, it is necessary to expand the subjects of training courses and improve them, taking into account the changing regulatory framework, the experience of fire and rescue units in fires, the development of fire extinguishing tactics and the introduction of new models of fire equipment and fire-technical equipment.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 303-308
Author(s):  
Yu. V. Reva ◽  
T. N. Gerasimova

Currently, the number of shopping centers in Russia is increasing. For their construction, new combustible materials and design solutions are used. This creates a high fire load and requires fire safety measures. To ensure the fire safety of visitors, structural features of buildings are essential; it is also crucial to take into account the psychophysiological characteristics of people in these buildings and their level of familiarity with the main structural elements of the building, willingness to find the fire sign and do their best to leave the building. The article describes promising fire safety systems for shopping centers, their advantages and disadvantages. A specialized system of fire extinguishing means consisting of interconnected software controls and structures and a gas fire extinguishing system and smoke curtains are described.


FLORESTA ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (4) ◽  
pp. 900
Author(s):  
Heitor Renan Ferreira ◽  
Antonio Carlos Batista ◽  
Alexandre França Tetto

Vegetation fires, when not controlled, cause economic disruption, temporary loss of vegetation, and damage to soil, fauna and health. To improve the process of fire prevention and firefighting, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of the involved agents. The objective of this study was to evaluate the firefighting efficiency of vegetation fires in the municipality of Curitiba, Paraná, from 2011 to 2015, using records from the Fire Department of the Military Police of Paraná. Once the consistency of the fire records was verified, they were classified and information was gathered regarding the extent of burnt area, time of first attack, combat time, main fire-extinguishing methods used, and amount of water used. The results indicate that 88% of the records registered a burnt area inferior or equal to four hectares. In addition, the mean burnt area was of 2,399.21 m², the mean attack time was of 14.1 minutes, and the mean combat time was of 29.9 minutes, all lower than the ones presented by studies from different locations. As for the fire-extinguishing methods, it was verified that smothering equipment and water were used in 66.4 and 60.6% of the records, respectively. The mean amount of water used was of 1,186.56 liters per fire, indicating a minimum volume necessary for water storage containers for firefighting in the study area. Based on the results, we concluded that the firefighting of vegetation fires in Curitiba is efficient.


Author(s):  
Rilwanu Bello ◽  
Bashir Abdullahi Sama ◽  
Nura Gambo ◽  
Yusuf M. Ahijo

Aim: The aim of this research is to design an automatic fire detection and control. Methodology: The system consists of two sensors, microcontroller, buzzer and a pump/sprinkler. An LM35 integrated chip has been used as temperature sensor while MQ-2 gas sensor has been used as smoke sensor. All sensors are connected to the microcontroller through an input/output port. The controlling software for the whole system was designed in C programming language. The popular high performance, low power 8-bit microcontroller from the AVR family microcontrollers has been used. The system was finally tested by introducing fire parameters (smoke and temperature) close to the smoke and temperature detectors respectively. When the parameters go above the set level in the detectors, audio alarm, light indicator and pump/sprinkler were activated. The measured temperature of the system was compared with the reference temperature.   Results: The result showed that there was a mean deviation of 1.550C between the measured values and reference values which served as the control.   Conclusion: The constructed system is compact and easy to install. The constructed fire control device is quite cheap and affordable to every category of person.


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