Despite global consensus on the management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), implementation of strategies to improve adherence of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) remains sub-optimal, especially in developing countries. Thus, we aimed to assess the effect of clinical pharmacist-led clinical audit to improve the compliance of discharge prescriptions in patients admitted with ACS. It is a prospective clinical audit of ACS patients which was carried out for 12 months. The discharge prescriptions were audited by clinical pharmacists for the appropriateness in the usage of statins, dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), beta-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I)/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). A feedback report was presented every month to the cardiologists involved in the patient care, and the trend in the adherence to GDMT was analyzed over 12 months.
The discharge prescriptions of 1072 ACS patients were audited for the justifiable and non-justifiable omissions of mandated drugs. The first-month audit revealed unreasonable omissions of DAPT, statin, ACE-I/ARB, and beta-blockers in 1%, 0%, 14%, and 11% respectively, which reduced to nil by the end of the 11th month of the audit–feedback program. This improvement remained unchanged until the end of the 12th month.
The study revealed that periodic clinical audit significantly improves adherence to GDMT in patients admitted with ACS.
Background: Antihypertensive drugs might play a key role in the risk and poor prognosis of colorectal cancer. However, current epidemiologic evidence remains inconsistent. The aim of this study is to quantify the association between antihypertensive drugs and colorectal cancer.Methods: To identify available studies, we systematically searched electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library. The risk estimates and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were collected and analyzed by using random-effects models. Heterogeneity test and sensitivity analysis were also performed.Results: Overall, 37 observational studies were included in this analysis (26 studies with cohort design, three studies with nested case-control design, and 8 studies with case-control design). Antihypertensive drugs did not present a significant effect on the risk or overall survival of patients with colorectal cancer [Risk ratio (RR) = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.95–1.04; Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.84–1.02]. In the subgroup analysis, diuretics use was significantly associated with a worse overall survival of patients with colorectal cancer (HR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.14–1.40). However, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers was associated with improved progression-free survival of patients who suffered from colorectal cancer (HR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.72–0.95).Conclusion: Antihypertensive drug usage did not influence the risk and overall survival of patients with colorectal cancer in general. Further investigation reminded us that diuretics use might reduce the overall survival time in colorectal cancer patients, whereas those who took Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers had a longer progression-free survival.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health issue that places an increasing burden on the healthcare systems of both the developed and developing countries. CKD is a progressive and irreversible condition, affecting approximately 10% of the population worldwide. Patients that have progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) require expensive renal replacement therapy, i.e., dialysis or kidney transplantation. Current CKD therapy largely relies on the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). However, these treatments by no means halt the progression of CKD to ESRD. Therefore, the development of new therapies is urgently needed. Antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) has recently attracted considerable interest as a drug development platform. Thus far, eight ASO-based drugs have been granted approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of various diseases. Herein, we review the ASOs developed for the identification of CKD-relevant genes and/or the simultaneous development of the ASOs as potential therapeutics towards treating CKD.
A 57-year-old male who had been working in masonry for 33 years was hospitalized for renal function decline associated with exertional dyspnea. He presented with hypertension and limb edema. Urinalysis revealed an active urine sediment with glomerular proteinuria at 1.5 g/24h and the renal biopsy identified mesangial IgA Nephropathy. Chest tomography scans showed signs of silicosis. The patient received Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors with stable renal function. To our knowledge, the association of silicosis-IgA nephropathy has rarely been reported in the literature. This case highlights the effect of chronic exposure to silica dust and its association with both silica and renal disease.
Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are common hypertension medications. We aimed to investigate the association between treatment with ACEIs/ARBs and disease severity and mortality in patients with hypertension hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Methods: Information from the medical records of 180 hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection admitted in 2020 to Loghman Hakim Hospital, Tehran, Iran, was collected. Clinical histories, drug therapies, radiological findings, hospital courses, and outcomes were analyzed in all the patients. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were also analyzed, and the percentage of patients with hypertension taking ACEIs/ARBs was compared between survivors and nonsurvivors.
Results: The study population consisted of 180 patients at mean±SD age of 67.76±18.72 years. Hypertension was reported in 72 patients (40.0%). Patients with hypertension were older than those without it (mean±SD age =72.35±12.09 y). Among those with hypertension, death occurred in 33 patients (45.8%), of whom 60.6% were men. Fifty-three patients (73.6%) with hypertension were on ACEIs/ARBs. The ACEIs/ARBs group had a significantly lower mortality rate than the non-ACEIs/ARBs group (37.7% vs 68.4%; OR: 0.192; 95% CI: 0.05–0.68; P=0.011).
Conclusion: This single-center study found no harmful effects associated with ACEIs/ARBs treatment. Patients on ACEIs/ARBs had a lower rate of mortality and disease severity than the non-ACEIs/ARBs group. Our study supports the current guideline to continue ACEIs/ARBs in patients with hypertension.