Background: Nanoparticles are globally synthesized for their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, catalytic, magnetic, optical, and electronic properties that have put them at the forefront of a wide variety of studies. Among them, zinc oxide (ZnO) has received much consideration due to its technological and medicinal applications. In this study, we report on the synthesis process of ZnO nanoparticles using Athrixia phylicoides DC natural extract as a reducing agent. Methods: Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to identify the compounds responsible for the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Results: LC-MS results showed that different flavonoids and polyphenols, as well as Coumarin, an aromatic compound, reacted with the precursor to form ZnO nanoparticles. XRD and UV-Vis analysis confirmed the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, with a spherical shape showed in SEM images. The quasi-spherical ZnO crystals had an average crystallite size of 24 nm. EDS and FTIR analysis confirmed that the powders were pure with no other phase or impurity. Conclusions: This study successfully demonstrated that the natural plant extract of A. phylicoides DC. can be used in the bio-reduction of zinc nitrate hexahydrate to prepare pure ZnO nanoparticles, thus, extending the use of this plant to an industrial level.
Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remains a global health problem. COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia have a higher risk for critical illness, mostly complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. The inflammatory response is critical, and the cytokine storm increases the severity of COVID-19. Many factors could be associated with a cytokine storm but they are incompletely understood. This study presents characteristics of COVID-19 patients and explore the clinical and inflammatory parameters of severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in all severe COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. Peripheral blood was taken for laboratory examination within 24 hours of admission. Haematologic parameters, serum electrolyte, renal function, liver function, pancreas enzyme, D-dimer, inflammatory cytokines interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed in this study. Comparative analyses were done between sex, existing comorbidities, body mass index (BMI), and COVID-19 vaccination status. Results: A total of 80 subjects were included in the study. The most frequent comorbidities found among the subjects were obesity (36.35%) and diabetes (22.5%). Only 13.75% of subjects were vaccinated. Laboratory results indicated leucocytosis and neutrophilia, with a neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio (NLR) of 7. The mean inflammatory findings (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, MCP-1), D-dimer, CRP, and lipase increased. Lipase levels were higher in men (p = 0.003) and in comorbidity groups. No significant differences were found among different BMI groups. Lipase, IL-6, and MCP-1 levels were significantly higher (p=0.019, <0.0001, and 0.03, respectively) in the non-vaccinated group. Conclusions: Most patients with severe COVID-19 have comorbidities and increased inflammatory markers.
Background: Phlebotomy is a medical procedure that is performed frequently in the blood collection activities of medical institutions. The procedure involves close interaction with different types of patients—some of whom are cooperative and others, who, for many reasons, are not (for example, patients who have a fear of needles). Blood extraction is an essential skill in several medical specialties, such as in laboratory sciences. Lesson planning in phlebotomy education is mainly focused on procedural skills, and very little attention is given towards teaching communication skills despite the close patient interaction in phlebotomy. In this paper, I propose a lesson plan for teaching communication skills to medical laboratory sciences and nursing students based on Gagne’s instructional design. Methods: The training session included two main parts: training session using Gange’s instructional design and at the end of the session, the participants were surveyed for the effectiveness of the training session. Results: 17 participants were included in the study. Overall, the majority of the participants were highly satisfied with the effectiveness of the training session in teaching communication skills with all seven survey questions receiving a mean score of 4.58 on a Likert scale of 1-5. Conclusion: We demonstrated the effectiveness of Gange’s instructional beyond theoretical lesson planning to teach communication skills through role-play in phlebotomy education.
Background: The corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure was made mandatory in Malaysia in 2007 with the introduction of the CSR Framework by Bursa Malaysia. Since then, the practice of CSR disclosure is growing, as Malaysia joins global efforts towards sustainable development. Despite increased research on CSR; limited studies are assessing the relationship of specific dimensions – environmental, community, workplace and marketplace, towards dividend payout, which is crucial to investment and corporate financial decision making. Method: The study involved 32 Malaysian public listed finance companies as of 2017. It deployed data from annual reports and databases. Additionally, the study used content analysis to measure the CSR disclosure score, and dividend payout was calculated from the database. Results: There was a significant correlation between community and workplace dimensions with dividend payout. Despite the absence of significant results, the regression analysis showed a positive relationship between community and workplace dimensions with dividend payout. Besides, there was an inverse relationship between the environmental and marketplace dimension with dividend payout. The results indicated that active involvement in the community dimension resulted from an immediate positive impact towards brand equity, attracting current and new customers, and therefore improving the earning levels and dividend payout. Additionally, greater participation in the workplace dimension solidifies employees' engagement and motivation, improves the productivity level, which can be translated into enhanced earning levels and dividend payout. Meanwhile, participation in environmental and marketplace dimensions requires a longer period to yield an impact, higher development expenditure, and involve sensitive information that might benefit competitors. Hence, companies tend to utilise internal funding instead of redistributing the wealth through dividend payout. Conclusion: The study contributes to the literature of CSR by explaining the relationship of specific dimensions of environmental, community, workplace, and marketplace towards dividend payout using the evidence from the emerging economy.
Background: This paper focuses on advances in crowd control study with an emphasis on high-density crowds, particularly Hajj crowds. Video analysis and visual surveillance have been of increasing importance in order to enhance the safety and security of pilgrimages in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Hajj is considered to be a particularly distinctive event, with hundreds of thousands of people gathering in a small space, which does not allow a precise analysis of video footage using advanced video and computer vision algorithms. This research proposes an algorithm based on a Convolutional Neural Networks model specifically for Hajj applications. Additionally, the work introduces a system for counting and then estimating the crowd density. Methods: The model adopts an architecture which detects each person in the crowd, spots head location with a bounding box and does the counting in our own novel dataset (HAJJ-Crowd). Results: Our algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art method, and attains a remarkable Mean Absolute Error result of 200 (average of 82.0 improvement) and Mean Square Error of 240 (average of 135.54 improvement). Conclusions: In our new HAJJ-Crowd dataset for evaluation and testing, we have a density map and prediction results of some standard methods.
Background: Coping with COVID-19 is a challenge for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) older adults. In Australia, little attention has been given to understanding associations between cultural contexts, health promotion, and socio-emotional and mental health challenges of older CALD adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we have collected data from older CALD adults to examine their COVID-19 risk perceptions and its association with their health precautions, behavioural dimensions and emergency preparation. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in South Australia. The CALD population aged 60 years and above were approached through 11 South Australian multicultural NGOs. Results: We provide the details of 155 older CALD South Australians’ demographics, risk perceptions, health precautions (problem-and-emotion-focused), behavioural dimensions and emergency preparation. The explanatory variables included demographic characteristics (age, gender, education and ethnicity); and risk perception (cognitive [likelihood of being affected] and affective dimension [fear and general concerns], and psychometric paradigm [severity, controllability, and personal impact]. The outcome measure variables were health precautions (problem-focused and emotion-focused), behavioral adaptions and emergency preparation. Conclusions: This dataset may help the researchers who investigate multicultural health or aged care in the pandemic and or who may have interest to link with other datasets and secondary use of this primary dataset in order to develop culturally tailored pandemic-related response plan. The data set is available from Harvard Dataverse.
Patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer have a generally known 5-year overall survival of approximately 58% with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). During the last decades, addition of Cisplatinum-based NAC in fit patients prior to radical cystectomy (RC), has significantly improved OS, compared to RC only. However, some published studies following NAC addition, describe an intermediate risk increase of thromboembolic events (TEEs). Placement of central venous access (CVA) before NAC has also been suggested as being a potential risk factor for thrombosis. We present a combination of images and cases from the Northern Swedish health region where three patients developed venous TEE after CVA placement for NAC-administration and found that the time until curable RC was prolonged circa one month each, with an addition of one RC cancelled. These are serious events and to our knowledge, there are no current guidelines on prevention of TEE before RC. The aim with this report was to provide examples of these events and conclude that further prospective trials are warranted on prevention and future guidelines regarding venous anticoagulant treatment for TEE that occur pre-RC in NAC-patients.
Background: Lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET) is prevalent in the upper extremity, with various therapeutic options. Understanding the types and the relations between the radiological tendon features would help to develop more specific treatments. This study reviewed ultrasound exams of LET to investigate the types of degenerative findings and the relationships between them in one of the most prominent sports medicine clinics in Latin America. Methods: A retrospective study was performed. We evaluated 4335 ultrasonographic exams with LET from 2017 and 2018. Five principal degenerative ultrasound criteria with subtypes were selected: hypoechogenicity, neovascularity, calcification, enthesopathy, and intrasubstance tear. A multiple linear regression model was conducted to explore the association between the findings, sex, and age. Results: Overall, 4324 ultrasound exams were analyzed; 2607 (60.29%) were males. Multiple degenerative tendon findings were found in adults (≥18 years) with LET. Hypoechogenicity (67.77%) and neovascularity (37.8%) were the most frequent. The mean length of a tendon tear in both sexes was 4.44 (± 2.81) millimeters. Mild hypoechogenicity (P < .001), and depth intrasubstance tear (P < .01) were statistically significant between them. Severe hypoechogenicity was associated with an increase in all tendon tear dimensions for length 1.37 ([95% Confidence interval (CI), 0.57, 2.17]; P < .001), for width 1.10 ([95% CI, 0.33, 1.87]; P < .01) and for depth 1.64 ([95% CI, 0.40, 2.88]; P < .01). Additional findings associated with an increase in the length dimension were 0.42 associated with focal neovascularity ([95% CI, 0.19, 0.65]; P < .001), and 0.71 associated with multiple neovascularity ([95% CI, 0.27, 1.15]; P < .01). Conclusions: Hypoechogenicity and neovascularity findings presented a positive association with the size of tendon tear in patients with LET. This study reaffirms the increased predominance of tendon tear during the 4th to 6th decades of life.
Background: Veterinarians are exposed to high workloads. International studies show they have an above-average risk of suicide and burnout. Hardly any studies dealing with causes and consequences of workload and emergency services are available in Germany. Methods: The aim of the observational cross-sectional study presented here is to assess their workloads and working conditions (Slesina questionnaire), health situation and well-being (KÖPS questionnaire - physical, psychological and social symptoms; Maslach Burnout Inventory MBI-GS; WHO-5 well-being index), as well as occupational psychological aspects (irritation scales; overcommitment; questionnaire on work-related behavior and experience patterns AVEM) which will be recorded and analyzed according to general sociodemographic and occupational data (sector-, gender, assignment- and country-specific). In addition, the heart rate variability of some members of the veterinary profession will be analyzed using 24 hour electrocardiogram recordings, which together with the subjective insights into the stress situation from the questionnaires, will allow objective psychophysiological stress analyses. Conclusions: The results of the study will provide further empirical insights into the workloads and stresses faced by the veterinary profession in Germany, based on which important insights into this professional group’s mental health can be identified. In this way, it should be possible to identify (mis)stress-triggering factors in the target groups, derive target group-specific recommendations for health-promoting work design, and identify approaches to veterinary studies and career selection.
Priapism in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) appears to be an infrequent manifestation as well as a crucial emergency. Here, we report an 18-year-old male presenting with a persistent erection of the penis for 20 days. We evaluated and compared the reported cases within 20 years discussing the management of priapism in CML. Cytoreductive therapy followed by leukapheresis, the administration of tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and intra-cavernosal blood aspiration may resolve the symptoms of priapism. Early intervention for cytoreduction and aspiration are the pivotal keys to successfully impeding the complications.