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Published By "F1000 Research, Ltd."

2046-1402
Updated Friday, 03 December 2021

F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1040
Author(s):  
Tung Soon Seng ◽  
Magiswary Dorasamy ◽  
Ruzanna Razak ◽  
Maniam Kaliannan ◽  
Murali Sambasivan

The interactivity and ubiquity of digital technologies are exerting a significant impact on the knowledge creation in information technology (KC-IT) projects. According to the literature, the critical relevance of KC-IT is highly associated with digital innovation (DI) for organisational success. However, DI is not yet a fully-fledged research subject but is an evolving corpus of theory and practise that draws from a variety of social science fields. Given the preceding setting, this study explores the interaction of KC-IT with DI. This work provides a systemic literature review (SLR) to examine the literature in KC-IT and its connection to DI. A SLR of 527 papers from 2001 to 2021 was performed across six online databases. The review encompasses quantitative and qualitative studies on KC-IT factors, processes and methods. Three major gaps were found in the SLR. Firstly, only 57 (0.23%) papers were found to examine the association between KC and IT projects. These works were analysed for theories, type of papers, KC-IT factors, processes and methods. Secondly, the convergence reviews indicate that scarce research has examined TMS and trust in KC-IT as factors. Thirdly, only 0.02% (5) core papers appeared in the search relevant to KC in IT projects to accelerate DI. The majority of the papers examined were not linked to DI. A significant gap also exists in these areas. These findings warrant the attention of the research community.


F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1230
Author(s):  
Kenichi Okamoto ◽  
Nichole Dopkins ◽  
Elias Kinfu

The common, or spectacled, caiman Caiman crocodilus is an abundant, widely distributed Neotropical crocodilian exhibiting notable morphological and molecular diversification. The species also accounts by far for the largest share of crocodilian hides on the global market, with the C. crocodilus hide trade alone valued at about US$86.5 million per year. We obtained 239,911,946 paired-end reads comprising approximately 72 G bases using IlluminaTM sequencing of tissue sampled from a single Caiman crocodilus individual. These reads were de-novo assembled and progressively aligned against the genomes of increasingly related crocodilians; liftoff was used to annotate the draft C. crocodilus genome assembly based on an Alligator mississipiensis (a confamilial species) annotation. The draft assembly has been submitted to the National Center for Biotechnology Information and both assembly and annotation are currently available for review at doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4755063


F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1227
Author(s):  
Emmanuel Baldwin Mbaya ◽  
Babatunde Alao ◽  
Philip Ewejobi ◽  
Innocent Nwokolo ◽  
Victoria Oguntosin ◽  
...  

Background: In this work, a COVID19 Application Programming Interface (API) was built using the Representational State Transfer (REST) API architecture and it is designed to fetch data daily from the Nigerian Center for Disease Control (NCDC) website. Methods: The API is developed using ASP.NET Core Web API framework using C# programming language and Visual Studio 2019 as the Integrated Development Environment (IDE). The application has been deployed to Microsoft Azure as the cloud hosting platform and to successfully get new data from the NCDC website using Hangfire where a job has been scheduled to run every 12:30 pm (GMT + 1) and load the fetched data into our database. Various API Endpoints are defined to interact with the system and get data as needed, data can be fetched from a single state by name, all states on a particular day or over a range of days, etc. Results: The results from the data showed that Lagos and Abuja FCT in Nigeria were the hardest-hit states in terms of Total Confirmed cases while Lagos and Edo states had the highest death causalities with 465 and 186 as of August 2020. This analysis and many more can be easily made as a result of this API we have created that warehouses all COVID19 Data as presented by the NCDC since the first contracted case on February 29, 2020. This system was tested on the BlazeMeter platform, and it had an average of 11Hits/s with a response time of 2905milliseconds. Conclusions: The extension of NaijaCovidAPI over existing COVID19 APIs for Nigeria is the access and retrieval of previous data. Our contribution to the body of knowledge is the creation of a data hub for Nigeria's COVID-19 incidence from February 29, 2020, to date


F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. 969
Author(s):  
Yuri Ishizaki ◽  
Ryuzoh Nishizono ◽  
Masao Kikuchi ◽  
Hiroko Inagaki ◽  
Yuji Sato ◽  
...  

Basal ganglia lesions showing an expansile high signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI are termed the lentiform fork sign. This specific finding is mainly observed in diabetic patients with uremic encephalopathy with metabolic acidosis, although there are also reports in patients with ketoacidosis, dialysis disequilibrium syndrome, intoxication, and following drug treatment (e.g., metformin). A 57-year-old Japanese man on chronic hemodialysis for 4 years because of diabetic nephropathy was admitted to our hospital for relatively rapid-onset gait disturbance, severe dysarthria, and consciousness disturbance. Brain T2-weighted MRI showed the lentiform fork sign. Hemodialysis was performed the day before admission, and laboratory tests showed mild metabolic (lactic) acidosis, but no uremia. Surprisingly, metformin, which is contraindicated for patients with end-stage kidney disease, had been prescribed for 6 months in his medication record, and his sluggish speaking and dysarthria appeared gradually after metformin treatment was started. Thus, the encephalopathy was considered to be related to metformin treatment. He received hemodialysis treatment for 6 consecutive days, and his consciousness disturbance and dysarthria improved in 1 week. At the 8-month follow-up, the size of the hyperintensity area on MRI had decreased, while the mild gait disturbance remained. Considering the rapid onset of gait and consciousness disturbance immediately before admission, diabetic uremic syndrome may also have occurred with metformin-related encephalopathy, and resulted in the lentiform fork sign, despite the patient showing no evidence of severe uremia on laboratory data.


F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1228
Author(s):  
Adeel Khoja ◽  
Prabha H. Andraweera ◽  
Zohra S. Lassi ◽  
Mingyue Zheng ◽  
Maleesa M. Pathirana ◽  
...  

PCAD possesses a public health challenge resulting in years of productive life lost and an escalating burden on health systems. Objective of this review is to compare modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for PCAD compared to those without PCAD. This review will include all comparative observational studies conducted in adults aged >18 years with confirmed diagnosis of PCAD (on angiography) compared to those without PCAD. Databases to be searched include; PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science, and grey literature (Google Scholar). All identified studies will be screened for title and abstract and full-text against the inclusion criteria on Covidence software. Data relevant to exposures and outcomes will be extracted from all included studies. All studies selected for data extraction will be critically appraised for methodological quality. Meta-analysis using random-effects model will be performed using Review Manager 5.3. Effect sizes for categorical risk factors will be expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. For risk factors measured in continuous form, mean difference (if units are consistent) otherwise standardized mean difference (if units are different across studies) will be reported. Heterogeneity between studies will be assessed using I2 test statistics. GRADE will be used to assess the certainty of the findings. Systematic review registration number: PROSPERO Registration # CRD42020173216


F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1219
Author(s):  
Prashant Pant ◽  
Oshan Shrestha ◽  
Pawan Budhathoki ◽  
Nebula Devkota ◽  
Prabin Kumar Giri ◽  
...  

Ludwig’s angina (LA) is a rapidly spreading and potentially life-threatening infection having an odontogenic infection as the most common source. It involves the floor of the mouth and neck. Modernization in medical care has made this entity rare and of low mortality at the present but it is still feared as a lethal entity due to rapidly progressive airway obstruction that follows. Here we report a case of a 15-year-old male who suffered from LA. Presenting symptoms and findings of the examination helped in the clinical diagnosis. Immediate intubation, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, and treatment of complications aided the patient’s recovery. LA should be considered for differential diagnosis in the case of neck swelling especially in those having a history of poor oral hygiene and recent dental procedures. Management of LA and its complications should always involve doctors from multiple disciplines.


F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1223
Author(s):  
Sabine Bohnet-Joschko ◽  
Maria Paula Valk-Draad ◽  
Timo Schulte ◽  
Oliver Groene

Background: Hospitalizations of nursing home residents are associated with various health risks. Previous research indicates that, to some extent, hospitalizations of this vulnerable population may be inappropriate and even avoidable. This study aimed to develop a consensus list of hospital discharge diagnoses considered to be nursing home-sensitive, i.e., avoidable. Methods: The study combined analyses of routine data from six statutory health insurance companies in Germany and a two-stage Delphi panel, enhanced by expert workshop discussions, to identify and corroborate relevant diagnoses. Experts from four different disciplines estimated the proportion of hospitalizations that could potentially have been prevented under optimal conditions.   Results: We analyzed frequencies and costs of data for hospital admissions from 242,236 nursing home residents provided by statutory health insurance companies. We identified 117 hospital discharge diagnoses, which had a frequency of at least 0.1%. We recruited experts (primary care physicians, hospital specialists, nursing home professionals and researchers) to estimate the proportion of potentially avoidable hospitalizations for the 117 diagnoses deemed avoidable in two Delphi rounds (n=107 in Delphi Round 1 and n=96 in Delphi Round 2, effective response rate=91%). A total of 35 diagnoses with high and consistent estimates of the proportion of potentially avoidable hospitalizations were identified as nursing home-sensitive. In an expert workshop (n=16), a further 25 diagnoses were discussed that had not reached the criteria, of which another 23 were consented to be nursing home-sensitive conditions. Extrapolating the frequency and mean costs of these 58 diagnoses to the national German context yielded total potentially avoidable care costs of €768,304,547, associated with 219,955 nursing home-sensitive hospital admissions. Conclusion: A total of 58 nursing home-relevant diagnoses (ICD-10-GM three-digit level) were classified as nursing home-sensitive using an adapted Delphi procedure. Interventions should be developed to avoid hospital admission from nursing homes for these diagnoses.


F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1221
Author(s):  
Brynhildur Axelsdóttir ◽  
Lise Mette Eidet ◽  
Ragnhild Thoner ◽  
Sølvi Biedilæ ◽  
Ingrid Borren ◽  
...  

Background: A starting point for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments should be to identify evidence gaps. Furthermore, such evaluations should consider the perspectives of patients, clinicians and carers to ensure relevance and potentially influence future research initiatives. Methods: Our approach, inspired by the James Lind Alliance methods, involved three steps. First, we performed a document analysis by identifying interventions and outcomes in two recently published overviews of systematic reviews, which summarised the effects of interventions for anxiety and depression in children and adolescents. Second, we surveyed children and adolescents with personal experiences of depression or anxiety as well as clinicians, and asked them to suggest treatments and outcomes associated with uncertainty. Finally, we facilitated a consensus process where clinicians and youth mental health patient representatives were invited to prioritise research uncertainties in separate consensus processes. Results: The survey included 674 respondents who reported a total of 1267 uncertainties. Independent coding by four investigators revealed 134 suggestions for treatments of anxiety, 90 suggestions for treatments of depression, 84 for outcomes of interventions for anxiety and 71 suggestions for outcomes of interventions for depression. Two separate priority setting workshops with eight clinicians and ten youth resulted in four independent top ten priority lists. Conclusion: Top ten lists of treatments and outcome domains of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents was identified by youth and clinicians. The results may influence the research agenda, and ultimately benefit patients.


F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1222
Author(s):  
Aziah Ali ◽  
Aini Hussain ◽  
Wan Mimi Diyana Wan Zaki ◽  
Wan Haslina Wan Abdul Halim ◽  
Wan Noorshahida Mohd Isa ◽  
...  

Background: By diagnosing using fundus images, ophthalmologists can possibly detect symptoms of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal detachment. A number of studies have also found some links between fundus image analysis data and other underlying systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension and kidney dysfunction. Now that imaging technology is advancing further, more fundus cameras are currently equipped with the capability to produce high resolution fundus images. One of the public databases for high-resolution fundus images called High-Resolution Fundus (HRF) is consistently used for validating vessel segmentation algorithms. However, it is noticed that the segmentation outputs from the HRF database normally include noisy pixels near the upper and lower edges of the image. In this study, we propose an enhanced method of pre-processing the images so that these noisy pixels can be eliminated, and thus the overall segmentation performance can be increased. Without eliminating the noisy pixels, the visual segmentation output shows a large number of false positive pixels near the top and bottom edges. Methods: The proposed method involves adding additional padding to the image before the segmentation procedure is applied. In this study, the Bar-Combination Of Shifted FIlter REsponses (B-COSFIRE) filter is used for retinal vessel segmentation. Results: Qualitative assessment of the segmentation results when using the proposed method showed improvement in terms of noisy pixel removal from near the edges. Quantitatively, the additional padding step improves all considered metrics for vessel segmentation, namely Sensitivity (73.76%), Specificity (97.53%), and Matthew’s Correlation Coefficient (MCC) value (71.57%) for the HRF database. Conclusions: Findings from this study indicate improvement in the overall segmentation performance when using the proposed double-padding method of pre-processing the fundus image prior to segmentation. In the future, more databases with various resolutions and modalities can be included for further validation.


F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 927
Author(s):  
Sharmini Gopinathan ◽  
Anisha Haveena Kaur ◽  
Kanesaraj Ramasamy ◽  
Murali Raman

The pandemic has created challenges in all sectors of the economy and education. Traditional teaching approaches seem futile in the new context, thus the need to constantly reinvent the delivery to meet the fast-paced changes in the education domain. Hence, Design Thinking (DT) is an alternative approach that might be useful in the given context. DT is known to be a human-centric approach to innovative problem-solving processes. DT could be employed in the delivery process to develop twenty-first-century skills and enhance creativity and innovation, in an attempt to identify alternative solutions. The study explores the role of design thinking (DT) in the form of empathy, thinking process, gamified lessons and curriculum enhancement, which leads to innovative delivery among teachers. It enhances and facilitates innovative content delivery by leveraging creativity. The study targeted 131 teachers, whereby 61 are primary school teachers and 70 are secondary school teachers. A questionnaire constituting of 23 close-ended questions using the 5-point Likert scale was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using SmartPLS to establish relationships between DT and Innovative Delivery in schools. The data was further analyzed to seek co-relations between the DT steps and the successful transformation of content delivery by teachers. The study established a framework for the application of design thinking for teachers as the primary support in developing activities for their students. The study showed that thinking process, gamifying lessons and curriculum enhancement have positive significance in innovative delivery, whereas empathy did not show a significant positive relationship. The outcome of this study will help fill the gap towards creating an interesting method of delivery in schools and constantly innovating the method to suit the evolving generation. This insight is crucial for the Ministry of Education and policymakers to enhance teachers’ ability to innovatively deliver content to students.


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