antisense oligonucleotide
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Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 200
Sebastian Peters ◽  
Eva Wirkert ◽  
Sabrina Kuespert ◽  
Rosmarie Heydn ◽  
Siw Johannesen ◽  

The capability of the adult central nervous system to self-repair/regenerate was demonstrated repeatedly throughout the last decades but remains in debate. Reduced neurogenic niche activity paralleled by a profound neuronal loss represents fundamental hallmarks in the disease course of neurodegenerative disorders. We and others have demonstrated the endogenous TGFβ system to represent a potential pathogenic participant in disease progression, of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in particular, by generating and promoting a disequilibrium of neurodegenerative and neuroregenerative processes. The novel human/primate specific LNA Gapmer Antisense Oligonucleotide “NVP-13”, targeting TGFBR2, effectively reduced its expression and lowered TGFβ signal transduction in vitro and in vivo, paralleled by boosting neurogenic niche activity in human neuronal progenitor cells and nonhuman primate central nervous system. Here, we investigated NVP-13 in vivo pharmacology, safety, and tolerability following repeated intrathecal injections in nonhuman primate cynomolgus monkeys for 13 weeks in a GLP-toxicology study approach. NVP-13 was administered intrathecally with 1, 2, or 4 mg NVP-13/animal within 3 months on days 1, 15, 29, 43, 57, 71, and 85 in the initial 13 weeks. We were able to demonstrate an excellent local and systemic tolerability, and no adverse events in physiological, hematological, clinical chemistry, and microscopic findings in female and male Cynomolgus Monkeys. Under the conditions of this study, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) is at least 4 mg/animal NVP-13.

2022 ◽  
Geetika Aggarwal ◽  
Subhashis Banerjee ◽  
Spencer A. Jones ◽  
Monica D. Pavlack ◽  
Yousri Benchaar ◽  

Loss-of-function GRN mutations result in progranulin haploinsufficiency and are a common cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are emerging as a promising therapeutic modality for neurological diseases, but ASO-based strategies for increasing target protein levels are still relatively limited. Here, we report the use of ASOs to increase progranulin protein levels by targeting the miR-29b binding site in the 3′ UTR of the GRN mRNA, resulting in increased translation.

Rubén Pavia-Collado ◽  
Raquel Rodríguez-Aller ◽  
Diana Alarcón-Arís ◽  
Lluís Miquel-Rio ◽  
Esther Ruiz-Bronchal ◽  

The synuclein family consists of α-, β-, and γ-Synuclein (α-Syn, β-Syn, and γ-Syn), expressed in the neurons and concentrated in synaptic terminals. While α-Syn is at the center of interest due to its implication in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies, limited information exists on the other members. The current study aimed at investigating the biological role of γ-Syn controlling the midbrain dopamine (DA) function. We generated two different mouse models with i) γ-Syn overexpression induced by an adeno-associated viral vector and ii) γ-Syn knockdown induced by a ligand-conjugated antisense oligonucleotide, to modify the endogenous γ-Syn transcription levels in midbrain DA neurons. The progressive overexpression of γ-Syn decreased DA neurotransmission in the nigrostriatal and mesocortical pathways. In parallel, mice evoked motor deficits in the rotarod and impaired cognitive performance as assessed by novel object recognition, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. Conversely, acute γ-Syn knockdown selectively in DA neurons facilitated forebrain DA neurotransmission. Importantly, modifications in γ-Syn expression did not induce the loss of DA neurons or changes in α-Syn expression. Collectively, our data strongly suggest that DA re-lease/re-uptake processes in the nigrostriatal and mesocortical pathways are partially dependent on SNc/VTA γ-Syn transcription levels, and are linked to modulation of DA transporter function, similar to α-Syn.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 16-37
Yalin Li ◽  
Yuqin Tan ◽  
Rui Zhang ◽  
Tao Wang ◽  
Ning Na ◽  

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health issue that places an increasing burden on the healthcare systems of both the developed and developing countries. CKD is a progressive and irreversible condition, affecting approximately 10% of the population worldwide. Patients that have progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) require expensive renal replacement therapy, i.e., dialysis or kidney transplantation. Current CKD therapy largely relies on the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). However, these treatments by no means halt the progression of CKD to ESRD. Therefore, the development of new therapies is urgently needed. Antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) has recently attracted considerable interest as a drug development platform. Thus far, eight ASO-based drugs have been granted approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of various diseases. Herein, we review the ASOs developed for the identification of CKD-relevant genes and/or the simultaneous development of the ASOs as potential therapeutics towards treating CKD.

2021 ◽  
Hélène Tran ◽  
Michael P. Moazami ◽  
Huiya Yang ◽  
Diane McKenna-Yasek ◽  
Catherine L. Douthwright ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 62
Patricia Recio-López ◽  
Ismael Valladolid-Acebes ◽  
Per-Olof Berggren ◽  
Lisa Juntti-Berggren

Apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII) is proinflammatory and increases in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance. We have previously shown that reducing apoCIII improves insulin sensitivity in vivo by complex mechanisms involving liver and brown adipose tissue. In this study the focus was on subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) white adipose tissue (WAT). Mice were either given HFD for 14 weeks and directly from start also treated with antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) against apoCIII or given HFD for 10 weeks and HFD+ASO for an additional 14 weeks. Both groups had animals treated with inactive (Scr) ASO as controls and in parallel chow-fed mice were injected with saline. Preventing an increase or lowering apoCIII in the HFD-fed mice decreased adipocytes’ size, reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines and increased expression of genes related to thermogenesis and beiging. Isolated adipocytes from both VAT and SAT from the ASO-treated mice had normal insulin-induced inhibition of lipolysis compared to cells from Scr-treated mice. In conclusion, the HFD-induced metabolic derangements in WATs can be prevented and reversed by lowering apoCIII.

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