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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
N. Ullah ◽  
M. A. Kakakhel ◽  
Y. Bai ◽  
L. Xi ◽  
I. Khan ◽  

Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.

Brian Meneses Claudio ◽  
Luis Nuñez Tapia ◽  
Witman Alvarado Díaz

In December 2019, a series of cases of pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 were identified in Wuhan (China), which was declared by the WHO as a pandemic on March 11th , 2020, because it caused enormous problems for the global public health due to its rapid expansion. In Peru it was only on March 6th , 2020, that the first case of COVID-19 was reported, therefore, the government took some measures to control the spread of the virus. A biosafety measure that is frequently used is taking the temperature with an infrared thermometer, which is not well seen by some specialists due to the error it has, therefore, it would not represent a safe measurement, as other measurement systems do. . In view of this problem, in this article a thermal image processing system was carried out to detect possible cases of patients with COVID-19, in such a way that the system performs a more accurate measurement of body temperature and can be implemented in any place, where this measurement is intended to be carried out, helping to combat the spread of the virus that currently continues to affect many people. Through the development of the system, tests were conducted with various people, obtaining a more accurate measurement of body temperature with an efficiency of 95% at 1 m between the drone and the person, in such a way that if it presents a body temperature above 37°C could be infected with COVID-19. Keywords-- Thermal camera, COVID-19, Drone, MATLAB, WHO, Image processing

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 150
Wan Rong Sia ◽  
Yichao Zheng ◽  
Fei Han ◽  
Shiwei Chen ◽  
Shaohua Ma ◽  

Bats are reservoirs of a large number of viruses of global public health significance, including the ancestral virus for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although bats are natural carriers of multiple pathogenic viruses, they rarely display signs of disease. Recent insights suggest that bats have a more balanced host defense and tolerance system to viral infections that may be linked to the evolutionary adaptation to powered flight. Therefore, a deeper understanding of bat immune system may provide intervention strategies to prevent zoonotic disease transmission and to identify new therapeutic targets. Similar to other eutherian mammals, bats have both innate and adaptive immune systems that have evolved to detect and respond to invading pathogens. Bridging these two systems are innate lymphocytes, which are highly abundant within circulation and barrier tissues. These cells share the characteristics of both innate and adaptive immune cells and are poised to mount rapid effector responses. They are ideally suited as the first line of defense against early stages of viral infections. Here, we will focus on the current knowledge of innate lymphocytes in bats, their function, and their potential role in host–pathogen interactions. Moreover, given that studies into bat immune systems are often hindered by a lack of bat-specific research tools, we will discuss strategies that may aid future research in bat immunity, including the potential use of organoid models to delineate the interplay between innate lymphocytes, bat viruses, and host tolerance.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 155
Gowri Yale ◽  
Marwin Lopes ◽  
Shrikrishna Isloor ◽  
Jennifer R. Head ◽  
Stella Mazeri ◽  

Oral rabies vaccines (ORVs) have been in use to successfully control rabies in wildlife since 1978 across Europe and the USA. This review focuses on the potential and need for the use of ORVs in free-roaming dogs to control dog-transmitted rabies in India. Iterative work to improve ORVs over the past four decades has resulted in vaccines that have high safety profiles whilst generating a consistent protective immune response to the rabies virus. The available evidence for safety and efficacy of modern ORVs in dogs and the broad and outspoken support from prominent global public health institutions for their use provides confidence to national authorities considering their use in rabies-endemic regions. India is estimated to have the largest rabies burden of any country and, whilst considerable progress has been made to increase access to human rabies prophylaxis, examples of high-output mass dog vaccination campaigns to eliminate the virus at the source remain limited. Efficiently accessing a large proportion of the dog population through parenteral methods is a considerable challenge due to the large, evasive stray dog population in many settings. Existing parenteral approaches require large skilled dog-catching teams to reach these dogs, which present financial, operational and logistical limitations to achieve 70% dog vaccination coverage in urban settings in a short duration. ORV presents the potential to accelerate the development of approaches to eliminate rabies across large areas of the South Asia region. Here we review the use of ORVs in wildlife and dogs, with specific consideration of the India setting. We also present the results of a risk analysis for a hypothetical campaign using ORV for the vaccination of dogs in an Indian state.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 162
Tessy A. H. Hick ◽  
Corinne Geertsema ◽  
Maurice G. L. Henquet ◽  
Dirk E. Martens ◽  
Stefan W. Metz ◽  

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne virus that causes a severe febrile illness with long-lasting arthralgia in humans. As there is no vaccine to protect humans and limit CHIKV epidemics, the virus continues to be a global public health concern. The CHIKV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 are important immunogens; therefore, the aim of this study is to produce trimeric CHIKV spikes in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. The CHIKV E1 and E2 ectodomains were covalently coupled by a flexible linker that replaces the 6K transmembrane protein. The C-terminal E1 transmembrane was replaced by a Strep-tag II for the purification of secreted spikes from the culture fluid. After production in Sf9 suspension cells (product yields of 5.8–7.6 mg/L), the CHIKV spikes were purified by Strep-Tactin affinity chromatography, which successfully cleared the co-produced baculoviruses. Bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate cross-linking demonstrated that the spikes are secreted as trimers. PNGase F treatment showed that the spikes are glycosylated. LC–MS/MS-based glycoproteomic analysis confirmed the glycosylation and revealed that the majority are of the mannose- or hybrid-type N-glycans and <2% have complex-type N-glycans. The LC –MS/MS analysis also revealed three O-glycosylation sites in E1. In conclusion, the trimeric, glycosylated CHIKV spikes have been successfully produced in insect cells and are now available for vaccination studies.

Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 57
Tina Noutsos ◽  
Bart J. Currie ◽  
Eranga S. Wijewickrama ◽  
Geoffrey K. Isbister

Snakebite is a significant and under-resourced global public health issue. Snake venoms cause a variety of potentially fatal clinical toxin syndromes, including venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) which is associated with major haemorrhage. A subset of patients with VICC develop a thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). This article reviews recent evidence regarding snakebite-associated TMA and its epidemiology, diagnosis, outcomes, and effectiveness of interventions including antivenom and therapeutic plasma-exchange. Snakebite-associated TMA presents with microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (evidenced by schistocytes on the blood film), thrombocytopenia in almost all cases, and a spectrum of acute kidney injury (AKI). A proportion of patients require dialysis, most survive and achieve dialysis free survival. There is no evidence that antivenom prevents TMA specifically, but early antivenom remains the mainstay of treatment for snake envenoming. There is no evidence for therapeutic plasma-exchange being effective. We propose diagnostic criteria for snakebite-associated TMA as anaemia with >1.0% schistocytes on blood film examination, together with absolute thrombocytopenia (<150 × 109/L) or a relative decrease in platelet count of >25% from baseline. Patients are at risk of long-term chronic kidney disease and long term follow up is recommended.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 97
Md Bashir Uddin ◽  
Mohammad Nurul Alam ◽  
Mahmudul Hasan ◽  
S. M. Bayejed Hossain ◽  
Mita Debnath ◽  

Zoonotic and antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (hereafter, E. coli) is a global public health threat which can lead to detrimental effects on human health. Here, we aim to investigate the antimicrobial resistance and the presence of mcr-1 gene in E. coli isolated from chicken feces. Ninety-four E. coli isolates were obtained from samples collected from different locations in Bangladesh, and the isolates were identified using conventional microbiological tests. Phenotypic disk diffusion tests using 20 antimicrobial agents were performed according to CLSI-EUCAST guidelines, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for a subset of samples. E. coli isolates showed high resistance to colistin (88.30%), ciprofloxacin (77.66%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (76.60%), tigecycline (75.53%), and enrofloxacin (71.28%). Additionally, the pathotype eaeA gene was confirmed in ten randomly selected E. coli isolates using primer-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The presence of mcr-1 gene was confirmed using PCR and sequencing analysis in six out of ten E. coli isolates. Furthermore, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed a similarity between the catalytic domain of Neisseria meningitidis lipooligosaccharide phosphoethanolamine transferase A (LptA) and MCR proteins, indicating that the six tested isolates were colistin resistant. Finally, the findings of the present study showed that E. coli isolated from chicken harbored mcr-1 gene, and multidrug and colistin resistance. These findings accentuate the need to implement strict measures to limit the imprudent use of antibiotics, particularly colistin, in agriculture and poultry farms.

2022 ◽  
Ashwini Sankar ◽  
Andrew Goodkind ◽  
Jay Coggins

Abstract Chronic exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) represents one of the largest global public health risks, leading to millions of premature deaths annually. For a country facing high and spatially variable exposures, prioritizing where to reduce PM2.5 concentrations leads to an inherent tradeoff between saving the most lives and reducing inequality of exposure. This tradeoff results from the shape of the concentration-response function between exposure to PM2.5 and mortality, which indicates that the additional lives saved per unit reduction in PM2.5 declines as concentrations increase. We estimate this concentration-response function for urban areas of India, finding that a 10 unit reduction in PM2.5 in already-clean locations will reduce the mortality rate substantially (4.2% for a reduction from 30 to 20 µgm-3), while a 10 unit reduction in the dirtiest locations will reduce mortality only modestly (1.2% for a reduction from 90 to 80 µgm-3). We explore the implications of this PM2.5/mortality relationship by considering a thought experiment. If India had a fixed amount of resources to devote to PM2.5 concentration reductions across urban areas, what is the lives saved/inequality of exposure tradeoff from three different methods of employing those resources? Across our three scenarios—1) which reduces exposures for the dirtiest districts, 2) which reduces exposures everywhere equally, and 3) which reduces exposures to save the most lives—scenario 1 saves 18,000 lives per year while reducing the inequality of exposure by 65%, while scenario 3 saves 126,000 lives per year, but increases inequality by 19%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0010069
Alison A. Bettis ◽  
Maïna L’Azou Jackson ◽  
In-Kyu Yoon ◽  
J. Gabrielle Breugelmans ◽  
Ana Goios ◽  

Chikungunya fever is an acute febrile illness that is often associated with severe polyarthralgia in humans. The disease is caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus. Since its reemergence in 2004, the virus has spread throughout the tropical world and several subtropical areas affecting millions of people to become a global public health issue. Given the significant disease burden, there is a need for medical countermeasures and several vaccine candidates are in clinical development. To characterize the global epidemiology of chikungunya and inform vaccine development, we undertook a systematic literature review in MEDLINE and additional public domain sources published up to June 13, 2020 and assessed epidemiological trends from 1999 to 2020. Observational studies addressing CHIKV epidemiology were included and studies not reporting primary data were excluded. Only descriptive analyses were conducted. Of 3,883 relevant sources identified, 371 were eligible for inclusion. 46% of the included studies were published after 2016. Ninety-seven outbreak reports from 45 countries and 50 seroprevalence studies from 31 countries were retrieved, including from Africa, Asia, Oceania, the Americas, and Europe. Several countries reported multiple outbreaks, but these were sporadic and unpredictable. Substantial gaps in epidemiological knowledge were identified, specifically granular data on disease incidence and age-specific infection rates. The retrieved studies revealed a diversity of methodologies and study designs, reflecting a lack of standardized procedures used to characterize this disease. Nevertheless, available epidemiological data emphasized the challenges to conduct vaccine efficacy trials due to disease unpredictability. A better understanding of chikungunya disease dynamics with appropriate granularity and better insights into the duration of long-term population immunity is critical to assist in the planning and success of vaccine development efforts pre and post licensure.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Chenghai Weng ◽  
Fei Xia ◽  
Dang Xu ◽  
Xingtao Zhou ◽  
Liangcheng Wu

Abstract Background Myopia is a global public health issue. Controlling myopia progression is a primary focus of myopia studies today. Peripheral retinal myopic defocus is considered the mechanism for reduced myopia progression in orthokeratology studies. The topographic change in the front corneal surface after laser refractive surgery and orthokeratology procedures may appear similar. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of myopic laser ablation on axial length (AL) growth. Methods Myopic patients who underwent monocular excimer laser refractive surgery first in one eye and then in another eye several years later because of myopia occurrence or myopia progression were recruited. The axial length elongation and refraction (spherical equivalent) between the two eyes were observed and compared. Results A total of 8 myopic patients were enrolled in the study. The AL increased from 24.52 ± 0.96 mm to 24.68 ± 1.03 mm but without significance (T = 1.49, P > 0.05) in the ablated eyes. The AL increased significantly from 23.73 ± 0.91 mm to 24.26 ± 0.95 mm in the nonablated eyes (T = 6.76, P < 0.001). The AL elongation of the ablated eyes with 0.16 ± 0.30 mm growth was significantly lower than that of the nonablated eyes with 0.53 ± 0.32 mm growth (T = 8.98, P < 0.001). The spherical equivalent (SE) increased significantly in the ablated eyes (− 0.59 ± 0.21 (D), T = 6.36, P < 0.001) and in the nonablated eyes (− 0.97 ± 0.55 (D), T = 4.91, P < 0.01), and the difference between the two eyes was significant (T = 3.05, P < 0.05). Conclusions The inhibitory effect of myopic laser ablation on AL elongation reported in the limited case studies argues for animal research on its efficacy as a new intervention for myopia progression.

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