Scanning Electron Microscopy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 321 ◽  
pp. 126326
Author(s):  
Gladis Aparecida Galindo Reisemberger de Souza ◽  
Ramón Sigifredo Cortés Paredes ◽  
Frieda Saicla Barros ◽  
Gustavo Bavaresco Sucharski ◽  
Sebastião Ribeiro Junior ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 882
Author(s):  
Yu-Lin Song ◽  
Manoj Kumar Reddy ◽  
Hung-Yung Wen ◽  
Luh-Maan Chang

The extremely low-frequency (ELF) and its corresponding electromagnetic field influences the yield of CMOS processes in the foundry, especially for high-end equipment such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) systems, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) systems, focused ion beam (FIB) systems, and electron beam lithography (E-Beam) systems. There are several techniques to mitigate electromagnetic interference (EMI), among which active shielding systems and passive shielding methods are widely used. An active shielding system is used to generate an internal electromagnetic field to reduce the detected external electromagnetic field in electric coils with the help of the current. Although the active shielding system reduces the EMI impact, it induces an internal electromagnetic field that could affect the function of nearby tools and/or high-performance probes. Therefore, in this study, we have used a C-shaped cylindrical device combined with an active shielding system and passive shielding techniques to reduce EMI for online monitoring and to overcome the aforementioned issues. In this study, the active shielding system was wrapped with a permalloy composite material (i.e., a composite of nickel and iron alloy) as a tubular device. A C-shaped opening was made on the tubular structure vertically or horizontally to guide the propagation of the electromagnetic field. This C-shaped cylindrical device further reduced electromagnetic noise up to −5.06 dB and redirected the electromagnetic field toward the opening direction on the cylindrical device. The results demonstrated a practical reduction of the electromagnetic field.


Scanning ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Meng Du ◽  
Haifeng Mei ◽  
Ya Liu

Phase equilibria of the Fe-Al-Ni-O system at 750°C were determined by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer and X-ray power diffraction. 54 alloys were prepared with weighted metal and Ni2O3 powder and were annealed at 750°C for 45 days. Two four-phase equilibrium regions and three three-phase equilibrium regions were confirmed, and the boundary between spinel and corundum was obtained. Comparing with the Fe-Al-Ni-O oxidation diagram at 750°C calculated with FSstel and FToxid databases, the phase boundary of the spinel and corundum oxides from experiments was inclined to the Ni-Al side. The determined relationship between primary oxides and alloy composition in this work can be used as a reference for the preparation of the oxide film by selective oxidation.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 603
Author(s):  
Natalia Rońda ◽  
Krzysztof Grzelak ◽  
Marek Polański ◽  
Julita Dworecka-Wójcik

This work investigates the effect of layer thickness on the microstructure and mechanical properties of M300 maraging steel produced by Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS®) technique. The microstructure was characterized using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties were characterized by tensile tests and microhardness measurements. The porosity and mechanical properties were found to be highly dependent on the layer thickness. Increasing the layer thickness increased the porosity of the manufactured parts while degrading their mechanical properties. Moreover, etched samples revealed a fine cellular dendritic microstructure; decreasing the layer thickness caused the microstructure to become fine-grained. Tests showed that for samples manufactured with the chosen laser power, a layer thickness of more than 0.75 mm is too high to maintain the structural integrity of the deposited material.


Catalysts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 93
Author(s):  
George Pchelarov ◽  
Dzhamal Uzun ◽  
Sasho Vassilev ◽  
Elena Razkazova-Velkova ◽  
Ognian Dimitrov ◽  
...  

Described herewith is an electrochemical method to decontaminate sulphur compounds. Studies were carried out of sulphites (SO32−) oxidation on a range of anode catalysts. The electrocatalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, XRD, XPS and BET. Polarization curves were recorded of electrodes incorporating lyophilized higher fullerenes and manganese oxides. The experiments showed that lyophilized higher fullerenes and C60/C70 fullerene catalysts in conjunction with manganese oxides electrochemically convert sulphites (SO32−) to sulphates (SO42−). The oxidation products do not poison the electrodes. The XPS analysis shows that the catalysts incorporating DWCNTs, MWCNTs and higher fullerenes have a higher concentration of sp3C carbon bonding leading to higher catalytic activity. It is ascertained that higher fullerenes play a major role in the synthesis of more effective catalysts. The electrodes built by incorporating lyophilized catalysts containing higher fullerenes and manganese oxides are shown as most promising in the effective electrochemical decontamination of industrial and natural wastewaters.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
M.A. Bouacheria ◽  
A. Djelloul ◽  
M. Adnane

Abstract Pure and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films with different aluminium (Al) concentrations (Al: 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 wt.%) were prepared on p-type Si(100) substrate by a dip-coating technique using different zinc and aluminum precursors. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of these films were investigated using a number of techniques, including the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force electron microscopy (AFM), ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry, photoluminescence(PL) spectroscopy and four-point probe technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results shown that the obtained (AZO) films were polycrystalline with a highly c-axis preferred (002) orientation, and the average crystallites size decrease from 28.32 to 24.61 nm with the increase in Al dopant concentration. The studies demonstrated that the ZnO film had a good transparency in the visible range with the maximum transmittance of 95% and the band gaps (Eg) varied from 3.16 to 3.26 eV by alumium doping. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the surface morphology of the films changed with increase of Al-doping. The photoluminescence spectra also showed changed with Al-doping.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 809
Author(s):  
Maxim Rudmin ◽  
Santanu Banerjee ◽  
Boris Makarov ◽  
Kanipa Ibraeva ◽  
Alexander Konstantinov

This research presents the mechanical creation of smart fertilizers from a mixture of smectite and urea in a 3:2 ratio by using the planetary milling technique. The smectite–urea composites show intercalation between urea and mineral, which increases steadily with increasing activation time. A shift of X-Ray Diffraction basal reflections, intensities of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) peaks, and weight losses in thermogravimetric analysis (TG) document the systematic crystallo-chemical changes of the composites related to nitrogen interaction with activation. Observations of the nanocomposites by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) corroborate the inference. Nitrogen intercalates with smectite in the interlayer space and remains absorbed either within micro-aggregates or on the surface of activated smectites. Soil leaching tests reveal a slower rate of nitrogen than that of traditional urea fertilizers. Different forms of nitrogen within the composites cause their differential release rates to the soil. The formulated nanocomposite fertilizer enhances the quality and quantity of oat yield.


Author(s):  
Sara Al-Waisawy ◽  
Ahmed Kareem Abdullah ◽  
Hadi A. Hamed ◽  
Ali A. Al-bakri

In this research, the pure titanium foil was treated in glycerol base electrolyte with 0.7 wt.% NH4F and a small amount of H2O at 17 V for 2 hours by electrochemical anodization process in order to prepare Titania nanotube arrays at room temperature (~25 ºC), different water content was added to the electrolyte as a tube enhancing agent. The high density uniform arrays are prepared by using organized and well aligned these tubes. The average size of tube diameter, ranging from 57 to 92 nm which found it increases with increasing water content, and the length of the tube ranging from 2.76 to 4.12 µm, also found to increase with increasing water content and ranging in size of wall thickness from 23 to 35 nm. A possible growth mechanism is presented. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to study the structure and morphology of the Titania films.


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