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Information ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 41
Guendalina Caldarini ◽  
Sardar Jaf ◽  
Kenneth McGarry

Chatbots are intelligent conversational computer systems designed to mimic human conversation to enable automated online guidance and support. The increased benefits of chatbots led to their wide adoption by many industries in order to provide virtual assistance to customers. Chatbots utilise methods and algorithms from two Artificial Intelligence domains: Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning. However, there are many challenges and limitations in their application. In this survey we review recent advances on chatbots, where Artificial Intelligence and Natural Language processing are used. We highlight the main challenges and limitations of current work and make recommendations for future research investigation.

Phytotaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 531 (1) ◽  
pp. 54-62

Based on literature survey, examination of type specimens and fieldwork, seven names of Carex are synonymized in the present paper: viz. Carex hypoblephara reduced to a synonym of C. glossostigma; C. dayunshanensis and C. wuyishanensis to synonyms of C. graciliflora; C. dolichogyne to a synonym of C. truncatigluma; C. kwangtoushanica to a synonym of C. tatsiensis; and C. martini to a synonym of C. rhynchophora. The holotype of Carex fokienensis is identified and confirmed at P. The putative endemic species Carex macrosandra (basionym: C. lanceolata var. macrosandra) is synonymized to C. lanceolata, whereas C. cavaleriensis, considered a synonym of the former, is here recognized as a distinct species. A lectotype is designated for C. lanceolata var. macrosandra.

Phytotaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 531 (1) ◽  
pp. 73-77

Based on literature survey and observations on herbarium specimens and living plants in the wild, we demonstrate that Anemone pindariensis (Ranunculaceae), most recently described from the western Himalaya in India, is a teratological form of A. rivularis. We therefore place the former in synonymy with the latter herein.

Dr. J. Thiagarajan ◽  
S. Balakrishnan

This article studies the opportunities and challenges that persist for the Toy Manufacturing sector in India. India is named for its traditional toy a year back history of 5000 years. The industry gives more employment opportunities and provides more revenue to the people who depend on it. But due to the change in liking of traditional toys, patterns and innovation of Chinese toys create a great deal of trouble to the Indian manufacturers. The study is essential in estimating the opportunities and challenges available in the toy manufacturing sectors in India. The study adopts the literature survey approach, mainly from various agencies' reports and news from the websites. The at manirbar mantra, Covid 19 influence, Global scenarios link shows significant opportunities for toy manufacturing sectors. Challenges are found to be in the availability of foreign toys, increased import duty on raw material and capital goods, and introduction of quality standards in Toy Production.

2022 ◽  
Fan Su ◽  
Bao-Duo Wu ◽  
Rui Fan ◽  
Xun-Zhi Ji ◽  
Xiao-Wei Qin ◽  

Based on the evidence from morphology, literature survey and specimen examination, Piper curtipedunculum (Piperaceae) is recognized as independent species which is used to be a synonym of Piper pedicellatum. Piper boehmeriifolium var. glabricaule, Piper terminaliflorum and Piper yunnanense are considered as new synonyms of P. pedicellatum to which they are similar by a series of morphological characters. And the morphological differences, similarities and geographical ranges of these plant are clarified.

Yasmine Oprea ◽  
Thomas Stringer ◽  
Tobi Klar ◽  
Caroline Halverstam

Ankita Negi ◽  
Rajesh Kumar ◽  
Sushil Kumar Joshi ◽  
Arpita Negi ◽  
Bhuvnesh Kumar ◽  

The increasing number of efluents discharged from the source of water (urban, industrial, agricultural etc.), is resulting in a higher concentration of heavy metals in the source. Heavy metals have a density of over 5g/cm3 to the metals. These are toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and resistant in watery and non-aquatic environments and impact water and non-water bodies seriously by substituting the basic metals of the same function. The extraction from the wastewater can be done in numerous techniques for example using an ion replacement, membrane filtration, osmosis, etc. This study discusses the adverse effects of heavy metals on the human body, the benefits of biosorption over traditional approaches for removal of heavy metals, the different biosorbents used to extract heavy metals and concerning issues regarding its commercial use, offering a wider viewpoint for the diversity of biosorbents and utilization of biosorption technique. It is evident from the profound literature survey that pH, biosorbent particle size, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, presence of chelating ligands etc. are some factors that affect the rate and extent of biosorption. 

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