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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fatima Flores‐Galicia ◽  
Alexander Eden ◽  
Antoine Pallandre ◽  
Sumita Pennathur ◽  
Anne‐Marie Haghiri‐Gosnet

Author(s):  
Natalia A. Wójcik ◽  
Nagia S. Tagiara ◽  
Doris Möncke ◽  
Efstratios I. Kamitsos ◽  
Sharafat Ali ◽  
...  

AbstractElectrical properties of beryllium-alumino-tellurite glasses and glass–ceramics doped with iron ions were studied using impedance spectroscopy. The conductivity was measured over a wide frequency range from 10 mHz to 1 MHz and the temperature range from 213 to 473 K. The D.C. conductivity values showed a correlation with the Fe-ion concentration and ratio of iron ions on different valence states in the samples. On the basis of Jonscher universal dielectric response the temperature dependence of conductivity parameters were determined and compared to theoretical models collected by Elliott. In glasses, the conduction process was found to be due to the overlap polaron tunneling while in glass–ceramics the quantum mechanical tunneling between semiconducting crystallites of iron oxides is proposed. The D.C. conductivity was found not to follow Arrhenius relation. The Schnakenberg model was used to analyze the conductivity behavior and the polaron hopping energy and disorder energy were estimated. Additionally, the correlation between alumina dissolution and basicity of the melts was observed.


YMER Digital ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (01) ◽  
pp. 98-111
Author(s):  
Dr. Srinivas Tadepalli ◽  
◽  
Dr. K.S.R Murthy ◽  
Dr. P Suresh Kumar ◽  
Dr. Prasanthi Kumari Nunna ◽  
...  

he results of the experiments showed that bed weight, flow rate, and initial metal ion concentration all play a role in the removal of Cr (III) and Fe (II). The optimized break through curve was obtained at 36cm bed height and 10ml/min for chromium where 97.5 to 100% removal was observed at a saturation time of 500-600 min. With the increase in bed height from 12cm to 36cm, both the breakthrough and saturation times for Cr (III) increased. The break through time at 12cm, 24cm, 36cm and 10ml/min for Cr (III) were 70 min, 105 min, and 35 min respectively. The saturation time for Cr (III) at 12cm, 24cm, 36cm and 10ml/min were 460 min, 490 min, and 500 min respectively. Similarly, the break through time for Fe (II) at 12cm, 24cm, 36cm and 10ml/min were 70 min, 80 min, and 100 min respectively. At 12cm, 24cm, 36cm, and 10ml/min, the saturation time for Fe (III) was 340 minutes, 360 minutes, and 430 minutes, respectively. Overall in the column performance comparison between synthetic solution and industrial effluents for chromium, synthetic solution performance was more superior at fixed volumetric flow rates of 10 ml/min and bed heights ranging from 12 cm to 36 cm But the reverse trend was observed in case of fixed bed heights of 36 cm (150 g) and variation of volumetric flow rates from 10ml/min to 30ml/min which indicates that industrial effluent performance was superior when compared to synthetic solution for heavy metal removal.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ran An ◽  
Adrienne Minerick

The ability to generate stable, spatiotemporally controllable concentration gradients is critical for both electrokinetic and biological applications such as directional wetting and chemotaxis. Electrochemical techniques for generating solution and surface gradients display benefits such as simplicity, controllability, and compatibility with automation. Here, we present an exploratory study for generating micro-scale spatiotemporally controllable gradients using a reaction-free electrokinetic technique in a microfluidic environment. Methanol solutions with ionic Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) molecules were used as an illustrative electrolyte. Spatially non-uniform alternating current (AC) electric fields were applied using hafnium dioxide (HfO2) coated Ti/Au electrode pairs. Results from spatial and temporal analysis, along with control experiments suggest that the FITC ion concentration gradient in bulk fluid (over 50 µm from the electrode) was established due to spatial variation of electric field density, and was independent of electrochemical reactions at the electrode surface. The established ion concentration gradients depended on both amplitudes and the frequencies of the oscillating AC electric field. Overall, this work reports a novel approach for generating stable and spatiotemporally tunable gradients in a microfluidic chamber using a reaction-free electrochemical methodology.


2022 ◽  
Vol 79 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jianjun Shan ◽  
Xiaoqing Tian ◽  
Chongwu Guan ◽  
Chenglin Zhang ◽  
Yulei Zhang ◽  
...  

AbstractThe study aimed to evaluate the safety of copper ion sterilization based on copper ion residues in zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio), as well as bacterial community structure and diversity in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs). The copper ion content was determined using national food safety standard GB 5009.13-2017. Bacterial community structures and alpha and beta diversity indexes were examined using the 16S rRNA gene sequences produced by Illumina HiSeq sequencing. The results revealed no significant copper ion enrichment in B. rerio when the copper ion concentration was 0.15 mg/L. The relative abundances of Erythrobacter, nitrite bacteria, and Flavanobacteria were clearly higher in the treatment group than in the control and differences in bacterial species richness and diversity were obvious. In addition, there was no sharp decrease in the microflora at the outflow of the copper ion generator. In conjunction with the changes in ammonia nitrogen, nitrate, and nitrite concentrations during the experiment, the results indicated that there were no significant effects on the purification efficacy of the biological filter, but the abundances of beneficial bacteria increased significantly. This is of great relevance in order to understand the response of bacterial communities affected by changing environmental conditions, such as copper ion sterilization.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yangyang Yu ◽  
Jiajia Li ◽  
Zhixuan Yuan ◽  
Yongchen Fan ◽  
Ying Wu

Abstract Epilepsy is the second largest neurological disease which seriously threatens human life and health. The one important reason of inducing epilepsy is ischemic stroke which causes insufficient oxygen supply from blood vessels to neurons. However, few studies focus on the underlying mechanism of the generation and propagation of epilepsy after ischemic stroke by utilizing modeling methods. To explore the mechanism, this paper establishes a coupled network model consisting of neurons and astrocytes, and introduces a blood vessel to simulate the condition of ischemic stroke. First we study the effect of the degree of vascular blockage on the generation of epilepsy. The results demonstrate that the important reason of epilepsy after ischemic stroke is the disruption of ion concentration gradient. Then we study three factors that influence the epileptic propagation after ischemic stroke: massive glutamate release, excessive receptor activation and high extracellular potassium concentration. The results demonstrate that massive glutamate acting on postsynaptic neurons and the excessive activation of glutamate receptors on postsynaptic neurons promote the epileptic propagation in neuronal population, and massive glutamate acting on astrocytes and excessive activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors on presynaptic neurons inhibit the epileptic propagation, and the potassium uptake by astrocytes suppresses the epileptic propagation. The results are consistent with the experimental phenomena. The simulation results also shed light on the fact that astrocytes have neuroprotective effect. Our results on the generation and propagation of epilepsy after ischemic stroke could offer theoretical guidelines for the treatment of epilepsy after ischemic stroke.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wenye Xu ◽  
Yingzhi Liu ◽  
Xuan Zou ◽  
Huanle Luo ◽  
Weihua Wu ◽  
...  

Zinc ion as an enzyme cofactor exhibits antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity during infection, but circulating zinc ion level during Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate serum zinc ion level in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and healthy subjects, as well as its correlation with antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. 114 COVID-19 patients and 48 healthy subjects (38 healthy volunteers and 10 close contacts of patients with COVID-19) were included. Zinc ion concentration and levels of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 Spike 1 + Spike 2 proteins, nucleocapsid protein, and receptor-binding domain in serum were measured. Results showed that the concentration of zinc ion in serum from COVID-19 patients [median: 6.4 nmol/mL (IQR 1.5 – 12.0 nmol/mL)] were significantly lower than that from the healthy subjects [median: 15.0 nmol/mL (IQR 11.9 – 18.8 nmol/mL)] (p < 0.001) and the difference remained significant after age stratification (p < 0.001) or when the patients were at the recovery stage (p < 0.001). Furthermore, COVID-19 patients with more severe hypozincemia showed higher levels of IgG against the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Further studies to confirm the effect of zinc supplementation on improving the outcomes of COVID-19, including antibody response against SARS-CoV-2, are warranted.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ran An ◽  
Adrienne Minerick

The ability to generate stable, spatiotemporally controllable concentration gradients is critical for both electrokinetic and biological applications such as directional wetting and chemotaxis. Electrochemical techniques for generating solution and surface gradients display benefits such as simplicity, controllability, and compatibility with automation. Here, we present an exploratory study for generating micro-scale spatiotemporally controllable gradients using a reaction-free electrokinetic technique in a microfluidic environment. Methanol solutions with ionic Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) molecules were used as an illustrative electrolyte. Spatially non-uniform alternating current (AC) electric fields were applied using hafnium dioxide (HfO2) coated Ti/Au electrode pairs. Results from spatial and temporal analysis, along with control experiments suggest that the FITC ion concentration gradient in bulk fluid (over 50 µm from the electrode) was established due to spatial variation of electric field density, and was independent of electrochemical reactions at the electrode surface. The established ion concentration gradients depended on both amplitudes and the frequencies of the oscillating AC electric field. Overall, this work reports a novel approach for generating stable and spatiotemporally tunable gradients in a microfluidic chamber using a reaction-free electrochemical methodology.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Beatrise Berzina ◽  
Sungu Kim ◽  
Umesha Peramune ◽  
Kumar Saurabh ◽  
Baskar Ganapathysubramanian ◽  
...  

Ion concentration polarization (ICP) accomplishes preconcentration for bioanalysis by localized depletion of electrolyte ions, thereby generating a gradient in electric field strength that facilitates electrokinetic focusing of charged analytes by their electromigration against opposing fluid flow. Such ICP focusing has been shown to accomplish up to a million-fold enrichment of nucleic acids and proteins in single-stage preconcentrators. However, the rate at which the sample volume is swept is limited, requiring several hours to achieve these high enrichment factors. This limitation is caused by two factors. First, an ion depleted zone (IDZ) formed at a planar membrane or electrode may not extend across the full channel cross section under the flow rate employed for focusing, thereby allowing the analyte “leak” past the IDZ. Second, within the IDZ, large fluid vortices lead to mixing, which decreases the efficiency of analyte enrichment and worsens with increased channel dimensions. Here, we address these challenges with faradaic ICP (fICP) at a three-dimensional (3D) electrode comprising metallic microbeads. This 3D-electrode distributes the IDZ, and therefore, the electric field gradient utilized for counter-flow focusing across the full height of the fluidic channel, and its large area, microstructured surface supports smaller vortices. An additional bed of insulating microbeads restricts flow patterns and supplies a large area for surface conduction of ions through the IDZ. Finally, the resistance of this secondary bed enhances focusing by locally strengthening sequestering forces. This easy-to-build platform lays a foundation for the integration of enrichment with user-defined packed bed and electrode materials.


2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Md. Nabul Sardar ◽  
Nazia Rahman ◽  
Shahnaz Sultana ◽  
Nirmal Chandra Dafader

Abstract This study focuses on the adsorption of hazardous Cr (III) and Cu (II) ions from aqueous solution by applying modified waste polypropylene (PP) fabric as an adsorbent. Pre-irradiation technique was performed for grafting of sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) and acrylic acid (AAc) onto the PP fabric. The monomer containing 8% SSS and 16% AAc in water was used. Graft yield at 30 kGy radiation dose was 390% when 4% NaCl was added as additive. The prepared adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). The influences of different parameters including pH, contact time, temperature and initial metal ion concentration were also investigated. The equilibrium adsorption data were better fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity 384.62 mg/g for Cr (III) and 188.68 mg/g for Cu (II) ions. The kinetic data were better explained by pseudo first-order kinetic model having good matching between the experimental and theoretical adsorption capacity. The adsorption process was spontaneous, endothermic and thermodynamically feasible. Furthermore, investigation of desorption of metal ions and reuse of the adsorbent suggesting that the adsorbent is an efficient and alternative material in the removal of Cr (III) and Cu (II) from aqueous media.


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