herbarium specimens
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Phytotaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 531 (1) ◽  
pp. 73-77

Based on literature survey and observations on herbarium specimens and living plants in the wild, we demonstrate that Anemone pindariensis (Ranunculaceae), most recently described from the western Himalaya in India, is a teratological form of A. rivularis. We therefore place the former in synonymy with the latter herein.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Barnaby E. Walker ◽  
Allan Tucker ◽  
Nicky Nicolson

The mobilization of large-scale datasets of specimen images and metadata through herbarium digitization provide a rich environment for the application and development of machine learning techniques. However, limited access to computational resources and uneven progress in digitization, especially for small herbaria, still present barriers to the wide adoption of these new technologies. Using deep learning to extract representations of herbarium specimens useful for a wide variety of applications, so-called “representation learning,” could help remove these barriers. Despite its recent popularity for camera trap and natural world images, representation learning is not yet as popular for herbarium specimen images. We investigated the potential of representation learning with specimen images by building three neural networks using a publicly available dataset of over 2 million specimen images spanning multiple continents and institutions. We compared the extracted representations and tested their performance in application tasks relevant to research carried out with herbarium specimens. We found a triplet network, a type of neural network that learns distances between images, produced representations that transferred the best across all applications investigated. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to learn representations of specimen images useful in different applications, and we identify some further steps that we believe are necessary for representation learning to harness the rich information held in the worlds’ herbaria.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Natalia Gamova

Baikalsky State Nature Biosphere Reserve is situated in the central part of the Khamar-Daban Range (Southern Baikal, Siberia), in three administrative districts of Republic of Buryatia (i.e. Kabansky District, Dzhidinsky District and Selenginsky District), Russia. In general, this territory has been relatively well studied by botanists, but until now there was no detailed information about the flora of the Reserve with precise geographic localities. Moreover, some records in the Baikalsky Reserve's flora were published without references to documenting herbarium specimens. The dataset contains 39,238 unique occurrences of 875 taxa (854 species, 14 subspecies, five varieties and two species aggregates) from the Baikalsky Reserve and its buffer zone. All the data were acquired during the field studies by the author in 2009–2021, when 152 taxa (17.3% of all the taxa included into the dataset) were first recorded by the author from the study area. Herbarium vouchers are preserved in the Moscow University Herbarium (MW). This dataset is the first attempt at creating a database of vascular plants of the Baikalsky Reserve and its buffer zone, based on modern research. These data will provide the background for the updated check-list of the Baikalsky Reserve's flora.

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12614
George Gosline ◽  
Martin Cheek ◽  
Jean Michel Onana ◽  
Eric Ngansop Tchatchouang ◽  
Xander M. van der Burgt ◽  

Background The Ebo Forest area is a highly threatened centre of diversity in the Littoral Region of Cameroon, globally important for conservation with many threatened species including 68 threatened species of plant, yet not formally protected. The tropical African evergreen forest tree genus Uvariopsis Engl. & Diels (Annonaceae) is characterised by unisexual, usually cauliflorous flowers with a uniseriate corolla of four petals, and two sepals. Cameroon is the centre of diversity of the genus with 14 of the 19 known species. Methods The herbarium collection MacKinnon 51 from Ebo is hypothesized to represent a new species to science of Uvariopsis. This hypothesis is tested by the study of herbarium specimens from a number of herbaria known to hold important collections from Cameroon and surrounding countries. Results We test the hypothesis that MacKinnon 51 represents a new species to science, using the most recent dichotomous identification key, and comparing it morphologically with reference material of all known species of the genus. We make a detailed comparative morphological study focussing on three other Cameroonian species, Uvariopsis solheidii, U. korupensis and the sympatric U. submontana. In the context of a review of the pollination biology of Uvariopsis, we speculate that in a genus otherwise with species with dull, flesh-coloured (pink, red to brown) flowers pollinated (where known) by diptera, orthoptera and blattodea (flies, crickets and cockroaches), the glossy, pale yellow-green flowers of Uvariopsis dicaprio, with additional traits unique in the genus, may be pollinated by nocturnal moths. Based on MacKinnon 51, we formally name Uvariopsis dicaprio Cheek & Gosline (Annonaceae) as new to science, and we describe, and illustrate, and map it. Restricted so far to a single site in evergreen forest in the Ebo Forest, Littoral Region, Cameroon, Uvariopsis dicaprio is provisionally assessed as Critically Endangered using the IUCN, 2012 standard because the forest habitat of this species remains unprotected, and there exist imminent threats of logging and conversion to plantations. Discussion We show that the highest density of species of the genus (12), and of narrow endemics (5), is found in the Cross-Sanaga Interval of SE Nigeria and Western Cameroon. A revised key to the 14 Cameroonian species of Uvariopsis is presented. We review the other seven narrowly endemic and threatened species unique to the Ebo forest of Cameroon and discuss the phytogeographic affinities of the area. Conclusions Uvariopsis dicaprio adds to the growing list of species threatened with extinction at Ebo Forest due to current anthropogenic pressures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Mikhail Kozhin ◽  
Alexander Sennikov

The non-native vascular plants of Murmansk Region (European Russia) are under active investigation towards the compilation of the first complete checklist. This work is part of the project 'Flora of Russian Lapland', which ultimately aims at the complete inventory of the taxonomy, distribution and status of vascular plant species in Murmansk Region, based on the comprehensive database of herbarium specimens, field observations and literature. New territory-level records of non-native vascular plants emerged during our inventory of herbarium collections and recent fieldwork. Fourteen species (Anthemis ruthenica, Aruncus dioicus, Bromus commutatus, Chaerophyllum hirsutum, Galega orientalis, Geum aleppicum, Leonurus quinquelobatus, Lepidium densiflorum, Levisticum officinale, Myrrhis odorata, Phleum phleoides, Prunus armeniaca, Rorippa sylvestris, Senecio vernalis) are reported as new to Murmansk Region. The historical occurrences of alien plants appeared in the territory largely as contaminants (of seed or forage). In particular, Rorippa sylvestris and Senecio vernalis arrived with the forage imported during the Second World War. All recent occurrences originated by escape from confinement (ornamental purposes, horticulture, agriculture), reflecting a high diversity of the modern assortment of cultivated plants in commerce and private gardens. Regarding the invasion status, five alien species are considered casual and eight species are treated as locally established or persisting (for uncertain time). Only one species, Galega orientalis, is considered naturalised and capable of further spreading in the territory, although without invasive potential.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 73
Rizki Rizki ◽  
Chairunnisak Chairunnisak ◽  
Rina Alfina ◽  
Olivia Darlis ◽  
Rasdanelwati Rasdanelwati

Harau is one of the areas with a wealth of flora and has not been fully explored, especially for medicinal plants. This research was carried out in July-September 2020 in Harau, Lima Puluh Kota District, using an exploratory survey by observing the research location. Samples of species in the Asteraceae family were taken  as data,  photos were tken, and samples of plants as herbarium specimens were taken as identification material. Furthermore, a literature review was carried out on this Asteraceae family plant which could  be used as medicinal ingredients. Data analysis was done descriptively. The data obtained was presented in tabular form. Identification of plants of the Asteraceae family found in Harau and species of this family that had the potential for treatment were identified using the identification guide literature. Based on the research conducted, it was found that 28 species in the Harau, Lima Puluh Kota District, with habitus terna, sufrutex, frutex, and liana. The Asteraceae family consisted of only one genus, except for Eupatorium which had three species, and Bidens which had two species.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 27-30
Aravindhan V ◽  
Rajendran A

An assessment has been made to identify the rare, endemic and threatened species in the Velliangiri hills of Southern Western Ghats, India. During field explorations, two rare species of terrestrial saprophytic orchids were collected. On critical appraisal and authentication of herbarium specimens, they were identified as Aphyllorchis montana Rchb. f. and Epipogium roseum (D. Don) Lindl. The present paper deals with their correct taxonomic identity, distribution and ecological status.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 436-440
Md. Shahriar Kobir ◽  
Suchana Paul ◽  
Pradip Hajong ◽  
Md. Harun-Or-Rashid ◽  
Md. Hafijur Rahman

Pulses are important field crops in Bangladesh and weed infestation in pulses field is a great concern now a days. So, a rigorous field survey was conducted throughout the pulses growing season at pulses grower farmers’ field of south-western part of Bangladesh to know the present status of weed infestation in pulses field. During the survey, fresh samples were collected along with other related information e.g., habitat, location, collection date, flowering time, crop/plant association. Fresh samples were dried well for making herbarium specimens. A sum of 13 weed species under 12 genera and 08 families were collected and documented their uses in various ailments. Among the families, Amaranthaceae is the highest-represented family with 03 species. Among the genera, the largest genera Amaranthus represented by 2 species. Cyperous rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus spinosus, Croton bonplandianum, Coccinia grandis are the common and major weed species in pulse crop growing field in south-western part of Bangladesh. The knowledge generated from the present research would be helpful for the management practices of pulse crop associated weeds as well as for getting high economic benefits from beneficial species.

2021 ◽  
Vol 46 (4) ◽  
pp. 1107-1113
James B. Beck ◽  
Morgan L. Markley ◽  
Mackenzie G. Zielke ◽  
Justin R. Thomas ◽  
Haley J. Hale ◽  

Abstract— The genus Solidago represents a taxonomically challenging group due to its sheer number of species, putative hybridization, polyploidy, and shallow genetic divergence among species. Here we use a dataset obtained exclusively from herbarium specimens to evaluate the status of Solidago ulmifolia var. palmeri, a morphologically subtle taxon potentially confined to Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Missouri. A multivariate analysis of both discrete and continuous morphological data revealed no clear distinction between S. ulmifolia var. palmeri and Solidago ulmifolia var. ulmifolia. Solidago ulmifolia var. palmeri’s status was also assessed with a phylogenomic and SNP clustering analysis of data generated with the “Angiosperms353” probe kit. Neither analysis supported Solidago ulmifolia var. palmeri as a distinct taxon, and we suggest that this name should be discarded. The status of Solidago delicatula (formerly known as Solidago ulmifolia var. microphylla) was also assessed. Both morphological and phylogenetic analyses supported the species status of S. delicatula and we suggest maintaining this species at its current rank. These results highlight the utility of the Angiosperms353 probe kit, both with herbarium tissue and at lower taxonomic levels. Indeed, this is the first study to utilize this kit to identify genetic groups within a species.

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