cancer metastasis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 696-699
Naveed Majd ◽  
Michael Simon ◽  
Raquel Wagman ◽  
Lyle Gesner

Jingjing Zhang ◽  
Yun Li ◽  
Hua Liu ◽  
Jiahui Zhang ◽  
Jie Wang ◽  

Abstract Background The development of lethal cancer metastasis depends on the dynamic interactions between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment, both of which are embedded in the extracellular matrix (ECM). The acquisition of resistance to detachment-induced apoptosis, also known as anoikis, is a critical step in the metastatic cascade. Thus, a more in-depth and systematic analysis is needed to identify the key drivers of anoikis resistance. Methods Genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screen was used to identify critical drivers of anoikis resistance using SKOV3 cell line and found protein-L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (PCMT1) as a candidate. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immune-histochemistry (IHC) were used to measure differentially expressed PCMT1 in primary tissues and metastatic cancer tissues. PCMT1 knockdown/knockout and overexpression were performed to investigate the functional role of PCMT1 in vitro and in vivo. The expression and regulation of PCMT1 and integrin-FAK-Src pathway were evaluated using immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry (IP-MS), western blot analysis and live cell imaging. Results We found that PCMT1 enhanced cell migration, adhesion, and spheroid formation in vitro. Interestingly, PCMT1 was released from ovarian cancer cells, and interacted with the ECM protein LAMB3, which binds to integrin and activates FAK-Src signaling to promote cancer progression. Strikingly, treatment with an antibody against extracellular PCMT1 effectively reduced ovarian cancer cell invasion and adhesion. Our in vivo results indicated that overexpression of PCMT1 led to increased ascites formation and distant metastasis, whereas knockout of PCMT1 had the opposite effect. Importantly, PCMT1 was highly expressed in late-stage metastatic tumors compared to early-stage primary tumors. Conclusions Through systematically identifying the drivers of anoikis resistance, we uncovered the contribution of PCMT1 to focal adhesion (FA) dynamics as well as cancer metastasis. Our study suggested that PCMT1 has the potential to be a therapeutic target in metastatic ovarian cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 944
Thanh Truong Giang Ly ◽  
Jisoo Yun ◽  
Jong-Seong Ha ◽  
Yeon-Ju Kim ◽  
Woong-Bi Jang ◽  

Anterior gradient protein 2 homolog (AGR2), an endoplasmic reticulum protein, is secreted in the tumor microenvironment. AGR2 is a member of the disulfide isomerase family, is highly expressed in multiple cancers, and promotes cancer metastasis. In this study, we found that etravirine, which is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, could induce AGR2 degradation via autophagy. Moreover, etravirine diminished proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. Moreover, in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model, the combination of etravirine and paclitaxel significantly suppressed cancer progression and metastasis. This drug may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Roberto Fedrigo ◽  
Dan J. Kadrmas ◽  
Patricia E. Edem ◽  
Lauren Fougner ◽  
Ivan S. Klyuzhin ◽  

Abstract Background Positron emission tomography (PET) with prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have shown superior performance in detecting metastatic prostate cancers. Relative to [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) PET images, PSMA PET images tend to visualize significantly higher-contrast focal lesions. We aim to evaluate segmentation and reconstruction algorithms in this emerging context. Specifically, Bayesian or maximum a posteriori (MAP) image reconstruction, compared to standard ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction, has received significant interest for its potential to reach convergence with minimal noise amplifications. However, few phantom studies have evaluated the quantitative accuracy of such reconstructions for high contrast, small lesions (sub-10 mm) that are typically observed in PSMA images. In this study, we cast 3 mm–16-mm spheres using epoxy resin infused with a long half-life positron emitter (sodium-22; 22Na) to simulate prostate cancer metastasis. The anthropomorphic Probe-IQ phantom, which features a liver, bladder, lungs, and ureters, was used to model relevant anatomy. Dynamic PET acquisitions were acquired and images were reconstructed with OSEM (varying subsets and iterations) and BSREM (varying β parameters), and the effects on lesion quantitation were evaluated. Results The 22Na lesions were scanned against an aqueous solution containing fluorine-18 (18F) as the background. Regions-of-interest were drawn with MIM Software using 40% fixed threshold (40% FT) and a gradient segmentation algorithm (MIM’s PET Edge+). Recovery coefficients (RCs) (max, mean, peak, and newly defined “apex”), metabolic tumour volume (MTV), and total tumour uptake (TTU) were calculated for each sphere. SUVpeak and SUVapex had the most consistent RCs for different lesion-to-background ratios and reconstruction parameters. The gradient-based segmentation algorithm was more accurate than 40% FT for determining MTV and TTU, particularly for lesions $$\le$$ ≤  6 mm in diameter (R2 = 0.979–0.996 vs. R2 = 0.115–0.527, respectively). Conclusion An anthropomorphic phantom was used to evaluate quantitation for PSMA PET imaging of metastatic prostate cancer lesions. BSREM with β = 200–400 and OSEM with 2–5 iterations resulted in the most accurate and robust measurements of SUVmean, MTV, and TTU for imaging conditions in 18F-PSMA PET/CT images. SUVapex, a hybrid metric of SUVmax and SUVpeak, was proposed for robust, accurate, and segmentation-free quantitation of lesions for PSMA PET.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 294
Annibale Alessandro Puca ◽  
Valentina Lopardo ◽  
Francesco Montella ◽  
Paola Di Pietro ◽  
Daniela Cesselli ◽  

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain cancer with the median age at diagnosis around 64 years, thus pointing to aging as an important risk factor. Indeed, aging, by increasing the senescence burden, is configured as a negative prognostic factor for GBM stage. Furthermore, several anti-GBM therapies exist, such as temozolomide (TMZ) and etoposide (ETP), that unfortunately trigger senescence and the secretion of proinflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors that are responsible for the improper burst of (i) tumorigenesis, (ii) cancer metastasis, (iii) immunosuppression, and (iv) tissue dysfunction. Thus, adjuvant therapies that limit senescence are urgently needed. The longevity-associated variant (LAV) of the bactericidal/permeability-increasing fold-containing family B member 4 (BPIFB4) gene previously demonstrated a modulatory activity in restoring age-related immune dysfunction and in balancing the low-grade inflammatory status of elderly people. Based on the above findings, we tested LAV-BPIFB4 senotherapeutic effects on senescent glioblastoma U87-MG cells and on T cells from GBM patients. We interrogated SA-β-gal and HLA-E senescence markers, SASP factors, and proliferation and apoptosis assays. The results highlighted a LAV-BPIFB4 remodeling of the senescent phenotype of GBM cells, enhancement of their sensitivity to temozolomide and a selective reduction of the T cells’ senescence from GBM patients. Overall, these findings candidate LAV-BPIFB4 as an adjuvant therapy for GBM.

Chemotherapy ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Cheng Yang ◽  
Na Xie ◽  
Zhifei Luo ◽  
Xiling Ruan ◽  
Yixin Zhang ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> We investigated the function of cell division cycle 6 (CDC6) on the prognosis in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). <b><i>Methods:</i></b> CDC6 protein expression levels in 121 patients with colorectal cancer and adjacent normal mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Compared to adjacent normal tissues, CDC6 mRNA level was overexpressed in CRC tissues. Moreover, CDC6 protein levels were expressed up to 93.39% (113/121) in CRC tissues in the cell nucleus or cytoplasm. However, there were only 5.79% (7/121) in normal mucosal tissues with nuclear expression. CDC6 expression was significantly correlated with TNM stage and tumor metastasis. The 5-year survival rate was lower in the high CDC6 expression group than the low group. After silencing of CDC6 expression in SW620 cells, cell proliferation was slowed, the tumor clones were decreased, and the cell cycle was arrested in G1 phase. In multivariate analysis, increased CDC6 protein expression levels in colon cancer tissues were associated with cancer metastasis, TNM stage, and patient survival time. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> CDC6 is highly expressed in CRC, and downregulation of CDC6 can slow the growth of CRC cells in vitro. It is also an independent predictor for poor prognosis and may be a useful biomarker for targeted therapy and prognostic evaluation.

2022 ◽  
Zhao Huang ◽  
Li Zhou ◽  
Jiufei Duan ◽  
Siyuan Qin ◽  
Yu Wang ◽  

Abstract Loss of E-cadherin (ECAD), often caused by epigenetic inactivation, is closely associated with tumor metastasis. However, how ECAD is regulated in response to oxidative stress during tumorigenesis is largely unknown. Here we identify RNF25 as a new E3 ligase of ECAD, whose activation by oxidative stress leads to ECAD protein degradation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Loss of ECAD activates YAP, which in turn promotes the transcription of RNF25, thus forming a positive feedback loop to sustain the ECAD downregulation. YAP activation mitigates oxidative stress in detached HCC cells by upregulating antioxidant genes, protecting detached HCC cells from ferroptosis, resulting in anoikis resistance. Mechanistically, we found that protein kinase A (PKA) senses oxidative stress by redox modification in its β catalytic subunit (PRKACB) at Cys200 and Cys344, which increases its kinase activity towards RNF25 phosphorylation at Ser450, facilitating RNF25-mediated degradation of ECAD. Moreover, RNF25 expression is associated with HCC metastasis and depletion of RNF25 is sufficient to diminish HCC invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Together, these results identify a dual role of RNF25 as a critical regulator of ECAD protein turnover, promoting both anoikis resistance and metastasis, and PKA is a necessary redox sensor to enable this process. Our study provides mechanistic insight into how tumor cells sense oxidative stress signals to spread while escaping cell death.

2022 ◽  
Kevin Tabury ◽  
Mehri Monavarian ◽  
Eduardo Listik ◽  
Abigail K Shelton ◽  
Alex Seok Choi ◽  

Metastatic growth of ovarian cancer cells into the peritoneal cavity requires adaptation to various cellular stress factors to facilitate cell survival and growth. Here we demonstrate the role of PVT1, one such stress induced long non-coding RNA, in ovarian cancer growth and metastasis. PVT1 is an amplified and overexpressed lncRNA in ovarian cancer with strong predictive value for survival and response to targeted therapeutics. We find that expression of PVT1 is regulated by ovarian tumor cells in response to cellular stress, particularly loss of cell-cell contacts and changes in matrix rigidity occurring in a YAP1 dependent manner. Induction of PVT1 promotes tumor cell survival, growth, and migration. Conversely, reducing PVT1 levels robustly abrogates metastatic behavior and tumor cell dissemination in cell lines and syngeneic transplantation models in vivo. We find that reducing PVT1 causes widespread transcriptome changes leading to alterations in cellular stress response and metabolic pathways including doxorubicin metabolism, which directly impacts chemosensitivity. Together, these findings implicate PVT1 as a promising therapeutic target to suppress metastasis and avoid chemoresistance in ovarian cancer.

Chenguang Yao ◽  
Jun Weng ◽  
Lingyun Feng ◽  
Wanjun Zhang ◽  
Yan Xu ◽  

Increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis is characteristic of most cancer cells, whereas the mechanism underlying the promotion of aerobic glycolysis in metastatic breast cancer cells under ambient oxygen has not been well understood. Here, we demonstrated that aberrant expression of signal-induced proliferation-associated 1 (SIPA1) enhanced aerobic glycolysis and altered the main source of ATP production from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis in breast cancer cells. We revealed that SIPA1 promoted the transcription of EPAS1, which is known as the gene encoding hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) and up-regulated the expression of multiple glycolysis-related genes to increase aerobic glycolysis. We also found that blocking aerobic glycolysis by either knocking down SIPA1 expression or oxamate treatment led to the suppression of tumor metastasis of breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, aberrant expression of SIPA1 resulted in the alteration of glucose metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis even at ambient oxygen levels, which might aggravate the malignancy of breast cancer cells. The present findings indicate a potential target for the development of therapeutics against breast cancers with dysregulated SIPA1 expression.

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