temporomandibular joints
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-11
Oumaima Laghzali ◽  
Gargi Shankar Nayak ◽  
Flavien Mouillard ◽  
Patrick Masson ◽  
Geneviève Pourroy ◽  

A cranio-maxillofacial region contains several bones and serves to protect and support the area, from the brain to the masticatory system. In this paper the clinical and research aspects of craniomaxillofacial biomaterials have been highlighted to serve as a guide into the wide world of their reconstructions. After a quick look into the anatomy, the review focuses on the causes of large bone defects in this region, and how they influence the designing process of the implant. Since it is a large area to unfold, only the maxillary, the mandible and the temporomandibular joints are highlighted. Understanding the biomechanics of mandible and temporomandibular joints is quite important, as it strongly influences the choice of the biomaterial. Thus, the latest techniques implemented to understand the biomechanics of the mandible are also highlighted. Via the finite element analysis, a simulation can help to identify the forces and the movements of the mandible and to predict the possible outcome of the implantation influencing the choice of the biomaterial.

2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 203-229
Dania Tamimi ◽  
Michael Gunson

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 428
Krzysztof Dowgierd ◽  
Rafał Pokrowiecki ◽  
Małgorzata Kulesa Kulesa Mrowiecka ◽  
Martyna Dowgierd ◽  
Jan Woś ◽  

Treatment of temporomandibular ankylosis is challenging and frequently leads to re-ankylosis, relapse, dangerous complications and, in turn, the need for multiple operations. In this article, we present a protocol for the treatment of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joints that assumes earlier intervention with the assistance of 3D virtual surgical planning (3DVSP) and custom biomaterials for better and safer surgical outcomes. Thirty-three patients were treated due to either uni- or bilateral temporomandibular ankylosis. Twenty individuals received temporomandibular prosthesis, whereas seventeen required simultaneous 3D virtual surgical/planned orthognathic surgery as the final correction of the malocclusion. All patients exhibited statistically significant improvements in mouth opening (from 1.21 ± 0.74 cm to 3.77 ± 0.46 cm) and increased physiological functioning of the mandible. Gap arthroplasty and aggressive rehabilitation prior to temporomandibular prosthesis (TMJP) placement were preferred over costochondral autografts. The use of 3DVSP and custom biomaterials enables more precise, efficient and safe procedures to be performed in the paediatric and adolescent population requiring treatment for temporomandibular ankylosis.

FACE ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 273250162110696
Walter H. Wilson ◽  
Peter D. Waite ◽  
Zeyad Alrajhi ◽  
Kathlyn Powell ◽  
Randy Q. Cron ◽  

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatologic disease of childhood and frequently affects the temporomandibular joints (TMJ). JIA TMJ management requires a team approach. Initially, TMJ JIA involvement is managed with systemic therapy or intra-articular medications to treat symptoms and limit the growth deformity, however may later require surgical intervention. This case series describes 4 patients with different presentations and treatments of juvenile idiopathic arthritis affecting the temporomandibular joints to illustrate a proposed treatment algorithm. This algorithm is not designed to be an absolute treatment regimen but a framework to help clarify the presenting problems and interventions that may be considered to treat JIA associated temporomandibular dysfunction and dentofacial deformity. This case series represents the variety of JIA temporomandibular joint disease and offers a graduated appropriate treatment algorithm.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kohei Nagai ◽  
Takenobu Ishii ◽  
Tatsukuni Ohno ◽  
Yasushi Nishii

Recently, it has been reported that γδ T cells are associated with the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, there are many uncertainties about their relationship. In this study, we investigated the morphological and histological properties of peripheral as well as temporomandibular joints (TMJ) in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis with and without exposure to mechanical strain on the TMJ. Collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) was induced by administering collagen type II antibody and lipopolysaccharide to male DBA/1JNCrlj mice at 9−12 weeks of age, and mechanical stress (MS) was applied to the mandibular condyle. After 14 days, 3D morphological evaluation by micro-CT, histological staining (Hematoxylin Eosin, Safranin O, and Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase staining), and immunohistochemical staining (ADAMTS-5 antibody, CD3 antibody, CD45 antibody, RORγt antibody, γδ T cell receptor antibody) were performed. The lower jawbone was collected. The mandibular condyle showed a rough change in the surface of the mandibular condyle based on three-dimensional analysis by micro-CT imaging. Histological examination revealed bone and cartilage destruction, such as a decrease in chondrocyte layer width and an increase in the number of osteoclasts in the mandibular condyle. Then, immune-histological staining revealed accumulation of T and γδ T cells in the subchondral bone. The temporomandibular joint is less sensitive to the onset of RA, but it has been suggested that it is exacerbated by mechanical stimulation. Additionally, the involvement of γδ T cells was suggested as the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 14
Grzegorz Zieliński ◽  
Zuzanna Filipiak ◽  
Michał Ginszt ◽  
Anna Matysik-Woźniak ◽  
Robert Rejdak ◽  

The stomatognathic system is a functional complex of tissues and organs located within the oral and craniofacial cavities. The craniofacial anatomical factors and the biomechanics of the temporomandibular joints affect many systems throughout the body, including the organ of vision. However, few scientific reports have shown a relationship between the organ of vision and the stomatognathic system. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of connections along neural, muscle-fascial, and biochemical pathways between the organ of vision and the stomatognathic system. Based on the literature presented in this review, the connections between the organ of vision and the stomatognathic system seem undeniable. Understanding the anatomical, physiological, and biochemical interrelationships may allow to explain the interactions between the mentioned systems. According to the current knowledge, it is not possible to indicate the main linking pathway; presumably, it may be a combination of several presented pathways. The awareness of this relationship among dentists, ophthalmologists, physiotherapists, and optometrists should increase for the better diagnosis and treatment of patients.

Mohammad Samiei ◽  
Mahdieh Alipour ◽  
Khadijeh Khezri ◽  
Yalda Rahbar Saadat ◽  
Haleh Forouhandeh ◽  

: Collagen is an important macromolecule of extracellular matrix (ECM) in bones, teeth, and temporomandibular joints. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) interact with the components of the ECM such as collagen, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and several proteins on behalf of variable matrix elasticity and bioactive cues. Synthetic collagen-based biomaterials could be effective scaffolds for regenerative dentistry applications due to mimicking of host tissues’ ECM. These biomaterials are biocompatible, biodegradable, readily available, and non-toxic to cells whose capability promotes cellular response and wound healing in the craniofacial region. Collagen could incorporate other biomolecules to induce mineralization in calcified tissues such as bone and tooth. Moreover, the addition of these molecules or other polymers to collagen-based biomaterials could enhance mechanical properties, which is important in load-bearing areas such as the mandible. A literature review was performed via reliable internet database (mainly PubMed) based on MeSH keywords. This review first describes the properties of collagen as a key protein in the structure of hard tissues. Then, it introduces different types of collagens, the correlation between collagen and MSCs, and the methods used to modify collagen in regenerative dentistry including recent progression on the regeneration of periodontium, dentin-pulp complex, and temporomandibular joint by applying collagen. Besides, the prospects and challenges of collagen-based biomaterials in the craniofacial region pointes out.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yuejiao Zhang ◽  
Xiaojie Xu ◽  
Peng Zhou ◽  
Qian Liu ◽  
Mian Zhang ◽  

Temporomandibular joints (TMJs) have a biomechanical relationship with dental occlusion. Aberrant occlusion initiates degenerative remodeling responses in TMJ condyles. Aging is a promoting factor of osteoarthritis (OA) development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of aging on degenerative remodeling in TMJ condyles in response to occlusal biomechanical stimulation caused by the installation of aberrant prostheses and observe rehabilitation after their removal. The experiments involved 84 female C57BL/6J mice (42 at 6 weeks old and 42 at 28 weeks old). A bilateral anterior crossbite (BAC) model was developed, and the TMJs were sampled at 3, 7, and 11 weeks. BAC was removed at 7 weeks in a subset of mice, which accepted BAC treatment at 6 week of age, and maintained for another 4 weeks after BAC removal. TMJ changes were assessed with micro-CT, histomorphology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and immunofluorescence staining assays. The results showed that BAC induced typical OA-like TMJ lesions that were more severe in the elder groups as evaluated by the acellular zones, clustered chondrocytes, fissures between cartilage and subchondral bone, reductions in matrix amount and the cartilage thickness as revealed by histomorphological measurements, and subchondral bone loss as detected on micro-CT images. IHC indicated significant increases in cleaved caspase-3-expressing cells and decreases in ki67-positive cells in the BAC groups. There were obvious age-dependent changes in the numbers of superficial zone cells and CD90-expressing cells. Supportively, cleaved caspase-3-expressing cells obviously increased, while ki67-expressing cells significantly decreased with aging. In the elder BAC groups, the superficial zone cells such as CD90-expressing cells were greatly reduced. At 11 weeks, the superficial zone cells were almost non-existent, and there were clear serrated injuries on the cartilage surface. BAC removal attenuated the degenerative changes in the condylar cartilage and subchondral bone. Notably, the rescue effect was more pronounced in the younger animals. Our findings demonstrate the impacts of aging on both TMJ degenerative changes in response to BAC and regenerative changes following BAC removal. The reduced number of chondro-progenitor cells in aged TMJ cartilage provides an explanation for this age-related decline in TMJ rehabilitative behaviors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Ingrid Różyło-Kalinowska

AbstractPanoramic radiography is an extraoral radiography modality that provides two-dimensional information about the teeth and the maxillofacial skeleton. It is a valuable adjunct for diagnosis and treatment planning as it facilitates one-time imaging of all teeth, the mandible, parts of maxilla including a large part of the maxillary sinus, hard palate and temporomandibular joints (TMJs). As a tomographic image is prone to errors and artefacts, a good quality radiograph in most patients can be achieved by following the standard rules and through proper patient positioning. In this article, we will discuss indications for panoramic radiography imaging, steps in taking the radiograph, as well as limitations, pitfalls and complications of the procedure. Tomographic imaging of temporomandibular joint is also discussed.

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