structural equation models
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 9-21
Ramalho et al. ◽  

Entrepreneurship is the engine of a nation's economic, cultural, and social development. Since Higher Education Institutions play a crucial role, it is important to analyze the academy's entrepreneurial education effectiveness in promoting entrepreneurial intention amongst students. This study aims to analyze the effect of the education agenda of a Higher Education Institution on the students’ entrepreneurial intention, exploring the effect of self-efficacy as a mediator. A quantitative, cross-sectional, and non-experimental study was performed. A sample of 176 Portuguese higher education students fulfilled the “Entrepreneurial Motivations Survey,” which includes the HEInnovate Self-Assessment Scale, the Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Entrepreneurial Intention Scale. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), AMOS, and PROCESS software. Through structural equation models, it was created a mediation model to assess the impact of the University education agenda on the entrepreneurial intention of the students. All scales showed adequate validity and reliability. The Faculty was not perceived as an entrepreneurial academy by the students. The results did not show a direct effect of the entrepreneurial education agenda on the students’ entrepreneurial intention. The effects emerged through self-efficacy, which plays a mediating effect between entrepreneurial education agenda on the students’ entrepreneurial intention. The entrepreneurship agenda didn’t directly influence the entrepreneurial intention. It is mandatory to offer a rich agenda in order to improve the students’ entrepreneurial competencies, preparing them to strive in the competitive market, in which self-efficacy plays an important role.

YMER Digital ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (01) ◽  
pp. 226-240
Sasmita Pattnaik ◽  
Uma Sankar Mishra ◽  

Service providers in Indian telecommunication industry are now facing lots of challenges for their sustainability in tough competition because of varying wants of customers. Provision of quality service, initiatives of public relationship programmes, and generation of timely customer satisfaction are now of major concerns. In addition to these, positioning a proper brand image in customers’ mindset is equally important. The present study investigates all these factors of service business concerns to know the key determinants of achieving appropriate customer loyalty. Around 214 numbers of cell phone users were surveyed through a structured tested questionnaire in the state of Odisha, India and then all collected responses were analyzed through structural equation models. Study results showed that perception on public relation moderated by brand image has no role in creating customer loyalty. Again, after introduction of brand image as moderator, the impact of service quality on customer satisfaction becomes insignificant. However, customer satisfaction plays a major role in the variation of customer loyalty.

2022 ◽  
pp. 089976402110574
Pamala Wiepking ◽  
Christopher J. Einolf ◽  
Yongzheng Yang

There has been a steady increase in research studying the role of gender in prosocial behavior, such as charitable giving and volunteering. We provide an extensive review of the interdisciplinary literature and derive hypotheses about three different pathways that lead men and women to differ in their display of giving and volunteering: pathways through social capital, motivations, and resources. We test these hypotheses across 19 countries by analyzing 28,410 individuals, using generalized structural equation models. Our results support previous research, conducted in single countries, that there are distinct different pathways that lead men and women to engage in giving and volunteering: Women report stronger motivations to help others, but men report more of the financial resources that make giving and volunteering possible. The gendered pathways to giving and volunteering that lead through social capital, educational achievement, and financial security vary by country.

Assessment ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 107319112110696
Geetanjali Basarkod ◽  
Herbert W. Marsh ◽  
Baljinder K. Sahdra ◽  
Philip D. Parker ◽  
Jiesi Guo ◽  

For results from large-scale surveys to inform policy and practice appropriately, all participants must interpret and respond to items similarly. While organizers of surveys assessing student outcomes often ensure this for achievement measures, doing so for psychological questionnaires is also critical. We demonstrate this by examining the dimensionality of reading self-concept—a crucial psychological construct for several outcomes—across reading achievement levels. We use Programme for International Student Assessment 2018 data ( N = 529,966) and local structural equation models (LSEMs) to do so. Results reveal that reading self-concept dimensions (assessed through reading competence and difficulty) vary across reading achievement levels. Students with low reading achievement show differentiated responses to the two item sets (high competence–high difficulty). In contrast, students with high reading achievement have reconciled responses (high competence–low difficulty). Our results highlight the value of LSEMs in examining factor structure generalizability of constructs in large-scale surveys and call for greater cognitive testing during item development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Alun D. Hughes ◽  
Sophie V. Eastwood ◽  
Therese Tillin ◽  
Nish Chaturvedi

Objectives:We characterised differences in BP control and use of antihypertensive medications in European (EA), South Asian (SA) and African-Caribbean (AC) people with hypertension and investigated the potential role of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), reduced arterial compliance (Ca), and antihypertensive medication use in any differences.Methods:Analysis was restricted to individuals with hypertension [age range 59–85 years; N = 852 (EA = 328, SA = 356, and AC =168)]. Questionnaires, anthropometry, BP measurements, echocardiography, and fasting blood assays were performed. BP control was classified according to UK guidelines operating at the time of the study. Data were analysed using generalised structural equation models, multivariable regression and treatment effect models.Results:SA and AC people were more likely to receive treatment for high BP and received a greater average number of antihypertensive agents, but despite this a smaller proportion of SA and AC achieved control of BP to target [age and sex adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 0.52 (0.38, 0.72) and 0.64 (0.43, 0.96), respectively]. Differences in BP control were partially attenuated by controlling for the higher prevalence of T2DM and reduced Ca in SA and AC. There was little difference in choice of antihypertensive agent by ethnicity and no evidence that differences in efficacy of antihypertensive regimens contributed to ethnic differences in BP control.Conclusions:T2DM and more adverse arterial stiffness are important factors in the poorer BP control in SA and AC people. More effort is required to achieve better control of BP, particularly in UK ethnic minorities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 944
Junze Zhu ◽  
Hongzhi Guan ◽  
Hai Yan ◽  
Hongfei Wang

To investigate citizens’ participation behavior in the lottery under the influence of the license plate lottery policy (LPLP) and to guide them to participate in the lottery rationally, this paper, based on social psychology and combined with the theory of planned behavior, divides citizens into citizens with cars in their households and citizens without cars in their households. This study then separately constructs structural equation models, sets perceived car necessity (PCN), perceived behavioral control (PBC), attitude toward car ownership (ATT), and subjective norms (SN), respectively. These four psychological latent variables were used to analyze the participation behavior of different categories of citizens in the car lottery from the perspective of psychological factors. Our empirical study found that there are significant differences in age and the number of people living together. The mechanism of their intention to participate in the car lottery and the psychological factors are different. The psychological factors affecting the intention of people with a car and people without a car to participate in the car lottery are SN > ATT > PCN > PBC and ATT > SN > PBC, respectively. Our research results can help to identify the internal factors and mechanisms that influence citizens’ intention to participate in the car lottery and help government administrators to optimize the LPLP.

Øystein Moen ◽  
Mohammad Falahat ◽  
Yan-Yin Lee

AbstractThis study investigates and compares born global (BG) firms and non-BG firms in Malaysia. We employed the multigroup analysis technique with structural equation models to test six hypotheses to determine the differences and similarities between two proposed models of BG and non-BG firms across a wide range of industries. The study reveals differences between the antecedents of marketing capabilities for BGs versus non-BGs, indicating that the performance enabling mechanisms differ between the groups. More precisely, the ability of BG firms to convert digital and entrepreneurial orientations into marketing capabilities is found to be a distinguishing characteristic of these firms. Moreover, non-BGs utilize government support to build marketing capabilities and obtain superior performance in the international market. This result suggests that governmental export promotion initiatives in Malaysia should be adjusted to increase relevance for BGs. The findings indicate that marketing capabilities play an essential role in the international market performance of both BGs and non-BGs. An important implication is that managerial focus and actions need to be adjusted depending on the type of firm. The two types of firms are not equal; if they are managed similarly, misjudgment will arise.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Markus Vogelbacher ◽  
Manja Attig

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed many challenges, especially for families. Both the public and the scientific community are currently discussing the extent to which school closings have worsened existing social differences, especially with regard to children’s academic and socio-emotional development. At the same time, parents have had to manage childcare and home schooling alongside their jobs and personal burdens posed by the pandemic. Parents’ possibilities for meeting these cognitive and emotional challenges might also depend on the different conditions in families. For this reason, the present paper investigates the structural and process characteristics of the family as well as children’s and parents’ psychological characteristics that predict how parents assess their ability to support their child’s learning during homeschooling as well as parents’ perceived emotional stress caused by school closure. The study analyses data of the Newborn Cohort Study of the German National Educational Panel Study. The two dependent variables (self-assessment of abilities, perceived stress) were measured during the COVID-19 pandemic after the first school closure in Germany, at a time when the children of this cohort were attending second grade. Besides a number of control variables (including the child’s struggle with home schooling), families’ structural characteristics [socioeconomic status (SES), education], process characteristics (home learning environment, HLE), parents’ psychological characteristics (preceding psychological stress), and the child’s psychological characteristics (self-regulation, school-related independence) from earlier waves were included as predictors. The results of structural equation models show that perceived stress was associated with structural factors and the preceding psychological stress of parents. Parents with higher preceding stress reported higher perceived stress. Interestingly, higher-educated parents also reported more stress than lower educated parents during the pandemic. The effect was the other way around for SES – parents with lower SES reported more stress than parents with higher SES. The self-reported abilities to support the learning of the child seemed to be mainly predicted by the parent’s education as well as preceding psychological stress. To sum up, the results identify important aspects that determine how parents handle the challenges of the school closures. Especially, socially disadvantaged families carry their burden into the pandemic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Oliver Karl Schilling ◽  
Markus Wettstein ◽  
Hans-Werner Wahl

Advanced old age has been characterized as a biologically highly vulnerable life phase. Biological, morbidity-, and cognitive impairment-related factors play an important role as mortality predictors among very old adults. However, it is largely unknown whether previous findings confirming the role of different wellbeing domains for mortality translate to survival among the oldest-old individuals. Moreover, the distinction established in the wellbeing literature between hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing as well as the consideration of within-person variability of potentially relevant mortality predictors has not sufficiently been addressed in prior mortality research. In this study, we examined a broad set of hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing indicators, including their levels, their changes, as well as their within-person variability, as predictors of all-cause mortality in a sample of very old individuals. We used data from the LateLine study, a 7-year longitudinal study based on a sample of n = 124 individuals who were living alone and who were aged 87–97 years (M = 90.6, SD = 2.9) at baseline. Study participants provided up to 16 measurement occasions (mean number of measurement occasions per individual = 5.50, SD = 4.79) between 2009 and 2016. Dates of death were available for 118 individuals (95.2%) who had deceased between 2009 and 2021. We ran longitudinal multilevel structural equation models and specified between-person level differences, within-person long-term linear change trends, as well as the “detrended” within-person variability in three indicators of hedonic (i.e., life satisfaction and positive and negative affect) and four indicators of eudaimonic wellbeing (i.e., purpose in life, autonomy, environmental mastery, and self-acceptance) as all-cause mortality predictors. Controlling for age, gender, education, and physical condition and testing our sets of hedonic and eudaimonic indictors separately in terms of their mortality impact, solely one eudaimonic wellbeing indicator, namely, autonomy, showed significant effects on survival. Surprisingly, autonomy appeared “paradoxically” related with mortality, with high individual levels and intraindividual highly stable perceptions of autonomy being associated with a shorter residual lifetime. Thus, it seems plausible that accepting dependency and changing perceptions of autonomy over time in accordance with objectively remaining capabilities might become adaptive for survival in very old age.

2022 ◽  
pp. 002242782110705
Kelly Welch ◽  
Peter S. Lehmann ◽  
Cecilia Chouhy ◽  
Ted Chiricos

Using the cumulative disadvantage theoretical framework, the current study explores whether school suspension and expulsion provide an indirect path through which race and ethnicity affect the likelihood of experiencing arrest, any incarceration, and long-term incarceration in adulthood. To address these issues, we use data from Waves I, II, and IV of the Add Health survey (N = 14,484), and we employ generalized multilevel structural equation models and parametric regression methods using counterfactual definitions to estimate direct and indirect pathways. We observe that Black (but not Latinx) individuals are consistently more likely than White persons to experience exclusionary school discipline and criminal justice involvement. However, we find a path through which race and Latinx ethnicity indirectly affect the odds of adulthood arrest and incarceration through school discipline. Disparate exposure to school suspension and expulsion experienced by minority youth contributes to racial and ethnic inequalities in justice system involvement. By examining indirect paths to multiple criminal justice consequences along a continuum of punitiveness, this study shows how discipline amplifies cumulative disadvantage during adulthood for Black and, to a lesser extent, Latinx individuals who are disproportionately funneled through the “school-to-prison pipeline.”

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