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2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Author(s):  
Ryan Williams ◽  
Tongwei Ren ◽  
Lorenzo De Carli ◽  
Long Lu ◽  
Gillian Smith

IoT firmware oftentimes incorporates third-party components, such as network-oriented middleware and media encoders/decoders. These components consist of large and mature codebases, shipping with a variety of non-critical features. Feature bloat increases code size, complicates auditing/debugging, and reduces stability. This is problematic for IoT devices, which are severely resource-constrained and must remain operational in the field for years. Unfortunately, identification and complete removal of code related to unwanted features requires familiarity with codebases of interest, cumbersome manual effort, and may introduce bugs. We address these difficulties by introducing PRAT, a system that takes as input the codebase of software of interest, identifies and maps features to code, presents this information to a human analyst, and removes all code belonging to unwanted features. PRAT solves the challenge of identifying feature-related code through a novel form of differential dynamic analysis and visualizes results as user-friendly feature graphs . Evaluation on diverse codebases shows superior code removal compared to both manual feature deactivation and state-of-art debloating tools, and generality across programming languages. Furthermore, a user study comparing PRAT to manual code analysis shows that it can significantly simplify the feature identification workflow.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261930
Author(s):  
Yot Teerawattananon ◽  
Thunyarat Anothaisintawee ◽  
Chatkamol Pheerapanyawaranun ◽  
Siobhan Botwright ◽  
Katika Akksilp ◽  
...  

Real-world effectiveness studies are important for monitoring performance of COVID-19 vaccination programmes and informing COVID-19 prevention and control policies. We aimed to synthesise methodological approaches used in COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness studies, in order to evaluate which approaches are most appropriate to implement in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). For this rapid systematic review, we searched PubMed and Scopus for articles published from inception to July 7, 2021, without language restrictions. We included any type of peer-reviewed observational study measuring COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness, for any population. We excluded randomised control trials and modelling studies. All data used in the analysis were extracted from included papers. We used a standardised data extraction form, modified from STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). Study quality was assessed using the REal Life EVidence AssessmeNt Tool (RELEVANT) tool. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42021264658. Our search identified 3,327 studies, of which 42 were eligible for analysis. Most studies (97.5%) were conducted in high-income countries and the majority assessed mRNA vaccines (78% mRNA only, 17% mRNA and viral vector, 2.5% viral vector, 2.5% inactivated vaccine). Thirty-five of the studies (83%) used a cohort study design. Across studies, short follow-up time and limited assessment and mitigation of potential confounders, including previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and healthcare seeking behaviour, were major limitations. This review summarises methodological approaches for evaluating real-world effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines and highlights the lack of such studies in LMICs, as well as the importance of context-specific vaccine effectiveness data. Further research in LMICs will refine guidance for conducting real-world COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness studies in resource-constrained settings.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 489
Author(s):  
Jose-Antonio Septien-Hernandez ◽  
Magali Arellano-Vazquez ◽  
Marco Antonio Contreras-Cruz ◽  
Juan-Pablo Ramirez-Paredes

The existence of quantum computers and Shor’s algorithm poses an imminent threat to classical public-key cryptosystems. These cryptosystems are currently used for the exchange of keys between servers and clients over the Internet. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the next step in the evolution of the Internet, and it involves the connection of millions of low-powered and resource-constrained devices to the network. Because quantum computers are becoming more capable, the creation of a new cryptographic standard that cannot be compromised by them is indispensable. There are several current proposals of quantum-resistant or post-quantum algorithms that are being considered for future standards. Given that the IoT is increasing in popularity, and given its resource-constrained nature, it is worth adapting those new standards to IoT devices. In this work, we study some post-quantum cryptosystems that could be suitable for IoT devices, adapting them to work with current cryptography and communication software, and conduct a performance measurement on them, obtaining guidelines for selecting the best for different applications in resource-constrained hardware. Our results show that many of these algorithms can be efficiently executed in current IoT hardware, providing adequate protection from the attacks that quantum computers will eventually be capable of.


2022 ◽  
pp. 105566562110698
Author(s):  
Matthew Fell ◽  
Michael Goldwasser ◽  
B.S. Jayanth ◽  
Rui Manuel Rodrigues Pereira ◽  
Christian Tshisuz Nawej ◽  
...  

A consortium of global cleft professionals, predominantly from low- and middle-income countries, identified adaptations to cleft care protocols during and after COVID-19 as a priority learning area of need. A multidisciplinary international working group met on a videoconferencing platform in a multi-staged process to make consensus recommendations for adaptations to cleft protocols within resource-constrained settings. Feedback was sought from a roundtable discussion forum and global organizations involved in comprehensive cleft care. Foundational principles were agreed to enable recommendations to be globally relevant and two areas of focus within the specified topic were identified. First the safety aspects of cleft surgery protocols were scrutinized and COVID-19 adaptations, specifically in the pre- and perioperative periods, were highlighted. Second, surgical procedures and cleft care services were prioritized according to their relationship to functional outcomes and time-sensitivity. The surgical procedures assigned the highest priority were emergent interventions for breathing and nutritional requirements and primary palatoplasty. The cleft care services assigned the highest priority were new-born assessments, pediatric support for children with syndromes, management of acute dental or auditory infections and speech pathology intervention. A collaborative, interdisciplinary and international working group delivered consensus recommendations to assist with the provision of cleft care in low- and middle-income countries. At a time of global cleft care delays due to COVID-19, a united approach amongst global cleft care providers will be advantageous to advocate for children born with cleft lip and palate in resource-constrained settings.


Author(s):  
Poorva Sironja ◽  
Surender Redhu ◽  
Rajesh M Hegde ◽  
Baltasar Beferull-Lozano

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bryce T. Ford ◽  
Rachit Aggarwal ◽  
Mrinal Kumar ◽  
Satyanarayana G. Manyam ◽  
David Casbeer ◽  
...  

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