Multi Detector Computed Tomography
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Author(s):  
Diaa Mustafa Ismail Marei ◽  
Rasha Mahmoud Dawoud ◽  
Ghada Mahmoud Al Ghazaly ◽  
Abdelmonem Nooman Darwesh

Background: Reno-vascular disease is a complex disorder, the most common cause of which is RAS. Multi detector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) plays an important role in assessment of the renal vasculature. Despite conventional angiography is still considered the gold standard in reno-vascular imaging, MDCTA is increasingly used as it is less invasive, easily applicable and available. Aim of the Study: In our study we aimed to assess the role of CT Angiography in diagnosis of renal vasculature abnormalities. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was carried out at The Radio-diagnosis and Medical Imaging Department in our institute, conducted on 40 Patients who are clinically suspected to have reno-vascular abnormalities in the period from September 2018 to February 2021. Their ages ranged from 33 to 56 years old. Results: Based on CTA findings, out of 40 patients, 6 (15%) patients were confirmed to have accessory renal arteries, 6 (15%) patients had renal artery aneurysm, 6 (15%) patients had nutcracker syndrome, 6 (15%) patients had dual venous drainage of both kidneys, two of them showed retro-aortic left renal vein &10 (25%) patients were confirmed to have renal artery stenosis. Conclusion: CT Angiography with multiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional display is valuable in studying patients with reno-vascular lesions involving the proximal renal vessels. MDCT angiography is advantageous being a non-invasive technique that can be done on outpatient basis without pre or post-procedure admission, no special post-procedure care and less cost.


Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (19) ◽  
pp. 5791
Author(s):  
Nithin Manohar Rayudu ◽  
Thomas Baum ◽  
Jan S. Kirschke ◽  
Karupppasamy Subburaj

(1) Objective: This study aimed to analyze the effect of ligaments on the strength of functional spine unit (FSU) assessed by finite element (FE) analysis of anatomical models developed from multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) data. (2) Methods: MDCT scans for cadaveric specimens were acquired from 16 donors (7 males, mean age of 84.29 ± 6.06 years and 9 females, mean age of 81.00 ± 11.52 years). Two sets of FSU models (three vertebrae + two disks), one with and another without (w/o) ligaments, were generated. The vertebrae were segmented semi-automatically, intervertebral disks (IVD) were generated manually, and ligaments were modeled based on the anatomical location. FE-predicted failure loads of FSU models (with and w/o ligaments) were compared with the experimental failure loads obtained from the uniaxial biomechanical test of specimens. (3) Results: The mean and standard deviation of the experimental failure load of FSU specimens was 3513 ± 1029 N, whereas of FE-based failure loads were 2942 ± 943 N and 2537 ± 929 N for FSU models with ligaments and without ligament attachments, respectively. A good correlation (ρ = 0.79, and ρ = 0.75) was observed between the experimental and FE-based failure loads for the FSU model with and with ligaments, respectively. (4) Conclusions: The FE-based FSU model can be used to determine bone strength, and the ligaments seem to have an effect on the model accuracy for the failure load calculation; further studies are needed to understand the contribution of ligaments.


Author(s):  
Doaa Ashour Taha ◽  
Rasha Ahmed Ali El Shafey ◽  
Manal Fathy Hamesa ◽  
Khaled Abd El-Wahab Abu-Dewan ◽  
Hanan Ahmad Nagy

Abstract Background The association between epicardial fat thickness and coronary artery disease (CAD) has been evaluated previously using echocardiography. Recently, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), as a valuable tool in cardiovascular CT imaging, can improve characterization of CAD and give a more accurate volumetric quantitation of EF. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the relationship between the epicardial fat volume and CAD using multi-detector row CT. Results Out of the studied 120 patients, 22 patients were negative for CAD, while 98 patients had positive CAD. There was significant difference between both groups as regard epicardial fat volume (p < 0.001), and good relation was found between the amount of epicardial fat volume and coronary calcium score, number of affected vessel, plaque burden and degree of stenosis (p =  < 0.001). Conclusion EAT volume was larger in the presence of obstructive CAD and atheromatous plaques. These data suggest that EAT is associated with the development of coronary atherosclerosis and potentially the most dangerous types of plaques.


Author(s):  
P. K. Roopa Rajavarthini ◽  
I. Venkatraman

Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) scan of paranasal sinuses has become mandatory for all patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery. It depicts the anatomical variations in much simpler way and acts as a roadmap for endoscopic sinus surgery. In this study the maximum of participants were in the age group of 41- 50 years (32 %). The mean age of the study participants was observed to be 43.8 ± 15.6 years. HRCT PNS results shows nasal septum was found to be the most common anatomical variant (DNS- 94%). Concha Bullosa in right side were seen in 37.5% and left side were 21.9% (total unilateral cases- 59.4%) and bilateral Concha Bullosa were seen in 40.6% of the cases. Agger nasi were found to be present in 58% of the CRS cases among which right AN was 41%, left side was 30.8%, and bilateral AN were seen in 28.2% of the cases and Paradoxical Middle Turbinate were seen in 42% of cases in our study. Medialised uncinate was seen in 22% of the cases.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Noboru Hasegawa ◽  
Hiroshi Takeyama ◽  
Yozo Suzuki ◽  
Shingo Noura ◽  
Kazuki Odagiri ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Paraduodenal hernia is a rare internal hernia which accounts for only 1% of all intestinal hernias. There have been limited reported cases of paraduodenal hernia treated by laparoscopic surgery. We report a case of left paraduodenal hernia that was successfully treated by single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS). Case presentation A 17-year-old woman presented with left upper abdominal pain. An abdominal enhanced multi-detector computed tomography demonstrated encapsulated cluster of small bowel loops in the left upper quadrant which passed through the dorsal side of the inferior mesenteric vein, and showed that blood flow of the prolapsed small bowel was preserved. We preoperatively diagnosed left paraduodenal hernia without ischemia or necrosis. We performed elective SILS because she was a young actress training school student and cosmetic benefit was thought to be important. We pulled out the protruded small bowel and closed a defect with a running suture by SILS. The patient was discharged 3 days after the surgery with no complications. Conclusions We reported the case of left paraduodenal hernia successfully diagnosed and treated by SILS.


2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Wenwen Han ◽  
Xiangzhen Bu ◽  
Yanli Liu ◽  
Fang Liu ◽  
Yujie Ren ◽  
...  

Abstract Background To study the clinical value of miR-135 and miR-20a combined with multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC). Method A total of 146 patients with GC admitted to our hospital from January 2017 to June 2019 were selected and enrolled in the GC group. Another 103 patients with gastritis received in the same period were selected for the non-GC group. Besides, 95 healthy subjects who received physical examination in our hospital were selected into the healthy control group. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of serum miR-135 and miR-20a for each group. MDCT was used for detecting the clinical staging map of the enrolled patients. Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between serum miR-135 and miR-20a in patients with GC. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to analyze value of miR-135 and miR-20a in the diagnosis of GC. Results Compared with non-GC group and healthy control group, the levels of serum miR-135 and miR-20a increased significantly in the GC group, while no significant difference was found between non-GC group and healthy control group (P > 0.05). Analysis of the relationship with clinical characteristics showed that the expression of serum miR-135 and miR-20a in the GC group was significantly correlated with the progression of GC, TNM stage, degrees of differentiation, status of lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis (P < 0.01). Pearson’s correlation analysis results showed positive correlations between miR-135 and miR-20a (r = 0.634, P = 0.000). The ROC analysis results showed that the optimal diagnostic values of miR-135 and miR-20a for GC were 7.56 and 5.82 respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.873 and 0.793 respectively. The 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.811-0.935 and 0.697-0.890 respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of miR-135 and miR-20a combined with MDCT in the diagnosis of GC were 90.41% and 93.20% respectively. The sensitivity of combined use was significantly higher than that of single detection (P < 0.01). Conclusion There are high expression levels of serum miR-135 and miR-20a in patients with GC. A combined detection of miR-135 and miR-20a with MDCT can improve the diagnostic sensitivity of GC and improve the accuracy of the final diagnosis. Therefore, multiple combined detection is valuable in the diagnosis of GC.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (09) ◽  
pp. 450-459
Author(s):  
Dr Praveen K Sharma, MD RD ◽  
◽  
Dr. Pavankumar mathapati ◽  
Dr. Dinesh babu J ◽  
Dr. Keerthi vatsan ◽  
...  

Dunbar syndrome (DS) (or Median arcuate ligament syndrome) is a rare entity of the vascular compression syndrome, where there is focal proximal coeliac axis compression by Median arcuate ligament (MAL). It results in an insufficient supply of blood to the respective organs of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is a very convenient non-invasive modality in diagnosing this condition and helpful in distinguishing it from other conditions, such as atherosclerotic disease. DS can further be treated disorder surgically by relieving the compression and sometimes may need vascular reconstruction. We present five cases of the DS.


Author(s):  
Yang-Ting Hsu ◽  
Jo-Chi Jao

Radiologic technologists face various types of patients during multi-detector computed tomography (CT) examinations. In emergency departments, it is common to have patients who cannot follow instructions for the examinations. The asymmetric axial view of the head CT might affect the correctness of the clinician’s diagnosis. This study aimed to assess the impact of head positioning on the image quality of head CT using two phantoms. All scans were performed on a 16-slice CT scanner. In the control group, the tilted angle of the phantoms was 0[Formula: see text], and no multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) was performed. In the experimental groups, the tilted angles of the phantoms were 5[Formula: see text], 10[Formula: see text] and 15[Formula: see text], respectively, and MPR was performed afterwards. The results showed that if the head was tilted during the head CT examinations, image asymmetry and artifacts appeared without MPR. After MPR, one phantom showed that there were significant differences and the other phantom showed no significant differences quantitatively in image symmetry and artifacts between experimental groups and the control group, while both phantoms showed no significant differences qualitatively in image symmetry and artifacts between experimental groups and the control group. Although MPR can correct the image asymmetry and artifacts caused by tilted head positioning to some extent, it consumes time. Therefore, technologists should position the head as exactly as possible when performing head CT examinations.


Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (17) ◽  
pp. 4361
Author(s):  
Sami-Alexander Safi ◽  
Lena Haeberle ◽  
Sophie Heuveldop ◽  
Patric Kroepil ◽  
Stephen Fung ◽  
...  

Summary: The rates of microscopic incomplete resections (R1/R0CRM+) in patients receiving standard pancreaticoduodenectomy for PDAC remain very high. One reason may be the reported high rates of mesopancreatic fat infiltration. In this large cohort study, we used available histopathological specimens of the retropancreatic fat and correlated high resolution CT-scans with the microscopic tumor infiltration of this area. We found that preoperative MDCT scans are suitable to detect cancerous infiltration of this mesopancreatic tissue and this, in turn, was a significant indicator for both incomplete surgical resection (R1/R0CRM+) and worse overall survival. These findings indicate that a neoadjuvant treatment in PDAC patients with CT-morphologically positive infiltration of the mesopancreas may result in better local control and thus improved resection rates. Mesopancreatic fat stranding should thus be considered in the decision for neoadjuvant therapy. Background: Due to the persistently high rates of R1 resections, neoadjuvant treatment and mesopancreatic excision (MPE) for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head (hPDAC) have recently become a topic of interest. While radiographic cut-off for borderline resectability has been described, the necessary extent of surgery has not been established. It has not yet been elucidated whether pre-operative multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) staging reliably predicts local mesopancreatic (MP) fat infiltration and tumor extension. Methods: Two hundred and forty two hPDAC patients that underwent MPE were analyzed. Radiographic re-evaluation was performed on (1) mesopancreatic fat stranding (MPS) and stranding to peripancreatic vessels, as well as (2) tumor diameter and anatomy, including contact to peripancreatic vessels (SMA, GDA, CHA, PV, SMV). Routinely resected mesopancreatic and perivascular (SMA and PV/SMV) tissue was histopathologically re-analyzed and histopathology correlated with radiographic findings. A logistic regression of survival was performed. Results: MDCT-predicted tumor diameter correlated with pathological T-stage, whereas presumed tumor contact and fat stranding to SMA and PV/SMV predicted and correlated with histological cancerous infiltration. Importantly, mesopancreatic fat stranding predicted MP cancerous infiltration. Positive MP infiltration was evident in over 78%. MPS and higher CT-predicted tumor diameter correlated with higher R1 resection rates. Patients with positive MP stranding had a significantly worse overall survival (p = 0.023). Conclusions: A detailed preoperative radiographic assessment can predict mesopancreatic infiltration and tumor morphology and should influence the decision for primary surgery, as well as the extent of surgery. To increase the rate of R0CRM− resections, MPS should be considered in the decision for neoadjuvant therapy.


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