healthy control
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-20
Shui-Hua Wang ◽  
Xin Zhang ◽  
Yu-Dong Zhang

( Aim ) COVID-19 has caused more than 2.28 million deaths till 4/Feb/2021 while it is still spreading across the world. This study proposed a novel artificial intelligence model to diagnose COVID-19 based on chest CT images. ( Methods ) First, the two-dimensional fractional Fourier entropy was used to extract features. Second, a custom deep stacked sparse autoencoder (DSSAE) model was created to serve as the classifier. Third, an improved multiple-way data augmentation was proposed to resist overfitting. ( Results ) Our DSSAE model obtains a micro-averaged F1 score of 92.32% in handling a four-class problem (COVID-19, community-acquired pneumonia, secondary pulmonary tuberculosis, and healthy control). ( Conclusion ) Our method outperforms 10 state-of-the-art approaches.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. A. Banjabi ◽  
K. Kannan ◽  
T. A. Kumosani ◽  
J. M. Yousef ◽  
K. O. Abulnaja ◽  

Abstract Serum toxic metals have been implicated in development of many diseases. This study investigated the association between blood levels of lead and cadmium with abnormal bone mineral density (BMD) and incidence of osteoporosis. Sixty Saudi male adults age matching were assigned into two groups: A healthy control group (n = 30) and osteoporosis patients diagnosed according to T-score (n = 30). Serum calcium, vitamin D, osteocalcin, lead, cadmium were measured. Osteoporotic group showed a highly significant elevation of blood lead and cadmium levels compared to the control group (p <0.001). BMD was negatively correlated with serum osteocalcin level compared with control. There was a significant negative correlation between the cadmium and lead levels (r=-0.465 and p-value = 0.01) and calcium (p < 0.004). Our findings suggested that high cadmium and lead were negative correlated to BMD and increased the risk factor for osteoporosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Samiaa Hamdy Sadek ◽  
Maha Mohamed El-kholy ◽  
Fareda Ahmed Mohammed ◽  
Reham Mohammed El-Morshedy

Abstract Background Poorly controlled bronchial asthma limits patients’ quality of life (QOL), the condition which may potentiate the development of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was the assessment of anxiety and depression in bronchial asthma patients, and their interrelation with both level of asthma control and quality of life in our society. Results This study included 102 bronchial asthma patients, and 50 healthy control individuals. Patients had poorer QOL, and higher anxiety and depression scores compared to healthy control, moreover these scores were higher in uncontrolled asthma patients compared to controlled group. Poor QOL, frequent hospital admissions, and poor asthma control were the predictors for psychiatric disorders. Conclusion Depression and anxiety are frequently encountered in patients with bronchial asthma in our society; poor symptom control, poor QOL, and frequent hospital admissions are the main predictors for these psychiatric disorders.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262600
Rodrigo B. Aires ◽  
Alexandre A. de S. M. Soares ◽  
Ana Paula M. Gomides ◽  
André M. Nicola ◽  
Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho ◽  

In patients with severe forms of COVID-19, thromboelastometry has been reported to display a hypercoagulant pattern. However, an algorithm to differentiate severe COVID-19 patients from nonsevere patients and healthy controls based on thromboelastometry parameters has not been developed. Forty-one patients over 18 years of age with positive qRT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 were classified according to the severity of the disease: nonsevere (NS, n = 20) or severe (S, n = 21). A healthy control (HC, n = 9) group was also examined. Blood samples from all participants were tested by extrinsic (EXTEM), intrinsic (INTEM), non-activated (NATEM) and functional assessment of fibrinogen (FIBTEM) assays of thromboelastometry. The thrombodynamic potential index (TPI) was also calculated. Severe COVID-19 patients exhibited a thromboelastometry profile with clear hypercoagulability, which was significantly different from the NS and HC groups. Nonsevere COVID-19 cases showed a trend to thrombotic pole. The NATEM test suggested that nonsevere and severe COVID-19 patients presented endogenous coagulation activation (reduced clotting time and clot formation time). TPI data were significantly different between the NS and S groups. The maximum clot firmness profile obtained by FIBTEM showed moderate/elevated accuracy to differentiate severe patients from NS and HC. A decision tree algorithm based on the FIBTEM-MCF profile was proposed to differentiate S from HC and NS. Thromboelastometric parameters are a useful tool to differentiate the coagulation profile of nonsevere and severe COVID-19 patients for therapeutic intervention purposes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Long Zhao ◽  
Jinhua Fu ◽  
Feng Ding ◽  
Juan Liu ◽  
Lin Li ◽  

Normal pregnancy is related to the successful transition from type 1 cellular immunity to type 2 cellular immunity. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether there is abnormal expression of cytokines in the process of inducing Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Interleukin (IL)-33 is a new member of the IL-1 family, and ST2, as IL-33’s receptor, induced the production of type 2 cytokines. In this study, blood samples were collected from 19 non-pregnant women of normal childbearing age, 28 normal pregnant women, and 33 women with RSA. The serum concentrations of IL-33 and ST2 were detected by flow cytometry. Our results showed that the serum concentrations of IL-33 and ST2 in the RSA group were significantly higher than those in the healthy control group (IL-33: P &lt; 0.05; ST2: P &lt; 0.0001), and IL-33 and ST2 had a higher level in the process of RSA predictive value. In addition, this study initially found that the serum concentrations of IL-33 and ST2 were not significantly correlated with the number of weeks of pregnancy, and there was a lower correlation between IL-33 and ST2 during RSA. This result may be related to the small number of cases. This study is the first time to correlate the changes in serum concentrations of IL-33 and ST2 with RSA, which may be a novel biomarker for the prediction and treatment of RSA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Caitlin E. Murphy ◽  
Adam K. Walker ◽  
Maryanne O’Donnell ◽  
Cherrie Galletly ◽  
Andrew R. Lloyd ◽  

AbstractElevations in plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patient blood have been associated with impairments in cognitive abilities and more severe psychiatric symptoms in people with schizophrenia. The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) regulates the gene expression of pro-inflammatory factors whose protein products trigger CRP release. NF-κB activation pathway mRNAs are increased in the brain in schizophrenia and are strongly related to neuroinflammation. Thus, it is likely that this central immune regulator is also dysregulated in the blood and associated with cytokine and CRP levels. We measured levels of six pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs and 18 mRNAs encoding NF-κB pathway members in peripheral blood leukocytes from 87 people with schizophrenia and 83 healthy control subjects. We then assessed the relationships between the alterations in NF-κB pathway genes, pro-inflammatory cytokine and CRP levels, psychiatric symptoms and cognition in people with schizophrenia. IL-1β and IFN-γ mRNAs were increased in patients compared to controls (both p < 0.001), while IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNF-α mRNAs did not differ. Recursive two-step cluster analysis revealed that high levels of IL-1β mRNA and high levels of plasma CRP defined ‘high inflammation’ individuals in our cohort, and a higher proportion of people with schizophrenia were identified as displaying ‘high inflammation’ compared to controls using this method (p = 0.03). Overall, leukocyte expression of the NF-κB-activating receptors, TLR4 and TNFR2, and the NF-κB subunit, RelB, was increased in people with schizophrenia compared to healthy control subjects (all p < 0.01), while NF-κB-inducing kinase mRNAs IKKβ and NIK were downregulated in patients (all p < 0.05). We found that elevations in TLR4 and RelB appear more related to inflammatory status than to a diagnosis of schizophrenia, but changes in TNFR2 occur in both the high and low inflammation patients (but were exaggerated in high inflammation patients). Further, decreased leukocyte expression of IKKβ and NIK mRNAs was unique to high inflammation patients, which may represent schizophrenia-specific dysregulation of NF-κB that gives rise to peripheral inflammation in a subset of patients.

Proteomes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 4
Arantxa Acera ◽  
Juan Carlos Gómez-Esteban ◽  
Ane Murueta-Goyena ◽  
Marta Galdos ◽  
Mikel Azkargorta ◽  

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, the tear proteome profile of patients with idiopathic PD (iPD, n = 24), carriers of the E46K-SNCA mutation (n = 3) and healthy control (CT, n = 27) subjects was analyzed to identify candidate biomarkers for the diagnosis of PD. An observational, prospective and case-control pilot study was carried out, analyzing the participants tear samples by nano-liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (nLC–MS/MS) and assessing their neurological impairment. The proteomic data obtained are available at ProteomeXchange with identifier 10.6019/PXD028811. These analyses led to the identification of 560 tear proteins, some of which were deregulated in PD patients and that have been implicated in immune responses, inflammation, apoptosis, collagen degradation, protein synthesis, defense, lipid transport and altered lysosomal function. Of these proteins, six were related to neurodegenerative processes and showed a good capacity to classify patients and controls. These findings revealed that certain proteins were upregulated in the tears of PD patients, mainly proteins involved in lysosomal function. Thus, in this study, tear proteins were identified that are implicated in neurodegeneration and that may be related to an aggressive disease phenotype in PD patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 23
Alexander A. Berezin ◽  
Ivan M. Fushtey ◽  
Alexander E. Berezin

Background: Apelin is a regulatory vasoactive peptide, which plays a pivotal role in adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether serum levels of apelin is associated with HF with preserved election fraction (HFpEF) in patients with T2DM. Methods: The study retrospectively involved 101 T2DM patients aged 41 to 62 years (48 patients with HFpEF and 28 non-HFpEF patients). The healthy control group consisted of 25 individuals with matched age and sex. Data collection included demographic and anthropometric information, hemodynamic performances and biomarkers of the disease. Transthoracic B-mode echocardiography, Doppler and TDI were performed at baseline. Serum levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and apelin were measured by ELISA in all patients at the study entry. Results: Unadjusted multivariate logistic model yielded the only apelin to NT-proBNP ratio (OR = 1.44; p = 0.001), BMI > 34 кг/м2 (OR = 1.07; p = 0.036), NT-proBNP > 458 pmol/mL (OR = 1.17; p = 0.042), LAVI > 34 mL/m2 (OR = 1.06; p = 0.042) and E/e’ > 11 (OR = 1.04; p = 0.044) remained to be strong predictors for HFpEF. After obesity adjustment, multivariate logistic regression showed that the apelin to NT-proBNP ratio < 0.82 × 10−2 units remained sole independent predictor for HFpEF (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.18–2.77; p = 0.001) HFpEF in T2DM patients. In conclusion, we found that apelin to NT-proBNP ratio < 0.82 × 10−2 units better predicted HFpEF in T2DM patients than apelin and NT-proBNP alone. This finding could open new approach for CV risk stratification of T2DM at higher risk of HF.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 157
Xorla Kanfra ◽  
Andreas Wrede ◽  
Julia Moll ◽  
Holger Heuer

Apple replant disease is a severe problem in orchards and tree nurseries. Evidence for the involvement of a nematode–microbe disease complex was reported. To search for this complex, plots with a history of apple replanting, and control plots cultivated for the first time with apple were sampled in two fields in two years. Shoot weight drastically decreased with each replanting. Amplicon sequencing of the nematode community and co-extracted fungal and bacterial communities revealed significant differences between replanted and control plots. Free-living nematodes of the genera Aphelenchus and Cephalenchus and an unidentified Dorylaimida were associated with replanted plots, as indicated by linear discriminant analysis effect size. Among the co-extracted fungi and bacteria, Mortierella and Methylotenera were most indicative of replanting. Some genera, mostly Rhabditis, Streptomyces and a fungus belonging to the Chaetomiaceae indicated healthy control plots. Isolating and investigating the putative disease complexes will help to understand and alleviate stress-induced root damage of apple in replanted soil.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Viviana Marzaioli ◽  
Mary Canavan ◽  
Achilleas Floudas ◽  
Keelin Flynn ◽  
Ronan Mullan ◽  

Dendritic cells (DC) have a key role in the initiation and progression of inflammatory arthritis (IA). In this study, we identified a DC population that derive from monocytes, characterized as CD209/CD14+ DC, expressing classical DC markers (HLADR, CD11c) and the Mo-DC marker (CD209), while also retaining the monocytic marker CD14. This CD209/CD14+ DC population is present in the circulation of Healthy Control (HC), with increased frequency in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and Psoriatic arthritic (PsA) patients. We demonstrate, for the first time, that circulatory IA CD209/CD14+ DC express more cytokines (IL1β/IL6/IL12/TNFα) and display a unique chemokine receptor expression and co-expression profiles compared to HC. We demonstrated that CD209/CD14+ DC are enriched in the inflamed joint where they display a unique inflammatory and maturation phenotype, with increased CD40 and CD80 and co-expression of specific chemokine receptors, displaying unique patterns between PsA and RA. We developed a new protocol of magnetic isolation and expansion for CD209+ DC from blood and identified transcriptional differences involved in endocytosis/antigen presentation between RA and PsA CD209+ DC. In addition, we observed that culture of healthy CD209+ DC with IA synovial fluid (SF), but not Osteoarthritis (OA) SF, was sufficient to induce the development of CD209/CD14+ DC, leading to a poly-mature DC phenotype. In addition, differential effects were observed in terms of chemokine receptor and chemokine expression, with healthy CD209+ DC displaying increased expression/co-expression of CCR6, CCR7, CXCR3, CXCR4 and CXCR5 when cultured with RA SF, while an increase in the chemokines CCR3, CXCL10 and CXCL11 was observed when cultured with PsA SF. This effect may be mediated in part by the observed differential increase in chemokines expressed in RA vs PsA SF. Finally, we observed that the JAK/STAT pathway, but not the NF-κB pathway (driven by TNFα), regulated CD209/CD14+ DC function in terms of activation, inflammatory state, and migratory capacity. In conclusion, we identified a novel CD209/CD14+ DC population, which is active in the circulation of RA and PsA, an effect potentiated once they enter the joint. Furthermore, we demonstrated that JAK/STAT inhibition can be used as a therapeutic strategy to decrease the inflammatory state of the pathogenic CD209/CD14+ DC.

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