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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Kate Liang ◽  
Eleni Nakou ◽  
Marco Giuseppe Del Buono ◽  
Rocco Antonio Montone ◽  
Domenico D'Amario ◽  

Myocardial Infarction with Non-Obstructive Coronary Arteries (MINOCA) accounts for 5–15% of all presentations of acute myocardial infarction. The absence of obstructive coronary disease may present a diagnostic dilemma and identifying the underlying etiology ensures appropriate management improving clinical outcomes. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is a valuable, non-invasive diagnostic tool that can aide clinicians to build a differential diagnosis in patients with MINOCA, as well as identifying non-ischemic etiologies of myocardial injury (acute myocarditis, Takotsubo Syndrome, and other conditions). The role of CMR in suspected MINOCA is increasingly recognized as emphasized in both European and American clinical guidelines. In this paper we review the indications for CMR, the clinical value in the differential diagnosis of patients with suspected MINOCA, as well as its current limitations and future perspectives.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Tingting Cui ◽  
Feng Shi ◽  
Bei Gu ◽  
Yanfang Jin ◽  
Jinsong Guo ◽  

ObjectivesTo explore the clinical value of subendometrial enhancement (SEE), irregular thin-layered peritumoral early enhancement (ITLPE) and focal irregular peritumoral early enhancement (FIPE) on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for myometrial invasion in patients with low-risk endometrial carcinoma.MethodsSeventy-seven patients with low-risk endometrial carcinoma who preoperatively underwent DCE-MRI were included. Two radiologists independently evaluated and recorded the occurrences of SEE, ITLPE and FIPE on DCE-MRI in all patients. Interobserver agreement was calculated between the two radiologists, and the relationships between SEE, ITLPE, FIPE, and myometrial invasion were analyzed based on histologic findings. For statistically significant findings, the sensitivity and specificity were calculated, and the differences in myometrial invasion evaluations were analyzed. For those with no statistical significance, images were compared with the histopathologic sections.ResultsInter-observer agreement was good (k = 0.80; 95%CI, 0.577–0.955) for SEE, and very good (k = 0.88; 95%CI, 0.761–0.972) (k = 0.86; 95%CI, 0.739–0.973) for ITLPE and FIPE. After consensus, SEE was identified in 12/77 (15.6%) patients; ITLPE and FIPE were found in 53/77 (68.8%) and 30/77 (39.0%) patients, respectively. SEE and ITLPE were significantly correlated with myometrial infiltration (P = 0.000), but FIPE were not (P = 0.725).The sensitivity and specificity of SEE and ITLPE for myometrial invasion in patients with low-risk endometrial carcinoma were 95.0 and 52.9%, and 85.0 and 88.0%, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of SEE and ITLPE for myometrial invasion were 0.740 (95%CI, 0.584–0.896), and 0.866 (95%CI, 0.763–0.970), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were statistically different between SEE and ITLPE for the detection of myometrial invasion (P = 0.031, 0.016). According to the comparison between FIPE and histopathologic findings, the irregular endomyometrial junction was found in 30/77 (38.9%) cases, 24/30 (80.0%) with myometrial infiltration and 6/30 (20.0%) cases without myometrial infiltration.ConclusionsFIPE was the irregular endomyometrial junction. It can be found in patients with or without myometrial infiltration and may lead to the overestimation of myometrial invasion by SEE on DCE-MRI. ITLPE presented high diagnostic performance and specificity for myometrial invasion in patients with low-risk endometrial carcinoma.

Sci ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
Steinar Valsson ◽  
Ognjen Arandjelović

With the increase in the availability of annotated X-ray image data, there has been an accompanying and consequent increase in research on machine-learning-based, and ion particular deep-learning-based, X-ray image analysis. A major problem with this body of work lies in how newly proposed algorithms are evaluated. Usually, comparative analysis is reduced to the presentation of a single metric, often the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), which does not provide much clinical value or insight and thus fails to communicate the applicability of proposed models. In the present paper, we address this limitation of previous work by presenting a thorough analysis of a state-of-the-art learning approach and hence illuminate various weaknesses of similar algorithms in the literature, which have not yet been fully acknowledged and appreciated. Our analysis was performed on the ChestX-ray14 dataset, which has 14 lung disease labels and metainfo such as patient age, gender, and the relative X-ray direction. We examined the diagnostic significance of different metrics used in the literature including those proposed by the International Medical Device Regulators Forum, and present the qualitative assessment of the spatial information learned by the model. We show that models that have very similar AUROCs can exhibit widely differing clinical applicability. As a result, our work demonstrates the importance of detailed reporting and analysis of the performance of machine-learning approaches in this field, which is crucial both for progress in the field and the adoption of such models in practice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Huan Zhang ◽  
Juan Xing ◽  
Zhujiang Dai ◽  
Daorong Wang ◽  
Dong Tang

AbstractPancreatic cancer is one of the most common malignancies. Unfortunately, the lack of effective methods of treatment and diagnosis has led to poor prognosis coupled with a very high mortality rate. So far, the pathogenesis and progression mechanisms of pancreatic cancer have been poorly characterized. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by most cells, contain lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, and are involved in diverse functions such as intercellular communications, biological processes, and cell signaling. In pancreatic cancer, exosomes are enriched with multiple signaling molecules that mediate intercellular communication with control of immune suppression, mutual promotion between pancreas stellate cells and pancreatic cancer cells, and reprogramming of normal cells. In addition, exosomes can regulate the pancreatic cancer microenvironment and promote the growth and survival of pancreatic cancer. Exosomes can also build pre-metastatic micro-ecological niches and facilitate the targeting of pancreatic cancer. The ability of exosomes to load cargo and target allows them to be of great clinical value as a biomarker mediator for targeted drugs in pancreatic cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Ke-Yun Zhu ◽  
Yao Tian ◽  
Ying-Xi Li ◽  
Qing-Xiang Meng ◽  
Jie Ge ◽  

Abstract Background Krüppel‐like factors (KLFs) are zinc finger proteins which participate in transcriptional gene regulation. Although increasing evidence indicate that KLFs are involved in carcinogenesis and progression, its clinical significance and biological function in breast cancer are still limited. Methods We investigated all the expression of KLFs (KLF1-18) at transcriptional levels by using Oncomine and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). The mRNA and protein expression levels of KLFs were also determined by using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. CBioPortal, GeneMANIA and STRING were used to comprehensive analysis of the molecular characteristics of KLFs. The clinical value of prognostic prediction based on the expression of KLFs was determined by using the KM plotter. The relevant molecular pathways of KLFs were further analyzed by using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database. Finally, we investigated the effect of KLF2 and KLF15 on biological behavior of breast cancer cells in vitro. Results The expression of KLF2/4/6/8/9/11/15 was significantly down-regulated in breast cancer. The patients with high KLF2, KLF4 or KLF15 expression had a better outcome, while patients with high KLF8 or KLF11 had a poor prognosis. Furthermore, our results showed that KLF2 or KLF15 can be used as a prognostic factor independent on the other KLFs in patients with breast cancer. Overexpression of KLF2 or KLF15 inhibited cell proliferation and migration, and blocked cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, resulting in cell apoptosis. Conclusions KLF2 and KLF15 function as tumor suppressors in breast cancer and are potential biomarkers for prognostic prediction in patients with breast cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Bin Duan ◽  
Xinxi Wang

Objectives: To study the therapeutic effects of combined tamsulosin hydrochloride and terazosin treatment for patients with chronic prostatitis Type-III b. Methods: This study involved 180 patients with chronic prostatitis Type-III b treated between January 2018 and December 2020 conducted at Nanhua Hospital Affiliated to Nanhua University. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups: one receiving oral terazosin hydrochloride tablets only (control group), and one orally receiving both tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained-release tablets and terazosin hydrochloride tablets (observation group). Outcome measurements included symptom scoring, inflammatory cytokine levels, as well as white blood cell and lecithin body counts in the prostatic fluid. Results: After 30 days of treatment, the observation group showed greater treatment effectiveness (86.67% vs. 73.33%, P<0.05). QLS, USS, PS, and NIH-CPSI symptom scores were lower in the observation group than the control group (P<0.05). No differences in adverse event distribution and incidence were noted. EPS IL-2 increased more in the observation group, while PGE-2, MIP-1α, and MIP-2 decreased more in the observation group. WBC levels decreased more in the observation group, while lecithin body levels increased more in the observation group. Conclusion: The combination of tamsulosin hydrochloride and terazosin for the treatment of patients with chronic prostatitis Type-III b has a significant effect. This approach reduced patient symptoms, lowered inflammatory biomarkers, and generally improved quality of life. This approach appears to have clinical value worthy of future investigation. doi: How to cite this:Duan B, Wang X. The effectiveness of tamsulosin hydrochloride with terazosin combination therapy for chronic prostatitis Type-III b. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2022 ◽  
Ruturaj Masvekar ◽  
Peter Kosa ◽  
Kimberly Jin ◽  
Kerry Dobbs ◽  
Michael A Stack ◽  

Given the continued spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), early predictors of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) mortality might improve patients outcomes. Increased levels of circulating neurofilament light chain (NfL), a biomarker of neuro-axonal injury, have been observed in patients with severe COVID-19. We investigated whether NfL provides non-redundant clinical value to previously identified predictors of COVID-19 mortality. We measured serum or plasma NfL concentrations in a blinded fashion in 3 cohorts totaling 338 COVID-19 patients. In cohort 1, we found significantly elevated NfL levels only in critically ill COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls. Longitudinal cohort 2 data showed that NfL is elevated late in the course of the disease, following two other prognostic markers of COVID-19: decrease in absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Significant correlations between LDH and ALC abnormalities and subsequent rise of NfL implicate multi-organ failure as a likely cause of neuronal injury at the later stages of COVID-19. Addition of NfL to age and gender in cohort 1 significantly improved the accuracy of mortality prediction and these improvements were validated in cohorts 2 and 3. In conclusion, although substantial increase in serum/plasma NfL reproducibly enhances COVID-19 mortality prediction, NfL has clinically meaningful prognostic value only close to death, which may be too late to alter medical management. When combined with other prognostic biomarkers, rising longitudinal NfL measurements triggered by LDH and ALC abnormalities would identify patients at risk of COVID-19 associated mortality who might still benefit from escalated care.

Laura Mancini ◽  
Stefano Casagranda ◽  
Guillaume Gautier ◽  
Philippe Peter ◽  
Bruno Lopez ◽  

Abstract Purpose Accurate glioma classification affects patient management and is challenging on non- or low-enhancing gliomas. This study investigated the clinical value of different chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) metrics for glioma classification and assessed the diagnostic effect of the presence of abundant fluid in glioma subpopulations. Methods Forty-five treatment-naïve glioma patients with known isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19q codeletion status received CEST MRI (B1rms = 2μT, Tsat = 3.5 s) at 3 T. Magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry and CEST metrics (amides: offset range 3–4 ppm, amines: 1.5–2.5 ppm, amide/amine ratio) were calculated with two models: ‘asymmetry-based’ (AB) and ‘fluid-suppressed’ (FS). The presence of T2/FLAIR mismatch was noted. Results IDH-wild type had higher amide/amine ratio than IDH-mutant_1p/19qcodel (p < 0.022). Amide/amine ratio and amine levels differentiated IDH-wild type from IDH-mutant (p < 0.0045) and from IDH-mutant_1p/19qret (p < 0.021). IDH-mutant_1p/19qret had higher amides and amines than IDH-mutant_1p/19qcodel (p < 0.035). IDH-mutant_1p/19qret with AB/FS mismatch had higher amines than IDH-mutant_1p/19qret without AB/FS mismatch ( < 0.016). In IDH-mutant_1p/19qret, the presence of AB/FS mismatch was closely related to the presence of T2/FLAIR mismatch (p = 0.014). Conclusions CEST-derived biomarkers for amides, amines, and their ratio can help with histomolecular staging in gliomas without intense contrast enhancement. T2/FLAIR mismatch is reflected in the presence of AB/FS CEST mismatch. The AB/FS CEST mismatch identifies glioma subgroups that may have prognostic and clinical relevance.

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 135
Panagiotis J. Vlachostergios ◽  
Athanasios Karathanasis ◽  
Vassilios Tzortzis

Background: Advanced prostate cancer (PC) may accumulate genomic alterations that hallmark lineage plasticity and transdifferentiation to a neuroendocrine (NE) phenotype. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a key player in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, its clinical value and role in NE differentiation in advanced PC has not been fully investigated. Methods: Two hundred and eight patients from a multicenter, prospective cohort of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with available RNA sequencing data were analyzed for tumor FAP mRNA expression, and its association with overall survival (OS) and NE tumor features was investigated. Results: Twenty-one patients (10%) were found to have high FAP mRNA expression. Compared to the rest, this subset had a proportionally higher exposure to taxanes and AR signaling inhibitors (abiraterone or enzalutamide) and was characterized by active NE signaling, evidenced by high NEPC- and low AR-gene expression scores. These patients with high tumor mRNA FAP expression had a more aggressive clinical course and significantly shorter survival (12 months) compared to those without altered FAP expression (28 months, log-rank p = 0.016). Conclusions: FAP expression may serve as a valuable NE marker indicating a worse prognosis in patients with metastatic CRPC.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 192
Krzysztof Lukaszuk ◽  
Grzegorz Jakiel ◽  
Izabela Wocławek Potocka ◽  
Jolanta Kiewisz ◽  
Jolanta Olszewska ◽  

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a widely used and accepted treatment of choice for oocyte fertilization. However, the quality of sperm selection depends on the accurate visualization of the morphology, which can be achieved with a high image resolution. We aim to correct the conviction, shown in a myriad of publications, that an ultra-high magnification in the range of 6000×–10,000× can be achieved with an optical microscope. The goal of observing sperm under the microscope is not to simply get a larger image, but rather to obtain more detail—therefore, we indicate that the optical system’s resolution is what should be primarily considered. We provide specific microscope system setup recommendations sufficient for most clinical cases that are based on our experience showing that the optical resolution of 0.5 μm allows appropriate visualization of sperm defects. Last but not least, we suggest that mixed research results regarding the clinical value of IMSI, comparing to ICSI, can stem from a lack of standardization of microscopy techniques used for both ICSI and IMSI.

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