cucumber mosaic virus
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hideki Takahashi ◽  
Midori Tabara ◽  
Shuhei Miyashita ◽  
Sugihiro Ando ◽  
Shuichi Kawano ◽  

A cucumber mosaic virus isolate, named Ho [CMV(Ho)], was isolated from a symptomless Arabidopsis halleri field sample containing low virus titers. An analysis of CMV(Ho) RNA molecules indicated that the virus isolate, besides the usual cucumovirus tripartite RNA genome, additionally contained defective RNA3 molecules and a satellite RNA. To study the underlying mechanism of the persistent CMV(Ho) infection in perennial A. halleri, infectious cDNA clones were generated for all its genetic elements. CMV, which consists of synthetic transcripts from the infectious tripartite RNA genomes, and designated CMV(Ho)tr, multiplied in A. halleri and annual Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 to a similar level as the virulent strain CMV(Y), but did not induce any symptoms in them. The response of Col-0 to a series of reassortant CMVs between CMV(Ho)tr and CMV(Y) suggested that the establishment of an asymptomatic phenotype of CMV(Ho) infection was due to the 2b gene of CMV RNA2, but not due to the presence of the defective RNA3 and satellite RNA. The accumulation of CMV(Ho) 2b protein tagged with the FLAG epitope (2b.Ho-FLAG) in 2b.Ho-FLAG-transformed Col-0 did not induce any symptoms, suggesting a 2b-dependent persistency of CMV(Ho)tr infection in Arabidopsis. The 2b protein interacted with Argonaute 4, which is known to regulate the cytosine methylation levels of host genomic DNA. Whole genomic bisulfite sequencing analysis of CMV(Ho)tr- and mock-inoculated Col-0 revealed that cytosine hypomethylation in the promoter regions of 82 genes, including two genes encoding transcriptional regulators (DOF1.7 and CBP1), was induced in response to CMV(Ho)tr infection. Moreover, the increased levels of hypomethylation in the promoter region of both genes, during CMV(Ho)tr infection, were correlated with the up- or down-regulation of their expression. Taken altogether, the results indicate that during persistent CMV(Ho) infection in Arabidopsis, host gene expression may be epigenetically modulated resulting from a 2b-mediated cytosine hypomethylation of host genomic DNA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (4) ◽  
Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan ◽  
Yasir Iftikhar ◽  
Ashara Sajid ◽  
Muhammad Usman Ghani ◽  
Muhammad Zafar-Ul-Hye ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Maria Luz Annacondia ◽  
German Martinez

Abstract Background RNA silencing has an important role mediating sequence-specific virus resistance in plants. The complex interaction of viruses with RNA silencing involves the loading of viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) into its host ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins. As a side effect of their antiviral activity, vsiRNAs loading into AGO proteins can also mediate the silencing of endogenous genes. Here, we analyze at the genome-wide level both aspects of the interference of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) with the RNA silencing machinery of Arabidopsis thaliana. Results We observe CMV-derived vsiRNAs affect the levels of endogenous sRNA classes. Furthermore, we analyze the incorporation of vsiRNAs into AGO proteins with a described antiviral role and the viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) 2b, by combining protein immunoprecipitation with sRNA high-throughput sequencing. Interestingly, vsiRNAs represent a substantial percentage of AGO-loaded sRNAs and displace other endogenous sRNAs. As a countermeasure, the VSR 2b loaded vsiRNAs and mRNA-derived siRNAs, which affect the expression of the genes they derive from. Additionally, we analyze how vsiRNAs incorporate into the endogenous RNA silencing pathways by exploring their target mRNAs using parallel analysis of RNA end (PARE) sequencing, which allow us to identify vsiRNA-targeted genes genome-wide. Conclusions This work exemplifies the complex relationship of RNA viruses with the endogenous RNA silencing machinery and the multiple aspects of virus resistance and virulence that this interaction induces.

2021 ◽  
pp. 114402
Yunlong Yan ◽  
Maoxi Huang ◽  
Li Wang ◽  
Wei Xue ◽  
Xin Xie ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (6) ◽  
pp. 632-640
Venkata Subba Reddy Gangireddygari ◽  
Bong Nam Chung ◽  
In-Sook Cho ◽  
Ju-Yeon Yoon

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) causes severe economic loss in crop productivity of both agriculture and horticulture crops in Korea. The previous surveys showed that naturally available biopolymer material – chitosan (CS), which is from shrimp cells, reduced CMV accumulation on pepper. To improve the antiviral activity of CS, it was synthesized to form phosphate cross-linked chitosan (PCS) and compared with the original CS. Initially, the activity of CS and PCS (0.01%, 0.05%, and 0.1% concentration) compound against PMMoV infection and replication was tested using a half-leaf assay on Nicotiana glutinosa leaves. The total number of local lesions represented on a leaf of N. glutinosa were counted and analyzed with phosphate buffer treated leaves as a negative control. The leaves treated with a 0.1% concentration of CS or PCS compounds exhibited an inhibition effect by 40-75% compared with the control leaves. The same treatment significantly reduced about 40% CMV accumulation measured by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and increased the relative expression levels of the NPR1, PR-1, cysteine protease inhibitor gene, LOX, PAL, SRC2, CRF3 and ERF4 genes analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, in chili pepper plants.

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