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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Amadou Sidibé ◽  
Marie Thérèse Charles ◽  
Jean-François Lucier ◽  
Yanqun Xu ◽  
Carole Beaulieu

Preharvest application of hormetic doses of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) generates beneficial effects in plants. In this study, within 1 week, four UV-C treatments of 0.4 kJ/m2 were applied to 3-week-old lettuce seedlings. The leaves were inoculated with a virulent strain of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv) 48 h after the last UV-C application. The extent of the disease was tracked over time and a transcriptomic analysis was performed on lettuce leaf samples. Samples of lettuce leaves, from both control and treated groups, were taken at two different times corresponding to T2, 48 h after the last UV-C treatment and T3, 24 h after inoculation (i.e., 72 h after the last UV-C treatment). A significant decrease in disease severity between the UV-C treated lettuce and the control was observed on days 4, 8, and 14 after pathogen inoculation. Data from the transcriptomic study revealed, that in response to the effect of UV-C alone and/or UV-C + Xcv, a total of 3828 genes were differentially regulated with fold change (|log2-FC|) > 1.5 and false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05. Among these, of the 2270 genes of known function 1556 were upregulated and 714 were downregulated. A total of 10 candidate genes were verified by qPCR and were generally consistent with the transcriptomic results. The differentially expressed genes observed in lettuce under the conditions of the present study were associated with 14 different biological processes in the plant. These genes are involved in a series of metabolic pathways associated with the ability of lettuce treated with hormetic doses of UV-C to resume normal growth and to defend themselves against potential stressors. The results indicate that the hormetic dose of UV-C applied preharvest on lettuce in this study, can be considered as an eustress that does not interfere with the ability of the treated plants to carry on a set of key physiological processes namely: homeostasis, growth and defense.

Bui Anh Thy ◽  
Nguyen Tang Truong ◽  
Kim Van Phuc ◽  
Nguyen Thien Thu ◽  
Nguyen Van Dung ◽  

From the PRRSV virulent strain BG8 isolated from a PRRSV-infected pig, using serial passage method in MARC-145 cell line, we have successfully obtained an attenuated strain in 95th passage, named as BG895, with high potential to be a vaccine candidate. In this study, we present the results of the safety and efficacy evaluation of BG895 against PRRSV in experimental pigs. Trial results of vaccine formula using strain BG895 have very high safety when inoculating 5 doses/animal and 10 doses/animal. Evaluation of immune response by ELISA method showed that, from 14 days post inoculation, anti-PRRSV antibodies were detected in the serum of all inoculated pigs in vaccine batches with the lowest S/P index of 1.50 ± 0.4 and the highest S/P was 2.36 ± 0.1 from 28 days post inoculation. The IPMA method showed that the antibody titer of the vaccine reached ≥ 1/160 in 100% of pigs from 21 days post inoculation andreached ≥ 1/640 in 100% of pigs from 28 days post inoculation, indicating that the vaccine was effective at protecting 100% of pigs from 28 days post inoculation. The protective effect of the vaccine was evaluated by the virulent challenge from 28 days post inoculation with 1 dose/animal compared with the control group. The results showed that compared with all pigs in the control group with typical clinical manifestations of Blue-ear disease, all inoculated pigs had normal body temperature and weight gain, besides, the S/P index increased from 1.65 ± 0.1 to the highest 2.99 ± 0.2; the average antibody titer was >1/2560, and virus wasnot detected in nasal fluid by real-time RT-PCR from 7 days post challenge. These experimental results confirmed the safety and efficacy of the attenuated PRRS vaccine based on BG895strain.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 185-197
F.G. Eabasha ◽  
K.K Al- Awadi

Twelve horses were divided into three equal groups. Group I animals were inoculated orally with (3.7 X1012)CFU of a highly virulent strain of Salmonella typhimurium 3,;a_r cop§_n__hagen. Group 11 animals were inoculated orally with 2 doses of Salmonella and then challenged with a high dose. Group III horses, served as non - infected control. ‘ The main lesions were primarily confined to the digestive tract and were characterized by catarrhal enteritis. Pseudornembrane covered the mucosa of the ileum at the ileo — cecal Valve region. Histopathological examination revealed marked rnononuclear cellular infiltration in the lamina propria and occasionally necrosis and edema in the mucosa and submucosa of the intestine.

2022 ◽  
Vol 66 (6) ◽  
pp. 399-408
S. S. Zainutdinov ◽  
G. F. Sivolobova ◽  
V. B. Loktev ◽  
G. V. Kochneva

Mucosal immunity is realized through a structural and functional system called mucose-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). MALT is subdivided into parts (clusters) depending on their anatomical location, but they all have a similar structure: mucus layer, epithelial tissue, lamina propria and lymphoid follicles. Plasma cells of MALT produce a unique type of immunoglobulins, IgA, which have the ability to polymerize. In mucosal immunization, the predominant form of IgA is a secretory dimer, sIgA, which is concentrated in large quantities in the mucosa. Mucosal IgA acts as a first line of defense and neutralizes viruses efficiently at the portal of entry, preventing infection of epithelial cells and generalization of infection. To date, several mucosal antiviral vaccines have been licensed, which include attenuated strains of the corresponding viruses: poliomyelitis, influenza, and rotavirus. Despite the tremendous success of these vaccines, in particular, in the eradication of poliomyelitis, significant disadvantages of using attenuated viral strains in their composition are the risk of reactogenicity and the possibility of reversion to a virulent strain during vaccination. Nevertheless, it is mucosal vaccination, which mimics a natural infection, is able to induce a fast and effective immune response and thus help prevent and possibly stop outbreaks of many viral infections. Currently, a number of intranasal vaccines based on a new vector approach are successfully undergoing clinical trials. In these vaccines, the safe viral vectors are used to deliver protectively significant immunogens of pathogenic viruses. The most tested vector for intranasal vaccines is adenovirus, and the most significant immunogen is SARSCoV-2 S protein. Mucosal vector vaccines against human respiratory syncytial virus and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 based on Sendai virus, which is able to replicate asymptomatically in cells of bronchial epithelium, are also being investigated.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 161
Anastazija Jež-Krebelj ◽  
Maja Rupnik-Cigoj ◽  
Marija Stele ◽  
Marko Chersicola ◽  
Maruša Pompe-Novak ◽  

In a vineyard, grapevines are simultaneously exposed to combinations of several abiotic (drought, extreme temperatures, salinity) and biotic stresses (phytoplasmas, viruses, bacteria). With climate change, the incidences of drought in vine growing regions are increased and the host range of pathogens with increased chances of virulent strain development has expanded. Therefore, we studied the impact of the combination of abiotic (drought) and biotic (Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) infection) stress on physiological and molecular responses on the grapevine of cv. Schioppettino by studying the influence of drought and GFLV infection on plant water status of grapevines, on grapevine xylem vessel occlusion, and on expression patterns of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (NCED1), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 2 (NCED2), WRKY encoding transcription factor (WRKY54) and RD22-like protein (RD22) genes in grapevines. A complex response of grapevine to the combination of drought and GFLV infection was shown, including priming in the case of grapevine water status, net effect in the case of area of occluded vessels in xylem, and different types of interaction of both stresses in the case of expression of four abscisic acid-related genes. Our results showed that mild (but not severe) water stress can be better sustained by GFLV infection rather than by healthy vines. GFLV proved to improve the resilience of the plants to water stress, which is an important outcome to cope with the challenges of global warming.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hideki Takahashi ◽  
Midori Tabara ◽  
Shuhei Miyashita ◽  
Sugihiro Ando ◽  
Shuichi Kawano ◽  

A cucumber mosaic virus isolate, named Ho [CMV(Ho)], was isolated from a symptomless Arabidopsis halleri field sample containing low virus titers. An analysis of CMV(Ho) RNA molecules indicated that the virus isolate, besides the usual cucumovirus tripartite RNA genome, additionally contained defective RNA3 molecules and a satellite RNA. To study the underlying mechanism of the persistent CMV(Ho) infection in perennial A. halleri, infectious cDNA clones were generated for all its genetic elements. CMV, which consists of synthetic transcripts from the infectious tripartite RNA genomes, and designated CMV(Ho)tr, multiplied in A. halleri and annual Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 to a similar level as the virulent strain CMV(Y), but did not induce any symptoms in them. The response of Col-0 to a series of reassortant CMVs between CMV(Ho)tr and CMV(Y) suggested that the establishment of an asymptomatic phenotype of CMV(Ho) infection was due to the 2b gene of CMV RNA2, but not due to the presence of the defective RNA3 and satellite RNA. The accumulation of CMV(Ho) 2b protein tagged with the FLAG epitope (2b.Ho-FLAG) in 2b.Ho-FLAG-transformed Col-0 did not induce any symptoms, suggesting a 2b-dependent persistency of CMV(Ho)tr infection in Arabidopsis. The 2b protein interacted with Argonaute 4, which is known to regulate the cytosine methylation levels of host genomic DNA. Whole genomic bisulfite sequencing analysis of CMV(Ho)tr- and mock-inoculated Col-0 revealed that cytosine hypomethylation in the promoter regions of 82 genes, including two genes encoding transcriptional regulators (DOF1.7 and CBP1), was induced in response to CMV(Ho)tr infection. Moreover, the increased levels of hypomethylation in the promoter region of both genes, during CMV(Ho)tr infection, were correlated with the up- or down-regulation of their expression. Taken altogether, the results indicate that during persistent CMV(Ho) infection in Arabidopsis, host gene expression may be epigenetically modulated resulting from a 2b-mediated cytosine hypomethylation of host genomic DNA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Yao Huang ◽  
Zhiwen Xu ◽  
Sirui Gu ◽  
Mincai Nie ◽  
Yuling Wang ◽  

Abstract Background Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a new pathogenic porcine intestinal coronavirus, which has appeared in many countries since 2012. PDCoV disease caused acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and death in piglets, resulted in significant economic loss to the pig industry. However, there is no commercially available vaccine for PDCoV. In this study, we constructed recombinant pseudorabies virus (rPRVXJ-delgE/gI/TK-S) expressing PDCoV spike (S) protein and evaluated its safety and immunogenicity in mice. Results The recombinant strain rPRVXJ-delgE/gI/TK-S obtained by CRISPR/Cas gE gene editing technology and homologous recombination technology has genetic stability in baby hamster syrian kidney-21 (BHK-21) cells and is safe to mice. After immunizing mice with rPRVXJ-delgE/gI/TK-S, the expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 in peripheral blood of mice were up-regulated, the proliferation of spleen-specific T lymphocytes and the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in mice spleen was increased. rPRVXJ-delgE/gI/TK-S showed good immunogenicity for mice. On the seventh day after booster immunity, PRV gB and PDCoV S specific antibodies were detected in mice, and the antibody level continued to increase, and the neutralizing antibody level reached the maximum at 28 days post- immunization (dpi). The recombinant strain can protect mice with 100% from the challenge of virulent strain (PRV XJ) and accelerate the detoxification of PDCoV in mice. Conclusion The recombinant rPRVXJ-delgE/gI/TK-S strain is safe and effective with strong immunogenicity and is expected to be a candidate vaccine against PDCoV and PRV.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (4) ◽  
pp. 51-56
G. N. Leonova

In this work, it was necessary to show the first stage of the interaction of the tick-borne encephalitis virus with blood cells, during which the selection of virus strains capable of successful assembly of virions occurs.The aim of the work: to show ex vivo the features of interaction of strains TBEV with different molecular genetic structure and virulence with human blood leukocytes.Materials and methods. The donor’s venous blood was infected ex vivo with the TBEV using the highly virulent strain Dal’negorsk and the low-virulent strain Primorye-437. Virus accumulation in experimental blood samples was observed after 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, and 24 h of exposition. The indication of the virus, shown by different methods of laboratory diagnostics (ELISA, PCR, IFA, titer of the infectious virus), made it possible to identify the characteristic features of the initial stage of the infectious process caused by these strains TBEV.Conclusion. The highly pathogenic strain Dal‘ has demonstrated the ability to quickly penetrate into leukocytes in 15 minutes, and, therefore, at the initial stage of the infectious process, to implement the mechanisms of its “escape” from immune supervision. The low-virulent strain P-437, on the contrary, showed the ability to stay on the surface of leukocytes for a long time, penetrating into them only after 24 hours of exposure, immediately influencing the cells of the immune system, which can lead to rapid elimination of the virus from the body.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13628
Tao Wu ◽  
Haimiao Zhang ◽  
Yunya Bi ◽  
Yue Yu ◽  
Haifeng Liu ◽  

Xanthomonas oryzae delivers transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) into plant cells to facilitate infection. Following economic principles, the redundant TALEs are rarely identified in Xanthomonas. Previously, we identified the Tal2b, which activates the expression of the rice 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase gene OsF3H03g to promote infection in the highly virulent strain of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola HGA4. Here, we reveal that another clustered TALE, Tal2c, also functioned as a virulence factor to target rice OsF3H04g, a homologue of OsF3H03g. Transferring Tal2c into RS105 induced expression of OsF3H04g to coincide with increased susceptibility in rice. Overexpressing OsF3H04g caused higher susceptibility and less salicylic acid (SA) production compared to wild-type plants. Moreover, CRISPR–Cas9 system-mediated editing of the effector-binding element in the promoters of OsF3H03g or OsF3H04g was found to specifically enhance resistance to Tal2b- or Tal2c-transferring strains, but had no effect on resistance to either RS105 or HGA4. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that several reported SA-related and defense-related genes commonly altered expression in OsF3H04g overexpression line compared with those identified in OsF3H03g overexpression line. Overall, our results reveal a functional redundancy mechanism of pathogenic virulence in Xoc in which tandem Tal2b and Tal2c specifically target homologues of host genes to interfere with rice immunity by reducing SA.

2021 ◽  
Hazem F. M. Abdelaal ◽  
Tyler C. Thacker ◽  
Bishoy Wadie ◽  
Mitchell V. Palmer ◽  
Adel M. Talaat

Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis ( M. bovis ), is an important enzootic disease affecting mainly cattle, worldwide. Despite the implementation of national campaigns to eliminate the disease, bovine tuberculosis remains recalcitrant to eradication in several countries. Characterizing the host response to M. bovis infection is crucial for understanding the immunopathogenesis of the disease and for developing better control strategies. To profile the host responses to M. bovis infection, we analyzed the transcriptome of whole blood cells collected from experimentally infected calves with a virulent strain of M. bovis using RNA transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq). Comparative analysis of calf transcriptomes at early (8 weeks) vs. late (20 weeks) aerosol infection with M. bovis revealed divergent and unique profile for each stage of infection. Notably, at the early time point, transcriptional upregulation was observed among several of the top-ranking canonical pathways involved in T-cell chemotaxis. At the late time point, enrichment in the cell mediated cytotoxicity (e.g. Granzyme B) was the predominant host response. These results showed significant change in bovine transcriptional profiles and identified networks of chemokine receptors and monocyte chemoattractant protein (CCL) co-regulated genes that underline the host-mycobacterial interactions during progression of bovine tuberculosis in cattle. Further analysis of the transcriptomic profiles identified potential biomarker targets for early and late phases of tuberculosis in cattle. Overall, the identified profiles better characterized identified novel immunomodulatory mechanisms and provided a list of targets for further development of potential diagnostics for tuberculosis in cattle.

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