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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
L. M. Barbosa ◽  
M. B. Santiago ◽  
V. T. Moretto ◽  
D. Athanazio ◽  
D. Takahashi ◽  
...  

Abstract Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is an important component of the innate immune system and have been associated with several autoimmune diseases, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to investigate polymorphisms in TLR9 gene in a Brazilian SLE patients group and their association with clinical manifestation, particularly Jaccoud’s arthropathy (JA). We analyzed DNA samples from 204 SLE patients, having a subgroup of them presenting JA (n=24). A control group (n=133) from the same city was also included. TLR9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (−1237 C>T and +2848 G>A) were identified by sequencing analysis. The TLR9 gene genotype frequency was similar both in SLE patients and the control group. In the whole SLE population, an association between the homozygosis of allele C at position −1237 with psychosis and anemia (p < 0.01) was found. Likewise, the homozygosis of allele G at position +2848 was associated with a discoid rash (p < 0.05). There was no association between JA and TLR9 polymorphisms. These data show that TLR9 polymorphisms do not seem to be a predisposing factor for SLE in the Brazilian population, and that SNPs are not associated with JA.


Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 233
Author(s):  
Rosangela Marasco ◽  
Mariagiovanna Gazzillo ◽  
Nicoletta Campolattano ◽  
Margherita Sacco ◽  
Lidia Muscariello

In southern Italy, some artisanal farms produce mozzarella and caciocavallo cheeses by using natural whey starter (NWS), whose microbial diversity is responsible for the characteristic flavor and texture of the final product. We studied the microbial community of NWS cultures of cow’s milk (NWSc) for the production of caciocavallo and buffalo’s milk (NWSb) for the production of mozzarella, both from artisanal farms. Bacterial identification at species and strain level was based on an integrative strategy, combining culture-dependent (sequencing of the 16S rDNA, species/subspecies-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and clustering by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) and culture-independent (next-generation sequencing analysis, NGS) approaches. Results obtained with both approaches showed the occurrence of five species of lactic acid bacteria in NWSb (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Lactobacillus helveticus) and five species in NWSc (Lc. lactis subsp. lactis, Enterococcus faecium, and S. thermophilus, Lb. helveticus, and Lb. delbrueckii), with the last two found only by the NGS analysis. Moreover, RAPD profiles, performed on Lc. lactis subsp. lactis different isolates from both NWSs, showed nine strains in NWSb and seven strains in NWSc, showing a microbial diversity also at strain level. Characterization of the microbiota of natural whey starters aims to collect new starter bacteria to use for tracing microbial community during the production of artisanal cheeses, in order to preserve their quality and authenticity, and to select new Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strains for the production of functional foods.


Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 184
Author(s):  
Nicolas C. Nicolaides ◽  
Manousos Makridakis ◽  
Rafael Stroggilos ◽  
Vasiliki Lygirou ◽  
Eleni Koniari ◽  
...  

: Significant inter-individual variation in terms of susceptibility to several stress-related disorders, such as myocardial infarction and Alzheimer’s disease, and therapeutic response has been observed among healthy subjects. The molecular features responsible for this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. Proteomics, in association with bioinformatics analysis, offer a comprehensive description of molecular phenotypes with clear links to human disease pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative plasma proteomics analysis of glucocorticoid resistant and glucocorticoid sensitive healthy subjects and provide clues of the underlying physiological differences. For this purpose, 101 healthy volunteers were given a very low dose (0.25 mg) of dexamethasone at midnight, and were stratified into the 10% most glucocorticoid sensitive (S) (n = 11) and 10% most glucocorticoid resistant (R) (n = 11) according to the 08:00 h serum cortisol concentrations determined the following morning. One month following the very-low dose dexamethasone suppression test, DNA and plasma samples were collected from the 22 selected individuals. Sequencing analysis did not reveal any genetic defects in the human glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) gene. To investigate the proteomic profile of plasma samples, we used Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and found 110 up-regulated and 66 down-regulated proteins in the S compared to the R group. The majority of the up-regulated proteins in the S group were implicated in platelet activation. To predict response to cortisol prior to administration, a random forest classifier was developed by using the proteomics data in order to distinguish S from R individuals. Apolipoprotein A4 (APOA4) and gelsolin (GSN) were the most important variables in the classification, and warrant further investigation. Our results indicate that a proteomics signature may differentiate the S from the R healthy subjects, and may be useful in clinical practice. In addition, it may provide clues of the underlying molecular mechanisms of the chronic stress-related diseases, including myocardial infarction and Alzheimer’s disease.


Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 300
Author(s):  
Hiroshi Ohguro ◽  
Yosuke Ida ◽  
Fumihito Hikage ◽  
Araya Umetsu ◽  
Hanae Ichioka ◽  
...  

To elucidate the currently unknown mechanisms responsible for the diverse biological aspects between two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, RNA-sequencing analyses were performed. During a 7-day culture period, 2D- and 3D-cultured 3T3-L1 cells were subjected to lipid staining by BODIPY, qPCR for adipogenesis related genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (Cebpa), Ap2 (fatty acid-binding protein 4; Fabp4), leptin, and AdipoQ (adiponectin), and RNA-sequencing analysis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected by next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and validated by a quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (qRT–PCR). Bioinformatic analyses were performed on DEGs using a Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and an Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Significant spontaneous adipogenesis was observed in 3D 3T3-L1 spheroids, but not in 2D-cultured cells. The mRNA expression of Pparγ, Cebpa, and Ap2 among the five genes tested were significantly higher in 3D spheroids than in 2D-cultured cells, thus providing support for this conclusion. RNA analysis demonstrated that a total of 826 upregulated and 725 downregulated genes were identified as DEGs. GO enrichment analysis and IPA found 50 possible upstream regulators, and among these, 6 regulators—transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), interleukin 6 (IL6), angiotensinogen (AGT), FOS, and MYC—were, in fact, significantly upregulated. Further analyses of these regulators by causal networks of the top 14 predicted diseases and functions networks (IPA network score indicated more than 30), suggesting that STAT3 was the most critical upstream regulator. The findings presented herein suggest that STAT3 has a critical role in regulating the unique biological properties of 3D spheroids that are produced from 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Tarin M. Bigley ◽  
Monica Xiong ◽  
Muhammad Ali ◽  
Yun Chen ◽  
Chao Wang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The role of viral infection in Alzheimer Disease (AD) pathogenesis is an area of great interest in recent years. Several studies have suggested an association between the human roseoloviruses, HHV-6 and HHV-7, and AD. Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques are a hallmark neuropathological finding of AD and were recently proposed to have an antimicrobial function in response to infection. Identifying a causative and mechanistic role of human roseoloviruses in AD has been confounded by limitations in performing in vivo studies. Recent -omics based approaches have demonstrated conflicting associations between human roseoloviruses and AD. Murine roseolovirus (MRV) is a natural murine pathogen that is highly-related to the human roseoloviruses, providing an opportunity to perform well-controlled studies of the impact of roseolovirus on Aβ deposition. Methods We utilized the 5XFAD mouse model to test whether MRV induces Aβ deposition in vivo. We also evaluated viral load and neuropathogenesis of MRV infection. To evaluate Aβ interaction with MRV, we performed electron microscopy. RNA-sequencing of a cohort of AD brains compared to control was used to investigate the association between human roseolovirus and AD. Results We found that 5XFAD mice were susceptible to MRV infection and developed neuroinflammation. Moreover, we demonstrated that Aβ interacts with viral particles in vitro and, subsequent to this interaction, can disrupt infection. Despite this, neither peripheral nor brain infection with MRV increased or accelerated Aβ plaque formation. Moreover, −omics based approaches have demonstrated conflicting associations between human roseoloviruses and AD. Our RNA-sequencing analysis of a cohort of AD brains compared to controls did not show an association between roseolovirus infection and AD. Conclusion Although MRV does infect the brain and cause transient neuroinflammation, our data do not support a role for murine or human roseoloviruses in the development of Aβ plaque formation and AD.


2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ziwen Pan ◽  
Rongrong Zhao ◽  
Boyan Li ◽  
Yanhua Qi ◽  
Wei Qiu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Gliomas are the most common malignant primary brain tumours with a highly immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment (TME) and poor prognosis. Circular RNAs (circRNA), a newly found type of endogenous noncoding RNA, characterized by high stability, abundance, conservation, have been shown to play an important role in the pathophysiological processes and TME remodelling of various tumours. Methods CircRNA sequencing analysis was performed to explore circRNA expression profiles in normal and glioma tissues. The biological function of a novel circRNA, namely, circNEIL3, in glioma development was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, RNA pull-down, mass spectrum, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), luciferase reporter, and co-immunoprecipitation assays were conducted. Results We identified circNEIL3, which could be cyclized by EWS RNA-binding protein 1(EWSR1), to be upregulated in glioma tissues and to correlate positively with glioma malignant progression. Functionally, we confirmed that circNEIL3 promotes tumorigenesis and carcinogenic progression of glioma in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, circNEIL3 stabilizes IGF2BP3 (insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3) protein, a known oncogenic protein, by preventing HECTD4-mediated ubiquitination. Moreover, circNEIL3 overexpression glioma cells drives macrophage infiltration into the tumour microenvironment (TME). Finally, circNEIL3 is packaged into exosomes by hnRNPA2B1 and transmitted to infiltrated tumour associated macrophages (TAMs), enabling them to acquire immunosuppressive properties by stabilizing IGF2BP3 and in turn promoting glioma progression. Conclusions This work reveals that circNEIL3 plays a nonnegligible multifaceted role in promoting gliomagenesis, malignant progression and macrophage tumour-promoting phenotypes polarization, highlighting that circNEIL3 is a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in glioma.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sajid Ur Rahman ◽  
Haiyan Gong ◽  
Rongsheng Mi ◽  
Yan Huang ◽  
Xiangan Han ◽  
...  

Cryptosporidium parvum infection is very common in infants, immunocompromised patients, or in young ruminants, and chitosan supplementation exhibits beneficial effects against the infection caused by C. parvum. This study investigated whether chitosan supplementation modulates the gut microbiota and mediates the TLR4/STAT1 signaling pathways and related cytokines to attenuate C. parvum infection in immunosuppressed mice. Immunosuppressed C57BL/6 mice were divided into five treatment groups. The unchallenged mice received a basal diet (control), and three groups of mice challenged with 1 × 106 C. parvum received a basal diet, a diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg/day paromomycin, and 1 mg/kg/day chitosan, and unchallenged mice treated with 1 mg/kg/day chitosan. Chitosan supplementation regulated serum biochemical indices and significantly (p &lt; 0.01) reduced C. parvum oocyst excretion in infected mice treated with chitosan compared with the infected mice that received no treatment. Chitosan-fed infected mice showed significantly (p &lt; 0.01) decreased mRNA expression levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) compared to infected mice that received no treatment. Chitosan significantly inhibited TLR4 and upregulated STAT1 protein expression (p &lt; 0.01) in C. parvum-infected mice. 16S rRNA sequencing analysis revealed that chitosan supplementation increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes/Bacteroides, while that of Proteobacteria, Tenericutes, Defferribacteres, and Firmicutes decreased (p &lt; 0.05). Overall, the findings revealed that chitosan supplementation can ameliorate C. parvum infection by remodeling the composition of the gut microbiota of mice, leading to mediated STAT1/TLR4 up- and downregulation and decreased production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and these changes resulted in better resolution and control of C. parvum infection.


2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Li Zhang ◽  
Yiming Zhang ◽  
Chengdi Wang ◽  
Ying Yang ◽  
Yinyun Ni ◽  
...  

AbstractLung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and squamous carcinoma (LUSC) are two major subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer with distinct pathologic features and treatment paradigms. The heterogeneity can be attributed to genetic, transcriptional, and epigenetic parameters. Here, we established a multi-omics atlas, integrating 52 single-cell RNA sequencing and 2342 public bulk RNA sequencing. We investigated their differences in genetic amplification, cellular compositions, and expression modules. We revealed that LUAD and LUSC contained amplifications occurring selectively in subclusters of AT2 and basal cells, and had distinct cellular composition modules associated with poor survival of lung cancer. Malignant and stage-specific gene analyses further uncovered critical transcription factors and genes in tumor progression. Moreover, we identified subclusters with proliferating and differentiating properties in AT2 and basal cells. Overexpression assays of ten genes, including sub-cluster markers AQP5 and KPNA2, further indicated their functional roles, providing potential targets for early diagnosis and treatment in lung cancer.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mi-Jin An ◽  
Ji-Young Kim ◽  
Jinhong Park ◽  
Jinho Kim ◽  
Dae-Hyun Kim ◽  
...  

Abstract Epigenetic alterations explained by the “loss of heterochromatin” model have been proposed as a universal mechanism of aging, but the region-specific changes of heterochromatin during aging are unclear. Here, we examine age-dependent transcriptomic profiling of mouse retinal neurons to identify epigenetic regulators involved in heterochromatin loss. RNA sequencing analysis revealed gradual down-regulation of Kdm3b during retinal aging. Disruption of Kdm3b (Kdm3b+/-) in 12-month-old mouse retina decreased the number of cone photoreceptors and changed the morphology of cone ribbon synapses. Integration of transcriptome profiling with epigenomic analysis demonstrated gain of heterochromatin feature in synapse assembly and vesicle transport genes via the accumulation of H3K9 mono- and di-methylation. However, the loss of heterochromatin in apoptotic genes exacerbated retinal neurodegeneration. We propose that this KDM3B-centered epigenomic network is crucial for maintaining cone photoreceptor homeostasis via the modulation of gene-set specific heterochromatin features during aging.


2022 ◽  
pp. ASN.2021030286
Author(s):  
Tilman Breiderhoff ◽  
Nina Himmerkus ◽  
Luca Meoli ◽  
Anja Fromm ◽  
Sebastian Sewerin ◽  
...  

Background The tight junction proteins claudin-2 and claudin-10a form paracellular cation and anion channels, respectively, and are expressed in the proximal tubule. However, the physiological role of claudin-10a in the kidney has been unclear. Methods To investigate the physiologic role of claudin-10a, we generated claudin-10a-deficient mice; confirmed successful knockout by Southern blot, Western blot, and immunofluorescence staining; and analyzed urine and serum of knockout and wild-type animals. We also used electrophysiologic studies to investigate the functionality of isolated proximal tubules, and studied compensatory regulation by pharmacologic intervention, RNA sequencing analysis, Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, and respirometry. Results Mice deficient in claudin-10a were fertile and without overt phenotypes. Upon knockout, claudin-10a was replaced by claudin-2 in all proximal tubule segments. Electrophysiology showed conversion from paracellular anion preference to cation preference and a loss of paracellular Cl- over HCO3- preference. As a consequence, there was tubular retention of calcium and magnesium, higher urine pH, and mild hypermagnesemia. A comparison of other urine and serum parameters under control conditions and sequential pharmacologic transport inhibition, as well as unchanged fractional lithium excretion, suggested compensative measures in proximal and distal tubular segments. Changes in proximal tubular oxygen handling and differential expression of genes regulating fatty acid metabolism indicated proximal tubular adaptation. Western blot and immunofluorescence revealed alterations in distal tubular transport. Conclusions Claudin-10a is the major paracellular anion channel in the proximal tubule and its deletion causes calcium and magnesium hyperreabsorption by claudin-2 redistribution. Transcellular transport in proximal and distal segments and proximal tubular metabolic adaptation compensate for loss of paracellular anion permeability.


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