molecular pathways
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Jyoti Sihag ◽  
Vincenzo Di Marzo

AbstractThe discovery of the endocannabinoidome (eCBome) is evolving gradually with yet to be elucidated functional lipid mediators and receptors. The diet modulates these bioactive lipids and the gut microbiome, both working in an entwined alliance. Mounting evidence suggests that, in different ways and with a certain specialisation, lipid signalling mediators such as N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAGs), and N-acyl-amino acids (NAAs), along with endocannabinoids (eCBs), can modulate physiological mechanisms underpinning appetite, food intake, macronutrient metabolism, pain sensation, blood pressure, mood, cognition, and immunity. This knowledge has been primarily utilised in pharmacology and medicine to develop many drugs targeting the fine and specific molecular pathways orchestrating eCB and eCBome activity. Conversely, the contribution of dietary NAEs, 2-MAGs and eCBs to the biological functions of these molecules has been little studied. In this review, we discuss the importance of (Wh) olistic (E)ndocannabinoidome-Microbiome-Axis Modulation through (N) utrition (WHEN), in the management of obesity and related disorders.

2022 ◽  
David L. Denlinger

Our highly seasonal world restricts insect activity to brief portions of the year. This feature necessitates a sophisticated interpretation of seasonal changes and enactment of mechanisms for bringing development to a halt and then reinitiating it when the inimical season is past. The dormant state of diapause serves to bridge the unfavourable seasons, and its timing provides a powerful mechanism for synchronizing insect development. This book explores how seasonal signals are monitored and used by insects to enact specific molecular pathways that generate the diapause phenotype. The broad perspective offered here scales from the ecological to the molecular and thus provides a comprehensive view of this exciting and vibrant research field, offering insights on topics ranging from pest management, evolution, speciation, climate change and disease transmission, to human health, as well as analogies with other forms of invertebrate dormancy and mammalian hibernation.

Elena Coccia ◽  
Montse Solé ◽  
Joan X Comella

Apoptosis is crucial for the correct development of the nervous system. In adulthood, the same protein machinery involved in programmed cell death can control neuronal adaptiveness through modulation of synaptic pruning and synaptic plasticity processes. Caspases are the main executioners in these molecular pathways, and their strict regulation is essential to perform neuronal remodeling preserving cell survival. FAIM-L and SIVA-1 are regulators of caspase activation. In this review we will focus on FAIM-L and SIVA-1 as two functional antagonists that modulate non-apoptotic caspase activity in neurons. Their participation in long-term depression and neurite pruning will be described in base of the latest studies performed. In addition, the association of FAIM-L non-apoptotic functions with the neurodegeneration process will be reviewed.

2022 ◽  
Juliano Morimoto ◽  
Davina Derous ◽  
Marius Wenzel ◽  
Youn Henry ◽  
Herve Colinet

Intraspecific competition at the larval stage is an important ecological factor affecting life-history, adaptation and evolutionary trajectory in holometabolous insects. However, the molecular pathways and physiological trade-offs underpinning these ecological processes are poorly characterised. We reared Drosophila melanogaster at three egg densities (5, 60 and 300 eggs/ml) and sequenced the transcriptomes of pooled third-instar larvae. We also examined emergence time, egg-to-adult viability, adult mass and adult sex-ratio at each density. Medium crowding had minor detrimental effects on adult phenotypes compared to low density and yielded 24 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including several chitinase enzymes. In contrast, high crowding had substantial detrimental effects on adult phenotypes and yielded 2107 DEGs. Among these, upregulated gene sets were enriched in sugar, steroid and amino acid metabolism as well as DNA replication pathways, whereas downregulated gene sets were enriched in ABC transporters, Taurine, Toll/Imd signalling and P450 xenobiotics metabolism pathways. Overall, our findings show that larval overcrowding has a large consistent effect on several molecular pathways (i.e., core responses) with few pathways displaying density-specific regulation (i.e., idiosyncratic responses). This provides important insights into how holometabolous insects respond to intraspecific competition during development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Diana Fernández ◽  
Cesar Segura ◽  
Mònica Arman ◽  
Suzanne McGill ◽  
Richard Burchmore ◽  

Abstract Background Thrombocytopenia is frequent in Plasmodium vivax malaria but the role of platelets in pathogenesis is unknown. Our study explores the platelet (PLT) proteome from uncomplicated P. vivax patients, to fingerprint molecular pathways related to platelet function. Plasma levels of Platelet factor 4 (PF4/CXCL4) and Von Willebrand factor (VWf), as well as in vitro PLTs—P. vivax infected erythrocytes (Pv-IEs) interactions were also evaluated to explore the PLT response and effect on parasite development. Methods A cohort of 48 patients and 25 healthy controls were enrolled. PLTs were purified from 5 patients and 5 healthy controls for Liquid Chromatography–Mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) analysis. Plasma levels of PF4/CXCL4 and VWf were measured in all participants. Additionally, P. vivax isolates (n = 10) were co-cultured with PLTs to measure PLT activation by PF4/CXCL4 and Pv-IE schizonts formation by light microscopy. Results The proteome from uncomplicated P. vivax patients showed 26 out of 215 proteins significantly decreased. PF4/CXCL4 was significantly decreased followed by other proteins involved in platelet activation, cytoskeletal remodeling, and endothelial adhesion, including glycoprotein V that was significantly decreased in thrombocytopenic patients. In contrast, acute phase proteins, including SERPINs and Amyloid Serum A1 were increased. High levels of VWf in plasma from patients suggested endothelial activation while PF4/CXCL4 plasma levels were similar between patients and controls. Interestingly, high levels of PF4/CXCL4 were released from PLTs—Pv-IEs co-cultures while Pv-IEs schizont formation was inhibited. Conclusions The PLT proteome analyzed in this study suggests that PLTs actively respond to P. vivax infection. Altogether, our findings suggest important roles of PF4/CXCL4 during uncomplicated P. vivax infection through a possible intracellular localization. Our study shows that platelets are active responders to P. vivax infection, inhibiting intraerythrocytic parasite development. Future studies are needed to further investigate the molecular pathways of interaction between platelet proteins found in this study and host response, which could affect parasite control as well as disease progression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 102 (1) ◽  
pp. 411-454
Bart Tummers ◽  
Douglas R. Green

The coevolution of host-pathogen interactions underlies many human physiological traits associated with protection from or susceptibility to infections. Among the mechanisms that animals utilize to control infections are the regulated cell death pathways of pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis. Over the course of evolution these pathways have become intricate and complex, coevolving with microbes that infect animal hosts. Microbes, in turn, have evolved strategies to interfere with the pathways of regulated cell death to avoid eradication by the host. Here, we present an overview of the mechanisms of regulated cell death in Animalia and the strategies devised by pathogens to interfere with these processes. We review the molecular pathways of regulated cell death, their roles in infection, and how they are perturbed by viruses and bacteria, providing insights into the coevolution of host-pathogen interactions and cell death pathways.

Life Sciences ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 120283
Varalakshmi Velagacherla ◽  
Chetan H. Mehta ◽  
Yogendra Nayak ◽  
Usha Y. Nayak

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document