Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry
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Published By Informa Uk (Taylor & Francis)

1347-6947, 0916-8451

Yoko Takyu ◽  
Taro Asamura ◽  
Ayako Okamoto ◽  
Hiroshi Maeda ◽  
Michio Takeuchi ◽  

Abstract Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 has 11 aspartic endopeptidase genes. We searched for milk-clotting enzymes based on the homology of the deduced amino acid sequence with chymosins. As a result, we identified a milk-clotting enzyme in A. oryzae. We expected other Aspergillus species to have a homologous enzyme with milk-clotting activity, and we found the most homologous aspartic endopeptidase from A. luchuensis had milk-clotting activity. Surprisingly, two enzymes were considered as vacuole enzymes according to a study on A. niger proteases. The two enzymes from A. oryzae and A. luchuensis cleaved a peptide between the 105Phe-106Met bond in κ-casein, similar to chymosin. Although both enzymes showed proteolytic activity using casein as a substrate, the optimum pH values for milk-clotting and proteolytic activities were different. Furthermore, the substrate specificities were highly restricted. Therefore, we expected that the Japanese traditional fermentation agent, koji, could be used as an enzyme source for cheese production.

Takaaki Miyata ◽  
Takayasu Mizushima ◽  
Nobuyuki Miyamoto ◽  
Takahiro Yamada ◽  
Koji Hase ◽  

Abstract Dietary factors, affect Akkermansia muciniphila (AM) abundance in the colon, have attracted attention, driven by the inverse correlation between AM abundance and metabolic disorders. We prepared skate-skin mucin (SM), porcine stomach mucin (PM), and rat gastrointestinal mucin (RM). SM contained more sulfated sugars and threonine than PM or RM. Rats were fed a control diet or diets including SM, PM, or RM (15 g/kg), or SM (12 g/kg) from five different threonine contents for 14 d. Cecal total bacteria and AM were less and more numerous, respectively, in SM-fed rats than the others, but SM did not affect microbial species-richness. Low-threonine SM did not induce AM proliferation. The in vitro fermentation with human feces showed that the rate of AM increase was greater with SM than PM. Collectively, heavy SM sulfation facilitates a priority supply of SM-derived amino sugars and threonine that promotes AM proliferation in rats and human feces.

Shusei Kanie ◽  
Mami Komatsu ◽  
Yasuo Mitani

Abstract Lucensosergia lucens is a luminous marine shrimp that has been suggested to use a coelenterazine-dependent luminescence system. However, the genetic information related to the luminescence system is lacking. Our RNA-Seq analysis of this shrimp did not show the existence of known or homologous coelenterazine-dependent luciferase genes. Subsequent biochemical analyses suggested that the shrimp possessed unknown proteinaceous components for coelenterazine luminescence.

Aoi Koga ◽  
Takumi Yamasaki ◽  
Shuhei Hayashi ◽  
Shinjiro Yamamoto ◽  
Hitoshi Miyasaka

Abstract Purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) reportedly have probiotic effects in fish, but whether they are indigenous in the digestive tract of fish is a question that requires answering. We attempted to isolate PNSB from the digestive tract of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) from the Kuma River (Kumamoto, Japan), and successfully isolated 12 PNSB strains. All the isolated PNSB belonged to the genus Rhodopseudomonas. Five Rhodopseudomonas strains were also isolated from the soil samples collected along the Kuma River. The phylogenetic tree based on the partial sequence of pufLM gene indicated that the PNSB from ayu and soil were similar. The effects of NaCl concentration in growth medium on growth were also compared between the PNSB from ayu and soil. The PNSB from ayu showed a better growth performance at a higher NaCl concentration, suggesting that the intestinal tract of ayu, a euryhaline fish, might provide suitable environment for halophilic microorganisms.

Yuumi Okuzono ◽  
Yo Muraki ◽  
Shuji Sato

Abstract Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), a membrane-bound tumor necrosis factor receptor expressed by regulatory T cells (Tregs), participates in Treg proliferation. Although a specific TNFR2 pathway has been reported, the signaling mechanism has not been completely elucidated. This study sought to clarify TNFR2 signaling in human Tregs using amplicon sequencing and single-cell RNA-sequencing to assess Tregs treated with a TNFR2 agonist antibody. Pathway enrichment analysis based on differentially expressed genes highlighted tumor necrosis factor α signaling via nuclear factor-kappa B, interleukin-2 signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 signaling, interferon-γ response, and cell proliferation-related pathways in Tregs after TNFR2 activation. TNFR2-high Treg-focused analysis found that these pathways were fully activated in cancer Tregs, showing high TNFR2 expression. Collectively, these findings suggest that TNFR2 orchestrates multiple pathways in cancer Tregs, which could help cancer cells escape immune surveillance, making TNFR2 signaling a potential anticancer therapy target.

Aisha Nawaz ◽  
Amina Arif ◽  
Adil Jamal ◽  
Muhammad Naveed Shahid ◽  
Ibtesam Nomani ◽  

Abstract Molecules isolated and identified from plant origin are used to manufacture most chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment. We assumed that these plant extracts contain prolific bioactive compounds with potent antiproliferative activities and could be effective against different human cancer cells. Ethanolic extracts were prepared from Chelidonium majus, Myrica cerifera, Fumaria indica, Nigella sativa, and Silybum marianum, and the antiproliferative assay was performed in HepG2 and HeLa human cancer cell lines. All plants extract exhibited antiproliferative potential against studied cancer cell lines in the dose and time-dependent manner. Chelidonium majus and Silybum marianum have shown promising results against HepG2 and HeLa cells, respectively, followed by Myrica cerifera, Fumaria indica, and Nigella sativa. Results indicated that utilization of whole plant extract as anticancer compounds could be of great value in generating novel chemotherapeutic drugs.

Ferry Ferdiansyah Sofian ◽  
Nodoka Kikuchi ◽  
Takuya Koseki ◽  
Yuko Kanno ◽  
Shota Uesugi ◽  

Abstract A new acetyl p-terphenyl derivative, boletopsin 15, was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of fruit bodies of the Basidiomycete Boletopsis leucomelas, together with four known compounds. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectral analysis, as well as by directly comparing the spectral data of the new compound with those of known compounds. The free radical-scavenging activity of the compounds was assayed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging method. The results showed that compounds 1 and 2 exhibited significant antioxidant activity (1: EC50 = 2.1 μM and 2: EC50 = 6.6 μM).

Ikuo Takahashi ◽  
Tsuyoshi Ota ◽  
Tadao Asami

Abstract Hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs) are involved in various developmental processes as well as in biotic and abiotic stress responses. Among them, the presence of spermidine derivatives, such as N1,N8-di(coumaroyl)-spermidine and N1,N8-di(sinapoyl)-spermidine, and their biosynthetic genes have been reported in Arabidopsis, but their functions in plants are still unknown. We chemically synthesized the above mentioned spermidine derivatives to assess their physiological functions in Arabidopsis. We evaluated the growth and development of chemically treated Arabidopsis and demonstrated that these compounds inhibited seed germination, hypocotyl elongation, and primary root growth, which could be due to modulation of plant hormone homeostasis and signaling. The results suggest that these compounds are regulatory metabolites that modulate plant growth and development.

Takashi Iwasaki ◽  
Aiki Maruyama ◽  
Yurika Inui ◽  
Toshihiko Sakurai ◽  
Tsuyoshi Kawano

Abstract Recent epidemiological studies have supported the correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and the development of Alzheimer's disease. HpHpn, a histidine-rich H. pylori protein, forms amyloid-like oligomers; it may be a pathogenic factor for Alzheimer's disease progression. HpHpn may also be transported from the gastric epithelium to the brain. However, HpHpn is secreted from H. pylori on the outer surface of gastric epithelia; therefore, the hypothesized movement of HpHpn across the gastric epithelium to the blood remains controversial. Here, we found the HpHpn showed acidic pH-dependent cellular uptake and subsequent secretion in human gastric epithelial-like carcinoma cells. Furthermore, HpHpn exhibited in vitro permeability across the blood–brain barrier. Although further in vivo experiments are required, our findings suggest that in vitro transcytosis of HpHpn in gastric epithelial cells and the blood–brain barrier may provide new insights into the correlation between H. pylori infections and Alzheimer's disease progression.

Satoko Kawarasaki ◽  
Kazuki Matsuo ◽  
Hidetoshi Kuwata ◽  
Lanxi Zhou ◽  
Jungin Kwon ◽  

Abstract Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown or beige adipocytes is a mitochondrial protein that is expected to enhance whole-body energy expenditure. For the high-throughput screening of UCP1 transcriptional activity regulator, we established a murine inguinal white adipose tissue-derived Ucp1-luciferase reporter preadipocyte line. Using this reporter preadipocyte line, 654 flavor compounds were screened, and a novel Ucp1 expression-inducing compound, 5-methylquinoxaline, was identified. Adipocytes treated with 5-methylquinoxaline showed increased Ucp1 mRNA expression levels and enhanced oxygen consumption. 5-methylquinoxaline induced Ucp1 expression through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α), and 5-methylquinoxaline-induced PGC1α activation seemed to be partially regulated by its phosphorylation or deacetylation. Thus, our Ucp1-luciferase reporter preadipocyte line is a useful tool for screening of Ucp1 inductive compounds.

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