Cardiac Tissue
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2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  

Objectives: In December 2019, SARS-CoV2 outbreak from China resulted in Covid-19 worldwide. The involvement of different organs, especially, heart disease can lead to hospitalization and enhance the rate of mortality and morbidity among severe patients. In a narrative review, we aimed to investigate the involvement of heart in adult and children with COVID-19 in critically ill patients. Methods: The clinical and paraclinical manifestation of diseases in adults and children were searched in standard databases, such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, est. Also, the possible underlying mechanisms were investigated. Results: The CVDs in COVID-19 patients has been characterized by several abnormalities such as myocarditis, acute myocardial injury, acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, arrhythmias, sudden cardiac arrest, coagulation abnormalities, thrombosis, and Kawasaki disease. The most probable mechanisms are attributed to SARS-CoV2 direct and indirect effects. The presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was confirmed in the cardiac tissue, confirming the direct attack of virus. Moreover, the cytokine storm as a result of enhanced levels of inflammatory mediators and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the cardiac disease, coagulation abnormalities, and endothelial dysfunction contribute to disease. Conclusion: Cardiac diseases are seen in children and adults with COVID-19, related to the different mechanisms, mainly direct attack of virus and cytokine storm. Increasing the knowledge of cardiologists about the cardiac manifestations of COVID-9 in children and adults and underlying mechanisms can improve the consequences and reduce the mortality and morbidity rate among hospitalized patients.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2538
Vineeta Sharma ◽  
Sanat Kumar Dash ◽  
Kavitha Govarthanan ◽  
Rekha Gahtori ◽  
Nidhi Negi ◽  

Myocardium Infarction (MI) is one of the foremost cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) causing death worldwide, and its case numbers are expected to continuously increase in the coming years. Pharmacological interventions have not been at the forefront in ameliorating MI-related morbidity and mortality. Stem cell-based tissue engineering approaches have been extensively explored for their regenerative potential in the infarcted myocardium. Recent studies on microfluidic devices employing stem cells under laboratory set-up have revealed meticulous events pertaining to the pathophysiology of MI occurring at the infarcted site. This discovery also underpins the appropriate conditions in the niche for differentiating stem cells into mature cardiomyocyte-like cells and leads to engineering of the scaffold via mimicking of native cardiac physiological conditions. However, the mode of stem cell-loaded engineered scaffolds delivered to the site of infarction is still a challenging mission, and yet to be translated to the clinical setting. In this review, we have elucidated the various strategies developed using a hydrogel-based system both as encapsulated stem cells and as biocompatible patches loaded with cells and applied at the site of infarction.

2021 ◽  
Philip M Gemmell ◽  
Martin Bishop

Catheter ablation in patients suffering from chronic arrhythmias requires detailed knowledge of the underlying cardiac anatomy; such real-time, high resolution mapping is currently unavailable in a clinical setting. We present here preliminary work towards a novel optical strategy based on diffuse optical reflectance to provide quantitative anatomical measurements of the cardiac structure, including tissue thickness and presence of scar. An in-depth literature search is conducted to collate available experimental data regarding optical parameters in cardiac tissue and scar. Computational simulations of photon movement through cardiac tissue using Monte Carlo modelling are performed, with analysis being focussed on the effects on surface emission profiles of (i) optical parameters; (ii) tissue thickness; (iii) presence of scar. Our results demonstrate (i) sensitivity of the approach to changes in optical parameters within tissue, (ii) difference of results depending on light wavelength. These suggest that this can be used to detect cardiac anatomical structure to a depth of ~2 mm, for both thickness of cardiac tissue and presence of scar. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using diffuse optical reflectance to determine cardiac structure, enabling a potential route for high-resolution, real-time structural information to guide catheter ablation and similar surgeries.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 1520
Jieting Wang ◽  
Luying Yu ◽  
Ao Zhou ◽  
Jie Liu ◽  
Kai Wang ◽  

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Conventional therapies involving surgery or pharmacological strategies have shown limited therapeutic effects due to a lack of cardiac tissue repair. Gene therapy has opened an avenue for the treatment of cardiac diseases through manipulating the underlying gene mechanics. Several gene therapies for cardiac diseases have been assessed in clinical trials, while the clinical translation greatly depends on the delivery technologies. Non-viral vectors are attracting much attention due to their safety and facile production compared to viral vectors. In this review, we discuss the recent progress of non-viral gene therapies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, with a particular focus on myocardial infarction (MI). Through a summary of delivery strategies with which to target cardiac tissue and different cardiac cells for MI treatment, this review aims to inspire new insights into the design/exploitation of non-viral delivery systems for gene cargos to promote cardiac repair/regeneration.

Andreas Hammer ◽  
Alexander Niessner ◽  
Patrick Sulzgruber

Abstract Introduction Atrial fibrillation (AF) represents the most common cardiac arrhythmia in daily clinical practice and substantially impacts affected patients by elevation of both morbidity and mortality. Previous investigations proved that inflammatory processes are closely linked to this multifactorial pathogenesis—especially autoreactive CD4+CD28null T cells received in-depth attention. Purpose Consequently, a potential pathophysiological pathway of the impact of CD4+CD28null T lymphocytes on the development and progression AF can be outlined. Conclusion Considering the available data in the literature, it needs to be assumed that CD4+CD28null T lymphocytes are mainly involved in the development of AF and disease progression. Of utmost importance, it can be considered as the result of a T-cell-mediated auto-immune reaction among myocardial tissue. However, mechanisms which recruit CD4+CD28null cells in cardiac tissue remain unclear and need further investigation.

2021 ◽  
Marius Reichardt ◽  
Patrick Moller Jensen ◽  
Vedrana Andersen Dahl ◽  
Anders Bjorholm Dahl ◽  
Maximilian Ackermann ◽  

For the first time, we have used phase-contrast x-ray tomography to characterize the three-dimensional (3d) structure of cardiac tissue from patients who succumbed to Covid-19. By extending conventional histopatholocigal examination by a third dimension, the delicate pathological changes of the vascular system of severe Covid-19 progressions can be analyzed, fully quantified and compared to other types of viral myocarditis and controls. To this end, cardiac samples with a cross section of 3:5mm were scanned at the synchrotron in a parallel beam configuration. The vascular network was segmented by a deep learning architecture suitable for 3d datasets (V-net), trained by sparse manual annotations. Pathological alterations of vessels, concerning the variation of diameters and the amount of small holes, were observed, indicative of elevated occurrence of intussusceptive angiogenesis, also confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Further, we implemented a fully automated analysis of the tissue structure in form of shape measures based on the structure tensor. The corresponding distributions show that the histopathology of Covid-19 differs from both influenza and typical coxsackie virus myocarditis.

Background and Aim: The FoxO1 gene is an important regulator of cellular metabolism in heart tissue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Kelussia extract and exercise on FoxO1 gene expression in vascular tissue. Materials & Methods: In the present study, 30 adult male Wistar rats weighing 180 to 200 g were selected and divided into five groups of control, negative control, one group of obese rats with exercise and two treatment groups with doses of 400 and 800 mg / Kg of Kelussia extract were divided. Molecular tests were performed on the hearts of 30 rats using Real Time RT PCR. Finally, expression test was performed using SPSS software and ANOVA TEST and LSD tests with a significance level of P <0.05. Results: Kelussia extract at a dose of 400 mg / kg can significantly reduce the expression of FoxO1 gene (0.61 ± 0.14 ab) compared to the 800 dose (0.70 ± 0.25 ab) compared to the obese group. Statistically significant was significant (p <0.05). Also, in the group of rats with exercise, we had a decrease in gene expression compared to the obese group (0.54 ± 0.13 b). On the other hand, the results of biochemical tests confirmed the reduction of factors in the hearts of obese rats in rats treated with 400 mg / kg of Kelussia. Discussion and Conclusion: Exercise as well as Kelussia extract can reduce the expression of the FoxO1 gene and, if confirmed in future studies, could be a therapeutic target in heart disease.

2021 ◽  
David Julian Arias-Chávez ◽  
Patrick Mailloux-Salinas ◽  
Julio Altamirano ◽  
Fengyang Huang ◽  
Norma Leticia Gómez-Viquez ◽  

Abstract The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its cardiac comorbidities as cardiac hypertrophy (CH) have increased considerably due to the high consumption of carbohydrates, such as sucrose and/or fructose. We compared the effects of sucrose (S), fructose (F) and their combination (S + F) on the development of MetS in weaned male Wistar rats and established the relationship between the consumption of these sugars and the degree of cardiac CH development, oxidative stress (OS) and Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit delta oxidation (ox-CaMKIIδ). 12 weeks after the beginning of treatments with S, F or S + F, arterial pressure (AP) was measured and 8 weeks later (to complete 20 weeks) the animals were sacrificed and blood samples, visceral adipose tissue and hearts were obtained. Biochemical parameters were determined in serum and cardiac tissue to evaluate the development of MetS and OS. To evaluate CH, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), CaMKIIδ and ox-CaMKIIδ were determined by western blot and histological studies were performed in cardiac tissue. Our data showed that chronic consumption of S + F exacerbates MetS-induced CH which is related with a higher OS and ox-CaMKIIδ.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (5) ◽  
M. Amar ◽  
D. Andreucci ◽  
C. Timofte

AbstractWe prove the existence and the uniqueness of a solution for a modified bidomain model, describing the electrical behaviour of the cardiac tissue in pathological situations. The leading idea is to reduce the problem to an abstract parabolic setting, which requires to introduce several auxiliary differential systems and a non-standard bilinear form. The main difficulties are due to the degeneracy of the bidomain system and to its non-standard coupling with a diffusion equation, accounting for the presence of the pathological zone in the heart tissue.

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