double strand break
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Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 150
Lydia Bergerson ◽  
Caleb Fitzmaurice ◽  
Tyler Knudtson ◽  
Halle McCormick ◽  
Alder M. Yu

Long-term shift work is widely believed to increase the risk of certain cancers, but conflicting findings between studies render this association unclear. Evidence of interplay between the circadian clock, cell cycle regulation, and DNA damage detection machinery suggests the possibility that circadian rhythm disruption consequent to shift work could alter the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway usage to favor mutagenic non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared relative usage of NHEJ and single-strand annealing (SSA) repair of a complementary ended chromosomal double-stranded break using the Repair Reporter 3 (Rr3) system in Drosophila between flies reared on 12:12 and 8:8 (simulated shift work) light:dark schedules. Actimetric analysis showed that the 8:8 light:dark schedule effectively disrupted the rhythms in locomotor output. Inaccurate NHEJ repair was not a frequent outcome in this system overall, and no significant difference was seen in the usage of NHEJ or SSA repair between the control and simulated shift work schedules. We conclude that this circadian disruption regimen does not alter the usage of mutagenic NHEJ DSB repair in the Drosophila male pre-meiotic germline, in the context of the Rr3 system.

2022 ◽  
Aditya Mojumdar ◽  
Nancy Adam ◽  
Jennifer A Cobb

A DNA double strand break (DSB) is primarily repaired by one of two canonical pathways, non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ requires no or minimal end processing for ligation, whereas HR requires 5 end resection followed by a search for homology. The main event that determines the mode of repair is the initiation of 5 resection because if resection starts, then NHEJ cannot occur. Nej1 is a canonical NHEJ factor that functions at the cross-roads of repair pathway choice and prior to its function in stimulating Dnl4 ligase. Nej1 competes with Dna2, inhibiting its recruitment to DSBs and thereby inhibiting resection. The highly conserved C-terminal region (CTR) of Nej1 (330- 338) is important for two events that drive NHEJ, stimulating ligation and inhibiting resection, but it is dispensable for end-bridging. By combining nej1 point mutants with nuclease-dead dna2-1, we find that Nej1-F335 is essential for end-joining whereas V338 promotes NHEJ indirectly through inhibiting Dna2-mediated resection.

2021 ◽  
Agnieszka Panek ◽  
Justyna Miszczyk

The repair of radiation-induced DNA damage is a key factor differentiating patients in terms of the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity to surrounding normal tissue. Proton energy substantially determines the types of cancers that can be treated. The present work investigated the DNA double-strand break repair systems, represented by phosphorylated ATM and Rad51. The status of proton therapy energy used to treat major types of cancer is summarized. Here, human lymphocytes from eight healthy donors (male and female) were irradiated with a spread-out Bragg peak using a therapeutic 70 MeV proton beam or with reference X rays. For both types of radiation, the kinetics of pATM and Rad51 repair protein activation (0–24 h) were estimated as determinants of homologous and non-homologous double-strand break repair. Additionally, γ-H2AX was used as the gold standard marker of double-strand breaks. Our results showed that at 30 min postirradiation there was significantly greater accumulation of γ-H2AX (0.6-fold), pATM (2.0-fold), and Rad51 (0.6-fold) in the proton-irradiated cells compared with the X-ray-treated cells. At 24 h post irradiation, for both types of radiation and all investigated proteins, the foci number was still significantly higher when compared with control. Furthermore, the mean value of pATM and Rad51 repair effectiveness was higher in cells exposed to protons than in cells exposed to X rays; however, the difference was significant only for pATM. The largest inter-individual differences in the repair capabilities were noted for Rad51. The association between the frequency of repair protein foci and the frequency of lymphocyte viability at 1 h post irradiation showed a positive correlation for protons but a negative correlation for X rays. These findings indicate that the accumulation of radiation-induced repair protein foci after proton versus X-ray irradiation differs between patients, consequently affecting the cellular responses to particle therapy and conventional radiation therapy.

iScience ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 103676
Tao Wang ◽  
Xiao-Hui Du ◽  
Yu Hong ◽  
Xian Hong ◽  
Li Fan ◽  

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