break repair
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Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 6385
Clifford M. Csizmar ◽  
Antoine N. Saliba ◽  
Elizabeth M. Swisher ◽  
Scott H. Kaufmann

Despite recent discoveries and therapeutic advances in aggressive myeloid neoplasms, there remains a pressing need for improved therapies. For instance, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), while most patients achieve a complete remission with conventional chemotherapy or the combination of a hypomethylating agent and venetoclax, de novo or acquired drug resistance often presents an insurmountable challenge, especially in older patients. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzymes, PARP1 and PARP2, are involved in detecting DNA damage and repairing it through multiple pathways, including base excision repair, single-strand break repair, and double-strand break repair. In the context of AML, PARP inhibitors (PARPi) could potentially exploit the frequently dysfunctional DNA repair pathways that, similar to deficiencies in homologous recombination in BRCA-mutant disease, set the stage for cell killing. PARPi appear to be especially effective in AML with certain gene rearrangements and molecular characteristics (RUNX1-RUNX1T1 and PML-RARA fusions, FLT3- and IDH1-mutated). In addition, PARPi can enhance the efficacy of other agents, particularly alkylating agents, TOP1 poisons, and hypomethylating agents, that induce lesions ordinarily repaired via PARP1-dependent mechanisms. Conversely, emerging reports suggest that long-term treatment with PARPi for solid tumors is associated with an increased incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and AML. Here, we (i) review the pre-clinical and clinical data on the role of PARPi, specifically olaparib, talazoparib, and veliparib, in aggressive myeloid neoplasms and (ii) discuss the reported risk of MDS/AML with PARPi, especially as the indications for PARPi use expand to include patients with potentially curable cancer.

iScience ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 103676
Tao Wang ◽  
Xiao-Hui Du ◽  
Yu Hong ◽  
Xian Hong ◽  
Li Fan ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
J. A. Kamp ◽  
B. B. L. G. Lemmens ◽  
R. J. Romeijn ◽  
S. C. Changoer ◽  
R. van Schendel ◽  

AbstractDNA double-strand breaks are a major threat to cellular survival and genetic integrity. In addition to high fidelity repair, three intrinsically mutagenic DNA break repair routes have been described, i.e. single-strand annealing (SSA), polymerase theta-mediated end-joining (TMEJ) and residual ill-defined microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ) activity. Here, we identify C. elegans Helicase Q (HELQ-1) as being essential for MMEJ as well as for SSA. We also find HELQ-1 to be crucial for the synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) mode of homologous recombination (HR). Loss of HELQ-1 leads to increased genome instability: patchwork insertions arise at deletion junctions due to abortive rounds of polymerase theta activity, and tandem duplications spontaneously accumulate in genomes of helq-1 mutant animals as a result of TMEJ of abrogated HR intermediates. Our work thus implicates HELQ activity for all DSB repair modes guided by complementary base pairs and provides mechanistic insight into mutational signatures common in HR-defective cancers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Rosa Camarillo ◽  
Sonia Jimeno ◽  
Pablo Huertas

The fine tuning of the DNA double strand break repair pathway choice relies on different regulatory layers that respond to environmental and local cues. Among them, the presence of non-canonical nucleic acids structures seems to create challenges for the repair of nearby DNA double strand breaks. In this review, we focus on the recently published effects of G-quadruplexes and R-loops on DNA end resection and homologous recombination. Finally, we hypothesized a connection between those two atypical DNA structures in inhibiting the DNA end resection step of HR.

Aging Cell ◽  
2021 ◽  
Jong‐Hyuk Lee ◽  
Raghavendra A. Shamanna ◽  
Tomasz Kulikowicz ◽  
Nima Borhan Fakouri ◽  
Edward W. Kim ◽  

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