dna double strand break
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Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 150
Lydia Bergerson ◽  
Caleb Fitzmaurice ◽  
Tyler Knudtson ◽  
Halle McCormick ◽  
Alder M. Yu

Long-term shift work is widely believed to increase the risk of certain cancers, but conflicting findings between studies render this association unclear. Evidence of interplay between the circadian clock, cell cycle regulation, and DNA damage detection machinery suggests the possibility that circadian rhythm disruption consequent to shift work could alter the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway usage to favor mutagenic non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared relative usage of NHEJ and single-strand annealing (SSA) repair of a complementary ended chromosomal double-stranded break using the Repair Reporter 3 (Rr3) system in Drosophila between flies reared on 12:12 and 8:8 (simulated shift work) light:dark schedules. Actimetric analysis showed that the 8:8 light:dark schedule effectively disrupted the rhythms in locomotor output. Inaccurate NHEJ repair was not a frequent outcome in this system overall, and no significant difference was seen in the usage of NHEJ or SSA repair between the control and simulated shift work schedules. We conclude that this circadian disruption regimen does not alter the usage of mutagenic NHEJ DSB repair in the Drosophila male pre-meiotic germline, in the context of the Rr3 system.

2022 ◽  
Yu-Chien Chuang ◽  
Gerald R. Smith

Appropriate DNA double-strand-break (DSB) and crossover distributions are required for proper meiotic chromosome segregation. Schizosaccharomyces pombe linear element proteins (LinEs) determine DSB hotspots; LinE-bound hotspots form 3D clusters over ∼200 kb chromosomal regions. Here, we investigated LinE configurations and distributions in live cells using super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. We found LinEs form two chromosomal structures, dot-like and linear structures, in both zygotic and azygotic meiosis. Dot-like LinE structures appeared around the time of meiotic DNA replication, underwent dotty-to-linear-to-dotty configurational transitions, and disassembled before the first meiotic division. DSB formation and repair did not detectably influence LinE structure formation, but failure of DSB formation delayed disassembly. Recombination-deficient LinE missense mutants formed dot-like but not linear LinE structures. Our quantitative study reveals a transient form of LinE structures and suggests a novel role for LinE proteins in regulating meiotic events, such as DSB repair. We discuss the relation of LinEs and the synaptonemal complex in other species.

2022 ◽  
Aditya Mojumdar ◽  
Nancy Adam ◽  
Jennifer A Cobb

A DNA double strand break (DSB) is primarily repaired by one of two canonical pathways, non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ requires no or minimal end processing for ligation, whereas HR requires 5 end resection followed by a search for homology. The main event that determines the mode of repair is the initiation of 5 resection because if resection starts, then NHEJ cannot occur. Nej1 is a canonical NHEJ factor that functions at the cross-roads of repair pathway choice and prior to its function in stimulating Dnl4 ligase. Nej1 competes with Dna2, inhibiting its recruitment to DSBs and thereby inhibiting resection. The highly conserved C-terminal region (CTR) of Nej1 (330- 338) is important for two events that drive NHEJ, stimulating ligation and inhibiting resection, but it is dispensable for end-bridging. By combining nej1 point mutants with nuclease-dead dna2-1, we find that Nej1-F335 is essential for end-joining whereas V338 promotes NHEJ indirectly through inhibiting Dna2-mediated resection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Leonhard Andreas Karl ◽  
Martina Peritore ◽  
Lorenzo Galanti ◽  
Boris Pfander

DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired in eukaryotes by one of several cellular mechanisms. The decision-making process controlling DSB repair takes place at the step of DNA end resection, the nucleolytic processing of DNA ends, which generates single-stranded DNA overhangs. Dependent on the length of the overhang, a corresponding DSB repair mechanism is engaged. Interestingly, nucleosomes—the fundamental unit of chromatin—influence the activity of resection nucleases and nucleosome remodelers have emerged as key regulators of DSB repair. Nucleosome remodelers share a common enzymatic mechanism, but for global genome organization specific remodelers have been shown to exert distinct activities. Specifically, different remodelers have been found to slide and evict, position or edit nucleosomes. It is an open question whether the same remodelers exert the same function also in the context of DSBs. Here, we will review recent advances in our understanding of nucleosome remodelers at DSBs: to what extent nucleosome sliding, eviction, positioning and editing can be observed at DSBs and how these activities affect the DSB repair decision.

2022 ◽  
Tej Pandita ◽  
Vijay Kumari Charaka ◽  
Sharmistha Chakraborty ◽  
Chi-Lin Tsai ◽  
Xiaoyan Wang ◽  

Efficient DNA double strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination (HR), as orchestrated by histone and non-histone proteins, is critical to genome stability, replication, transcription, and cancer avoidance. Here we report that Heterochromatin Protein1 beta (HP1β) acts as a key component of the HR DNA resection step by regulating BRCA1 enrichment at DNA damage sites, a function largely dependent on the HP1β chromo shadow domain (CSD). HP1β itself is enriched at DSBs within gene-rich regions through a CSD interaction with Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF1) and HP1β depletion impairs subsequent BRCA1 enrichment. An added interaction of the HP1β CSD with the Polycomb Repressor Complex 1 ubiquitinase component RING1A facilitates BRCA1 recruitment by increasing H2A lysine 118-119 ubiquitination, a marker for BRCA1 recruitment. Our findings reveal that HP1β interactions, mediated through its CSD with RING1A, promote H2A ubiquitination and facilitate BRCA1 recruitment at DNA damage sites, a critical step in DSB repair by the HR pathway. These collective results unveil how HP1β is recruited to DSBs in gene-rich regions and how HP1β subsequently promotes BRCA1 recruitment to further HR DNA damage repair by stimulating CtIP-dependent resection.

Development ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 149 (1) ◽  
Prabuddha Chakraborty ◽  
Terry Magnuson

ABSTRACT INO80 is the catalytic subunit of the INO80-chromatin remodeling complex that is involved in DNA replication, repair and transcription regulation. Ino80 deficiency in murine spermatocytes (Ino80cKO) results in pachytene arrest of spermatocytes due to incomplete synapsis and aberrant DNA double-strand break repair, which leads to apoptosis. RNA-seq on Ino80cKO spermatocytes revealed major changes in transcription, indicating that an aberrant transcription program arises upon INO80 depletion. In Ino80WT spermatocytes, genome-wide analysis showed that INO80-binding sites were mostly promoter proximal and necessary for the regulation of spermatogenic gene expression, primarily of premeiotic and meiotic genes. Furthermore, most of the genes poised for activity, as well as those genes that are active, shared INO80 binding. In Ino80cKO spermatocytes, most poised genes demonstrated de-repression due to reduced H3K27me3 enrichment and, in turn, showed increased expression levels. INO80 interacts with the core PRC2 complex member SUZ12 and promotes its recruitment. Furthermore, INO80 mediates H2A.Z incorporation at the poised promoters, which was reduced in Ino80cKO spermatocytes. Taken together, INO80 is emerging as a major regulator of the meiotic transcription program by mediating poised chromatin establishment through SUZ12 binding.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Dorota Rousova ◽  
Vaishnavi Nivsarkar ◽  
Veronika Altmannova ◽  
Vivek B Raina ◽  
Saskia K Funk ◽  

In meiosis, DNA double strand break (DSB) formation by Spo11 initiates recombination and enables chromosome segregation. Numerous factors are required for Spo11 activity, and couple the DSB machinery to the development of a meiosis-specific “axis-tethered loop” chromosome organization. Through in vitro reconstitution and budding yeast genetics we here provide architectural insight into the DSB machinery by focussing on a foundational DSB factor, Mer2. We characterise the interaction of Mer2 with the histone reader Spp1, and show that Mer2 directly associates to nucleosomes, likely highlighting a contribution of Mer2 to tethering DSB factors to chromatin. We reveal the biochemical basis of Mer2 association with Hop1, a HORMA domain-containing chromosomal axis factor. Finally, we identify a conserved region within Mer2 crucial for DSB activity, and show that this region of Mer2 interacts with the DSB factor Mre11. In combination with previous work, we establish Mer2 as a keystone of the DSB machinery by bridging key protein complexes involved in the initiation of meiotic recombination.

2021 ◽  
Ai Nakaoka ◽  
Kana Kobayashi ◽  
Mennaallah Hassan ◽  
Ryohei Sasaki

Exosomes are a subgroup of extracellular vesicles that are released by all types of cells, including tumor cells, and mediate intercellular communication via the transport of various intracellular components, including microRNAs, messenger RNAs, and proteins. Radiation produces reactive oxygen species and induces DNA double-strand break in cancer cells and normal cells. Cancer cells have severe damage and die by irradiation, but normal cells can keep proliferation with their high DNA repair ability. Irradiated cells generate communication signals and cause biological changes in neighboring or distant non-irradiated cells. This review outlines the role of exosomes in radiation therapy. In the tumor microenvironment, exosomes are considered to regulate cell survival, migration, and resistance to therapy by interacting with vascular endothelial cells and various types of immune cells. Nowadays, radiation therapy is typically combined with immunotherapy. Regulation of the activity of exosomes may overcome the problem of resistance to immunotherapy. Furthermore, exosomes can attenuate resistance to chemotherapy by transporting certain types of microRNA. The current evidence suggests that exosomes may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in the future.

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