genomic stability
Recently Published Documents





Chunyan Zong ◽  
Tianyu Zhu ◽  
Jie He ◽  
Rui Huang ◽  
Renbing Jia ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Huanhuan Sha ◽  
Yujie Gan ◽  
Renrui Zou ◽  
Jianzhong Wu ◽  
Jifeng Feng

Poly ADP ribose polymerases (PARPs) catalyze the modification of acceptor proteins, DNA, or RNA with ADP-ribose, which plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability and regulating signaling pathways. The rapid development of PARP1/2 inhibitors for the treatment of ovarian and breast cancers has advanced research on other PARP family members for the treatment of cancer. This paper reviews the role of PARP family members (except PARP1/2 and tankyrases) in cancer and the underlying regulatory mechanisms, which will establish a molecular basis for the clinical application of PARPs in the future.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Wei Hu ◽  
Jia-Wu Liang ◽  
Song Liao ◽  
Zhi-Dong Zhao ◽  
Yu-Xing Wang ◽  

Abstract Background The healing of bone defects can be challenging for clinicians to manage, especially after exposure to ionizing radiation. In this regard, radiation therapy and accidental exposure to gamma (γ)-ray radiation have been shown to inhibit bone formation and increase the risk of fractures. Cortical bone-derived stem cells (CBSCs) are reportedly essential for osteogenic lineages, bone maintenance and repair. This study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin on postradiation CBSCs and bone defect healing. Methods CBSCs were extracted from C57BL/6 mice and were identified by flow cytometry. Then CBSCs were subjected to 6 Gy γ-ray radiation followed by treatment with various concentrations of melatonin. The effects of exogenous melatonin on the self-renewal and osteogenic capacity of postradiation CBSCs in vitro were analyzed. The underlying mechanisms involved in genomic stability, apoptosis and oxidative stress-related signaling were further analyzed by Western blotting, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence assays. Moreover, postradiation femoral defect models were established and treated with Matrigel and melatonin. The effects of melatonin on postradiation bone healing in vivo were evaluated by micro-CT and pathological analysis. Results The decrease in radiation-induced self-renewal and osteogenic capacity were partially reversed in postradiation CBSCs treated with melatonin (P < 0.05). Melatonin maintained genomic stability, reduced postradiation CBSC apoptosis and intracellular oxidative stress, and enhanced expression of antioxidant-related enzymes (P < 0.05). Western blotting validated the anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin by downregulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels via the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway. Melatonin was also found to exhibit antioxidant effects via NRF2 signaling. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the newly formed bone in the melatonin plus Matrigel group had higher trabecular bone volume per tissue volume (BV/TV) and bone mineral density values with lower IL-6 and TNF-α levels than in the irradiation and the Matrigel groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion This study suggested that melatonin could protect CBSCs against γ-ray radiation and assist in the healing of postradiation bone defects.

Oncogenesis ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
Jung Hwan Yoon ◽  
Jung Woo Eun ◽  
Hassan Ashktorab ◽  
Duane T. Smoot ◽  
Jeong kyu Kim ◽  

AbstractGenomic stability maintenance requires correct DNA replication, chromosome segregation, and DNA repair, while defects of these processes result in tumor development or cell death. Although abnormalities in DNA replication and repair regulation are proposed as underlying causes for genomic instability, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether NKX6.3 plays a role in the maintenance of genomic stability in gastric epithelial cells. NKX6.3 functioned as a transcription factor for CDT1 and RPA1, and its depletion increased replication fork rate, and fork asymmetry. Notably, we showed that abnormal DNA replication by the depletion of NKX6.3 caused DNA damage and induced homologous recombination inhibition. Depletion of NKX6.3 also caused copy number alterations of various genes in the vast chromosomal region. Hence, our findings underscore NKX6.3 might be a crucial factor of DNA replication and repair regulation from genomic instability in gastric epithelial cells.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1919
Thong T. Luong ◽  
Kara A. Bernstein

RECQL4 is a member of the evolutionarily conserved RecQ family of 3’ to 5’ DNA helicases. RECQL4 is critical for maintaining genomic stability through its functions in DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Unlike many DNA repair proteins, RECQL4 has unique functions in many of the central DNA repair pathways such as replication, telomere, double-strand break repair, base excision repair, mitochondrial maintenance, nucleotide excision repair, and crosslink repair. Consistent with these diverse roles, mutations in RECQL4 are associated with three distinct genetic diseases, which are characterized by developmental defects and/or cancer predisposition. In this review, we provide an overview of the roles and regulation of RECQL4 during maintenance of genome homeostasis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (Supplement_6) ◽  
pp. vi29-vi30
Shreya Budhiraja ◽  
Shivani Baisiwala ◽  
Khizar Nandoliya ◽  
Li Chen ◽  
Crismita Dmello ◽  

Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and common type of adult malignant brain tumor, with a median survival of only 21 months. To identify which genes drive its highly aggressive phenotype, we performed a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screen. Results showed substantial enrichment of ~160 novel essential oncogenic driver genes and pathways, including a previously unstudied gene THOC1—involved in RNA processing—that showed significant elevations in expression at RNA and protein levels (p&lt; 0.05) in GBM, as well as a significant survival benefit in patient datasets when downregulated (p&lt; 0.05). Knocking out THOC1 resulted in cell death in multiple GBM patient-derived xenograft (PDX) lines and extended survival compared to the controls (p&lt; 0.01) in vivo. Overexpression of THOC1 in neural stem cells resulted in transformation to a cancerous phenotype, as evidenced by sphere formation in a soft agar assay (p&lt; 0.01) and in vivo tumor engraftment assays. Further investigation of THOC1 through immunoprecipitation in neural stem cells and multiple GBM lines showed significant interaction in GBM with histone deacetylase complex SIN3A, involved in recruiting major histone deacetylases in order to close the DNA and prevent the accumulation of R-loops, RNA:DNA hybrids that pose a threat to genomic stability. Additional investigation revealed that THOC1-knockdowns in vitro induced R-loop formation and DNA damage, while THOC1-overexpression in vitro resulted in an untenable decrease in R-loops and DNA damage, suggesting that the THOC1-SIN3A axis is elevated in GBM in order to prevent the accumulation of genotoxic R-loops. Additionally, histone deacetylase activity was shown to be elevated in THOC1-overexpression conditions and reduced in THOC1-knockdown conditions, confirming that the THOC1-SIN3A axis functions to prevent R-loop accumulation through the epigenetic regulation. In summary, our whole-genome CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screen has identified a promising therapeutic target for GBM—a disease desperately in need of therapeutic innovations.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document