Cognitive Functioning
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2021 ◽  
Michaela Maria Cordova ◽  
Dylan Matthew Antovich ◽  
Peter Ryabinin ◽  
Christopher Neighbor ◽  
Michael A. Mooney ◽  

Introduction. Estimates of prevalence and comorbidity of ADHD in the United States require additional national, multi-informant data. Further, it is unclear whether the polygenic, neurodevelopmental model of ADHD in DSM-5 is best modeled with a broad or restrictive phenotype definition. Method: In the Adolescent Behavior Cognition Development (ABCD) study baseline data on 9-10 year old children, ADHD prevalence, comorbidity, and association with cognitive functioning and polygenic risk were calculated at four thresholds of definition of ADHD phenotype restrictiveness using multiple measures and informants. Multi-indicator latent variable and composite scores were created and cross validated for ADHD symptoms and for irritability. Missing data, sample nesting, and sampling bias were corrected statistically. Results: Multi-informant estimate of ADHD prevalence by the most restrictive definition was 3.53% when restricted to children in which parent ratings and teacher ratings both converged with KSAD report of current ADHD. As stringency of the phenotype was increased, total comorbidity increased slightly, and associations with cognitive functioning and polygenic risk strengthened. Inclusion of children with past ADHD but now treated increased prevalence estimate without weakening detection of polygenic risk. Irritability and ADHD dimensional composite scores and latent variables achieved satisfactory model fit and expected external correlations. Conclusion: The present report strengthens estimates of ADHD prevalence and comorbidity. Research on polygenic and other correlates of ADHD as a clinical category in the ABCD sample may benefit from using a restrictive, multi-informant operational definition.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1028
Luigi Tinella ◽  
Antonella Lopez ◽  
Alessandro Oronzo Caffò ◽  
Francesco Nardulli ◽  
Ignazio Grattagliano ◽  

The way people represent and transform visuospatial information affects everyday activities including driving behavior. Mental rotation and perspective taking have recently been found to predict cognitive prerequisites for fitness-to-drive (FtD). We argue that the relationship between general cognitive status and FtD is mediated by spatial transformation skills. Here, we investigated the performance in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) and the Perspective-Taking Test (PT) of 175 male active drivers (aged from 18 to 91 years), by administering the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to measure their global cognitive functioning. All participants were submitted to a computerized driving assessment measuring resilience of attention (DT), reaction speed (RS), motor speed (MS), and perceptual speed (ATAVT). Significant results were found for the effect of global cognitive functioning on perceptual speed through the full mediation of both mental rotation and perspective-taking skills. The indirect effect of global cognitive functioning through mental rotation was only found to significantly predict resilience of attention whereas the indirect effect mediated by perspective taking only was found to significantly predict perceptual speed. Finally, the negative effect of age was found on each driving measure. Results presented here, which are limited to male drivers, suggest that general cognitive efficiency is linked to spatial mental transformation skills and, in turn, to driving-related cognitive tasks, contributing to fitness-to-drive in the lifespan.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Anam M. Khan ◽  
Jessica M. Finlay ◽  
Philippa Clarke ◽  
Ketlyne Sol ◽  
Robert Melendez ◽  

Abstract Background Older adults are particularly vulnerable to the adverse health effects of extreme temperature-related events. A growing body of literature highlights the importance of the natural environment, including air pollution and sunlight, on cognitive health. However, the relationship between exposure to outdoor temperatures and cognitive functioning, and whether there exists any differences across climate region, remains largely unexplored. We address this gap by examining the temperature-cognition association, and whether there exists any variation across climate regions in a national cohort of aging adults. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we obtained data on temperature exposure based on geocoded residential location of participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. For each participant, this information was linked to their cognitive scores from Word List Learning and Recall tests to assess cognitive functioning. We used distributed lag non-linear models (dlnm) to model temperature effects over 2 days. Multivariable linear regression was used to compute temperature-cognitive functioning associations, adjusted for important covariates. Region-specific (“Dry”, “Mediterranean/oceanic”, “Tropical” and “Continental”) associations were examined by including an interaction term between climate region and temperature. Results Amongst 20,687 individuals (mean age = 67.8; standard deviation = 9.2), exposure to region-specific extreme cold temperatures in the “dry” region (e.g., Arizona) over 2 days was associated with lower cognitive scores (Mean Difference [MD]: -0.76, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: − 1.45, − 0.07). Associations remained significant for cumulative effects of temperature over 2 days. Extremely cold exposure in the “Mediterranean/oceanic” region (e.g., California) over 2 days was also associated with significantly lower cognitive performance (MD: -0.25, 95% CI: − 0.47, − 0.04). No significant associations were observed for exposure to hot temperatures. Cognitive performance was slightly higher in late summer and fall compared to early summer. Conclusion We noted adverse cognitive associations with cold temperatures in traditionally warmer regions of the country and improved cognition in summer and early fall seasons. While we did not observe very large significant associations, this study deepens understanding of the impact of climate change on the cognitive health of aging adults and can inform clinical care and public health preparedness plans.

Geriatrics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 74
Cassandra R. Hatt ◽  
Christopher R. Brydges ◽  
Jacqueline A. Mogle ◽  
Martin J. Sliwinski ◽  
Allison A. M. Bielak

(1) Background: Research examining whether activity engagement is related to cognitive functioning in older adults has been limited to using retrospective reports of activity which may be affected by biases. This study compared two measurements (estimated weekly versus reported daily), and whether these activity assessments were related to cognition in older adults; (2) Methods: Participants from US (n = 199) and Australian (n = 170) samples completed a weekly estimate of activity, followed by 7 consecutive days of daily reporting. Differences between weekly estimates and daily reports were found, such that estimations at the weekly level were lower than self-reported daily information. Multivariate multiple regression was used to determine whether total activity, activity domains and the discrepancy between assessment types (i.e., weekly/daily) predicted cognitive performance across three cognitive domains (fluid, verbal, memory); (3) Results: Neither assessment of total activity When activity assessments were totaled, neither predicted cognition; however, when activity was grouped by domain (cognitive, social, physical), different domains predicted different cognitive outcomes. Daily reported cognitive activity significantly predicted verbal performance (β = 1.63, p = 0.005), while weekly estimated social activity predicted memory performance (β = −1.81, p = 0.050). Further, while the magnitude of discrepancy in total activity did not significantly predict cognitive performance, domain specific differences did. Differences in physical activity reported across assessments predicted fluid performance (β = −1.16, p = 0.033); (4) Conclusions: Recognizing these apparent differences is important to account for potential response bias and future research should consider using multiple types of assessments and utilize different tools to collect activity-related information.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Klodian Dhana ◽  
Bryan D. James ◽  
Puja Agarwal ◽  
Neelum T. Aggarwal ◽  
Laurel J. Cherian ◽  

Background: MIND diet, a hybrid of the Mediterranean diet and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, is associated with a slower cognitive decline and lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia in older adults. Objective: We aim to examine whether the association of the MIND diet with cognition is independent of common brain pathologies. Methods: Utilizing data from the Rush Memory and Aging Project (MAP), a longitudinal clinical-pathologic study, we studied 569 decedents with valid dietary data, cognitive testing proximate to death, and complete autopsy data at the time of these analyses. A series of regression analyses were used to examine associations of the MIND diet, dementia-related brain pathologies, and global cognition proximate to death adjusting for age, sex, education, APOE ɛ4, late-life cognitive activities, and total energy intake. Results: A higher MIND diet score was associated with better global cognitive functioning proximate to death (β= 0.119, SE = 0.040, p = 0.003), and neither the strength nor the significance of association changed substantially when AD pathology and other brain pathologies were included in the model. The β-estimate after controlling for global AD pathology was 0.111 (SE = 0.037, p = 0.003). The MIND diet-cognition relationship remained significant when we restricted our analysis to individuals without mild cognitive impairment at the baseline (β= 0.121, SE = 0.042, p = 0.005) or in people diagnosed with postmortem diagnosis of AD based on NIA-Reagan consensus recommendations (β= 0.114, SE = 0.050, p = 0.023). Conclusion: MIND diet is associated with better cognitive functioning independently of common brain pathology, suggesting that the MIND diet may contribute to cognitive resilience in the elderly.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Nicholas J. K. Breitborde ◽  
Brittney Keller-Hamilton ◽  
Aubrey M. Moe ◽  
Jacob G. Pine ◽  
Nicholas Nelson ◽  

Introduction. Individuals with psychotic-spectrum disorders may smoke due to the ameliorating effect of nicotine on the cognitive deficits that accompany these illnesses. Metacognitive remediation therapy (MCR) has been shown to produce improvements in cognitive functioning among individuals with psychotic-spectrum disorders and provides a foundation for a novel smoking cessation intervention for this population. Aims. To complete an open investigation of pharmacotherapy and a modified version of MCR [MCR to Quit (MCR-Q)] in promoting smoking cessation among individuals with psychotic-spectrum disorders. Methods. Forty-nine individuals with a psychotic-spectrum disorder and who currently smoke cigarettes participated in MCR-Q while also receiving evidence-based smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. Tobacco use was assessed as follows: (i) prior to MCR-Q, (ii) immediately after completing MCR-Q, and (iii) six weeks after completion of MCR-Q. Results/Findings. During participation in MCR-Q, nearly 80% of participants made a 24-hour quit attempt. Following the completion of MCR-Q, participants experienced reductions in level of nicotine dependency and exhaled carbon monoxide, with reductions in nicotine dependency sustained six weeks after completion of MCR-Q. Over the course of their participation in MCR-Q, participants reported strong therapeutic alliance with their MCR-Q therapist and high levels of intrinsic motivation with regard to completing MCR-Q exercises. Conclusions. The results from the current study suggest cautious optimism with regard to the use of MCR-Q in combination with medication for individuals with psychotic-spectrum disorders who want to quit smoking.

Chelsea Jones ◽  
Lorraine Smith-MacDonald ◽  
Suzette Brémault-Phillips

Lay Summary Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) Service Members (SMs) experience mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI), which can affect cognitive functioning. Adequate cognitive functioning is needed to perform military duties safely and function in all aspects of life. A standardized process that includes cognitive screen/assessment within a mTBI rehabilitation strategy is not widely used within Canadian Forces Health Services (CFHS). A qualitative thematic analysis nested within an implementation science approach was used to explore the experiences of 17 CFHS health care professionals who perform cognitive screens/assessments. Perceived facilitators, barriers, and recommendations for improving cog-nitive assessment practices for injured CAF-SMs were identified within 5 themes. Development and implementation of cognitive screen/assessment policies and protocols will enable CFHS to best assess and treat cognitive dysfunction among CAF-SMs.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 2504
Aleksandra Bramorska ◽  
Wanda Zarzycka ◽  
Wiktoria Podolecka ◽  
Katarzyna Kuc ◽  
Aneta Brzezicka

Our study aimed to evaluate whether the type of food products and the frequency of their consumption are associated with cognitive functioning in younger and older adults. The impact of diets that are high in added sugars and saturated fat on cognitive functioning, especially on memory, was at the center of our interest. Participants in the study were 204 healthy adults (aged 20–55) who performed a multitasking cognitive test and completed dietary and psychological questionnaires. Stepwise regression analysis with age and food consumption patterns as predictors, and the cognitive task performance as a dependent variable, revealed that cognitive task performance worsened with age. However, we found that the frequency of consuming different types of foods (healthy versus unhealthy dietary patterns) moderates the effects of age on cognitive functioning. Red meat and animal fat consumption were negatively correlated with cognitive performance, and this relation was dependent on the age of our participants. Conversely, white meat and fish consumption were positively related to memory. Different indices of dietary patterns (both positive and negative) were stronger predictors of cognitive performance in the older adult group. We interpret our results as evidence that diet may be a protective (or worsening) factor in age-related cognitive decline.

2021 ◽  
Brendan McLaren ◽  
Sean P. A. Drummond ◽  
Yifat Glikmann-Johnston ◽  
Clement Loy ◽  
Mark A. Bellgrove ◽  

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