The reliance on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations has drastically increased over time to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of small-scale wind turbines. With the rapid variability in customer demand, industrial requirements, economic constraints, and time limitations associated with the design and development of small-scale wind turbines, the trade-off between computational resources and the simulation’s numerical accuracy may vary significantly. In the context of wind turbine design and analysis, high fidelity simulation under full geometric and numerical complexity is more accurate but pose significant demands from a computational standpoint. There is a need to understand and quantify performance deterioration of high fidelity simulations under reduced geometric or numerical approximation on a single small scale turbine model. In the present work, the flow past a small-scale Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) was simulated under various geometric and numerical configurations. The geometric complexity was varied based on stationary and rotating turbine conditions. In the stationary case, simple 2D airfoil, 2.5D blade, 3D blade sections are evaluated, while rotational effects are introduced for the configuration 3D blade, rotor only, and the full-scale wind turbine with and without the inclusion of a nacelle and tower. In terms of numerical complexity, the Single Reference Frame (SRF), Multiple Reference Frames (MRF), and the Sliding Meshing Interface (SMI) is analyzed over Tip Speed Ratios (TSR) of 3, 6, 10. The quantification of aerodynamic coefficients of the blade (Cl, Cd) and turbine (Cp, Ct) was conducted along with the discussion on wake patterns in comparison with experimental data.
In recent times, the application of small-scale horizontal axis wind turbines (SHAWTs) has drawn interest in certain areas where the energy demand is minimal. These turbines, operating mostly at low Reynolds number (Re) and low tip speed ratio (λ) applications, can be used as stand-alone systems. The present study aims at the design, development, and testing of a series of SHAWT models. On the basis of aerodynamic characteristics, four SHAWT models viz., M1, M2, M3, and M4 composed of E216, SG6043, NACA63415, and NACA0012 airfoils, respectively have been developed. Initially, the rotors are designed through blade element momentum theory (BEMT), and their power coefficient have been evaluated. Thence, the developed rotors are tested in a low-speed wind tunnel to find their rotational frequency, power and power coefficient at design and off-design conditions. From BEMT analysis, M1 shows a maximum power coefficient (Cpmax) of 0.37 at λ = 2.5. The subsequent wind tunnel tests on M1, M2, M3, and M4 at 9 m/s show the Cpmax values to be 0.34, 0.30, 0.28, and 0.156, respectively. Thus, from the experiments, the M1 rotor is found to be favourable than the other three rotors, and its Cpmax value is found to be about 92% of BEMT prediction. Further, the effect of pitch angle (θp) on Cp of the model rotors is also examined, where M1 is found to produce a satisfactory performance within ±5° from the design pitch angle (θp, design).
The growing need to use renewable sources and the current difficulty in spreading the electricity grid in a widespread manner raise the question of how to respond to the need for more electricity immediately. The idea behind this study is to power a horizontal axis wind turbine with the air flow generated for cooling a stationary internal combustion engine. The power extracted from this solution is significantly lower than that of the internal combustion engine (about 0.3%) and could be advantageous only in limited contexts. Installation costs are limited because many elements deriving from wind variability can be removed or simplified.
The world is increasingly experiencing unanticipated catastrophic events because of the impact of greenhouse gasses. The two major issues with the conventional energy system are unsustainability and global warming, which are extremely harmful for the climate. The core objective of this study is a compilation of the findings related to a life cycle assessment of horizontal axis wind turbines in regard to sustainable development. Sustainability aspects and concerns have been studied and reported in terms of the life cycle of wind energy technology. This article focused on energy consumed during the life of the 2.0 MW wind turbine, mostly in the production of primary materials, processes, and maintenance-related transport phase. The turbine’s overall energy produced 1,750,000 kWh throughout a 20-year life. Over a 20year lifespan, the overall energy produced by the turbine is approximately 32% more than the energy needed to construct, and the destination for the turbine materials is a landfill at the end of the turbine’s life. For a 40% wind turbine power ratio, with the wind turbine materials delivered to landfill at the end of the turbine’s life, the electricity payback period is around 10 months, and for recycled materials it is 6 months. The comparison is also done for the wind turbine materials which are sent to landfill with and without recycling.
There are two wind turbine topologies according to the axis of rotation: horizontal axis, "Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines" (HAWT) and vertical axis, "Vertical Axis Wind Turbines" (VAWT) . HAWT turbines are used for high power generation as they have a higher energy conversion efficiency . However, VAWTs are used in mini wind applications because they do not need to be oriented to the prevailing wind and have lower installation cost.