reference frames
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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 011401
S. P. Kish ◽  
T. C. Ralph

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 604
Carlos A. M. Correia ◽  
Fabio A. A. Andrade ◽  
Agnar Sivertsen ◽  
Ihannah Pinto Guedes ◽  
Milena Faria Pinto ◽  

Optical image sensors are the most common remote sensing data acquisition devices present in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). In this context, assigning a location in a geographic frame of reference to the acquired image is a necessary task in the majority of the applications. This process is denominated direct georeferencing when ground control points are not used. Despite it applies simple mathematical fundamentals, the complete direct georeferencing process involves much information, such as camera sensor characteristics, mounting measurements, attitude and position of the UAS, among others. In addition, there are many rotations and translations between the different reference frames, among many other details, which makes the whole process a considerable complex operation. Another problem is that manufacturers and software tools may use different reference frames posing additional difficulty when implementing the direct georeferencing. As this information is spread among many sources, researchers may face difficulties on having a complete vision of the method. In fact, there is absolutely no paper in the literature that explain this process in a comprehensive way. In order to supply this implicit demand, this paper presents a comprehensive method for direct georeferencing of aerial images acquired by cameras mounted on UAS, where all required information, mathematical operations and implementation steps are explained in detail. Finally, in order to show the practical use of the method and to prove its accuracy, both simulated and real flights were performed, where objects of the acquired images were georeferenced.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 526
Edmilson Bermudes Rocha Junior ◽  
Oureste Elias Batista ◽  
Domingos Sávio Lyrio Simonetti

This paper proposes a methodology to monitor the instantaneous value of the current and its derivative in the abc, αβ0, and dq0 reference frames to act in the detection of fault current in medium-voltage distribution systems. The method employed to calculate the derivative was Euler’s, with processing sampling rates of 10, 50, 100, and 200 μs. Using the MATLAB/Simulink platform, fault situations were analyzed on a real feeder of approximately 1.1132 km in length, fed by an 11.4 kV source, composed of 26 unbalanced loads and modeled as constant power. The simulation results show that the detection occurred in the different fault situations implemented in the feeder and that the detection speed is related to the value of the processing sampling rate (PSR) used. Considering all fault situations and regardless of the PSR value used, the total average detection time was 49 µs. Besides that, the joint action of the detection system with the Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) limited the fault current in each situation. The average detection time for each fault situation analyzed was below the typical time for a recloser to act, regardless of the reference adopted for the analysis.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 505
Muhammad Salman Siddiqui ◽  
Muhammad Hamza Khalid ◽  
Abdul Waheed Badar ◽  
Muhammed Saeed ◽  
Taimoor Asim

The reliance on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations has drastically increased over time to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of small-scale wind turbines. With the rapid variability in customer demand, industrial requirements, economic constraints, and time limitations associated with the design and development of small-scale wind turbines, the trade-off between computational resources and the simulation’s numerical accuracy may vary significantly. In the context of wind turbine design and analysis, high fidelity simulation under full geometric and numerical complexity is more accurate but pose significant demands from a computational standpoint. There is a need to understand and quantify performance deterioration of high fidelity simulations under reduced geometric or numerical approximation on a single small scale turbine model. In the present work, the flow past a small-scale Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) was simulated under various geometric and numerical configurations. The geometric complexity was varied based on stationary and rotating turbine conditions. In the stationary case, simple 2D airfoil, 2.5D blade, 3D blade sections are evaluated, while rotational effects are introduced for the configuration 3D blade, rotor only, and the full-scale wind turbine with and without the inclusion of a nacelle and tower. In terms of numerical complexity, the Single Reference Frame (SRF), Multiple Reference Frames (MRF), and the Sliding Meshing Interface (SMI) is analyzed over Tip Speed Ratios (TSR) of 3, 6, 10. The quantification of aerodynamic coefficients of the blade (Cl, Cd) and turbine (Cp, Ct) was conducted along with the discussion on wake patterns in comparison with experimental data.

N. Azahar ◽  
W. A. Wan Aris ◽  
T. A. Musa ◽  
A. H. Omar ◽  
I. A. Musliman

Abstract. Bursa-Wolf model is a common mathematical approach for coordinate transformation practice between two reference frames. For the case of deforming region, the existing reference frame has been experiencing a non-linear shifting over the time due to co-seismic and post seismic occurrences. Imprecise coordinate in the reference frame definition could degrading critical positioning, surveying, and navigation activities. This require a new realization of reference frame and the coordinate transformation linkage is suggested to be developed in relating the new and existing reference frame. This study provides performance of Bursa-Wolf model as coordinate transformation approach for a deforming region that is experiencing non-linear shifting due to the co-seismic and post-seismic events. The Bursa-Wolf were generated from 32 dependent Global Positioning System (GPS) Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) in Malaysia meanwhile another 20 independent neighbouring stations were utilized for assessment purposes. Seven parameters (7p) of Bursa-Wolf were estimated with RMS at ±4.5mm, ±9.2mm and ±2.1mm respectively. The independent stations were classified as internal and external assessment station and the root mean square (RMS) were found at less than 10mm. The internal station has depicted a better RMS in each component which are ±5.1mm, ±6.5mm and ±1.5mm respectively. Meanwhile for external stations RMS in each component are ±6.1mm, ±8.7mm and ±3.5mm respectively. The result shows that Bursa-Wolf model is sufficient to be used as coordinate transformation approach for deforming region.

Oren Fivel ◽  
Moshe Klein ◽  
Oded Maimon

In this paper we develop the foundation of a new theory for decision trees based on new modeling of phenomena with soft numbers. Soft numbers represent the theory of soft logic that addresses the need to combine real processes and cognitive ones in the same framework. At the same time soft logic develops a new concept of modeling and dealing with uncertainty: the uncertainty of time and space. It is a language that can talk in two reference frames, and also suggest a way to combine them. In the classical probability, in continuous random variables there is no distinguishing between the probability involving strict inequality and non-strict inequality. Moreover, a probability involves equality collapse to zero, without distinguishing among the values that we would like that the random variable will have for comparison. This work presents Soft Probability, by incorporating of Soft Numbers into probability theory. Soft Numbers are set of new numbers that are linear combinations of multiples of ”ones” and multiples of ”zeros”. In this work, we develop a probability involving equality as a ”soft zero” multiple of a probability density function (PDF). We also extend this notion of soft probabilities to the classical definitions of Complements, Unions, Intersections and Conditional probabilities, and also to the expectation, variance and entropy of a continuous random variable, condition being in a union of disjoint intervals and a discrete set of numbers. This extension provides information regarding to a continuous random variable being within discrete set of numbers, such that its probability does not collapse completely to zero. When we developed the notion of soft entropy, we found potentially another soft axis, multiples of 0log(0), that motivates to explore the properties of those new numbers and applications. We extend the notion of soft entropy into the definition of Cross Entropy and Kullback–Leibler-Divergence (KLD), and we found that a soft KLD is a soft number, that does not have a multiple of 0log(0). Based on a soft KLD, we defined a soft mutual information, that can be used as a splitting criteria in decision trees with data set of continuous random variables, consist of single samples and intervals.

Giovanni Marco Scalera ◽  
Maurizio Ferrarin ◽  
Alberto Marzegan ◽  
Marco Rabuffetti

Soft tissue artefacts (STAs) undermine the validity of skin-mounted approaches to measure skeletal kinematics. Magneto-inertial measurement units (MIMU) gained popularity due to their low cost and ease of use. Although the reliability of different protocols for marker-based joint kinematics estimation has been widely reported, there are still no indications on where to place MIMU to minimize STA. This study aims to find the most stable positions for MIMU placement, among four positions on the thigh, four on the shank, and three on the foot. Stability was investigated by measuring MIMU movements against an anatomical reference frame, defined according to a standard marker-based approach. To this aim, markers were attached both on the case of each MIMU (technical frame) and on bony landmarks (anatomical frame). For each MIMU, the nine angles between each versor of the technical frame with each versor of the corresponding anatomical frame were computed. The maximum standard deviation of these angles was assumed as the instability index of MIMU-body coupling. Six healthy subjects were asked to perform barefoot gait, step negotiation, and sit-to-stand. Results showed that (1) in the thigh, the frontal position was the most stable in all tasks, especially in gait; (2) in the shank, the proximal position is the least stable, (3) lateral or medial calcaneus and foot dorsum positions showed equivalent stability performances. Further studies should be done before generalizing these conclusions to different motor tasks and MIMU-body fixation methods. The above results are of interest for both MIMU-based gait analysis and rehabilitation approaches using wearable sensors-based biofeedback.

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 12
William Stuckey ◽  
Timothy McDevitt ◽  
Michael Silberstein

Quantum information theorists have created axiomatic reconstructions of quantum mechanics (QM) that are very successful at identifying precisely what distinguishes quantum probability theory from classical and more general probability theories in terms of information-theoretic principles. Herein, we show how one such principle, Information Invariance and Continuity, at the foundation of those axiomatic reconstructions, maps to “no preferred reference frame” (NPRF, aka “the relativity principle”) as it pertains to the invariant measurement of Planck’s constant h for Stern-Gerlach (SG) spin measurements. This is in exact analogy to the relativity principle as it pertains to the invariant measurement of the speed of light c at the foundation of special relativity (SR). Essentially, quantum information theorists have extended Einstein’s use of NPRF from the boost invariance of measurements of c to include the SO(3) invariance of measurements of h between different reference frames of mutually complementary spin measurements via the principle of Information Invariance and Continuity. Consequently, the “mystery” of the Bell states is understood to result from conservation per Information Invariance and Continuity between different reference frames of mutually complementary qubit measurements, and this maps to conservation per NPRF in spacetime. If one falsely conflates the relativity principle with the classical theory of SR, then it may seem impossible that the relativity principle resides at the foundation of non-relativisitic QM. In fact, there is nothing inherently classical or quantum about NPRF. Thus, the axiomatic reconstructions of QM have succeeded in producing a principle account of QM that reveals as much about Nature as the postulates of SR.

2021 ◽  
pp. 24-43
Laura Parajeles-Jiménez ◽  
Cristian Silva-Jiménez

En Costa Rica se encuentra el colectivo ChepeCletas que ha encauzado sus esfuerzos en mejorar la calidad del ambiente, a través del uso de bicicletas y las caminatas, así como la recuperación de espacios para la intervención pública, con el fn de convertir a la capital en un espacio para todas las personas. Por tanto, este artículo realizó un análisis dentro del colectivo, basado en los marcos de referencia de diagnóstico, pronóstico y motivo, dando como resultado mayor conciencia del impacto ambiental que genera el uso excesivo de vehículos privados, la construcción de un grupo que se siente como familia, incrementando el empoderamiento ciudadano para el cambio social, así como el interés por la ciudad y la necesidad de retomar los espacios que siempre fueron públicos; pero habían sido olvidados. Utilizar los marcos de referencia permite comprender, desde la visión de los integrantes, qué es, qué permite y qué se hace en dicho colectivo. Sumado a esto, se debe recalcar que este artículo aporta nuevos conocimientos respecto del tema, visualiza otra forma de hacer política desde abajo y crea  espacios que integran cada día a más personas. Palabras clave: Movilidad, acciones colectivas, ambiente, política. AbstractIn Costa Rica, where the ChepeCletas collective is  to be found, eforts have been channeled to improve the quality of the environment by  using bicycles and walking, as well as the recovery of spaces bound for public intervention to turn the capital into a space for all people. Therefore, this article conducts an analysis within the group based on the diagnostic, prognostic and motive reference frameworks which result in a greater awareness of the environmental impact than the excessive use of private vehicles generates. Additionally, the  onstruction of a group that feels like family increasing citizen empowerment for social change, as well as interest in the city and the need to retake spaces that were always public but had been forgotten. The use of reference frames allows us to understand, from the point of view of the members, it’s nature, what allows it to be and what is done in said group. In addition to this, it should be emphasized that this article provides new knowledge on the subject, visualizes another way of doing politics from below and creates spaces that integrate more people every day. Keywords: Mobility, collective actions, environment, politics

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Dongcheng He ◽  
Haluk Ogmen

Newborns demonstrate innate abilities in coordinating their sensory and motor systems through reflexes. One notable characteristic is circular reactions consisting of self-generated motor actions that lead to correlated sensory and motor activities. This paper describes a model for goal-directed reaching based on circular reactions and exocentric reference-frames. The model is built using physiologically plausible visual processing modules and arm-control neural networks. The model incorporates map representations with ego- and exo-centric reference frames for sensory inputs, vector representations for motor systems, as well as local associative learning that result from arm explorations. The integration of these modules is simulated and tested in a three-dimensional spatial environment using Unity3D. The results show that, through self-generated activities, the model self-organizes to generate accurate arm movements that are tolerant with respect to various sources of noise.

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