pitch angle
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2022 ◽  
pp. 1-34
Ojing Siram ◽  
Neha Kesharwani ◽  
Niranjan Sahoo ◽  
Ujjwal K. Saha

Abstract In recent times, the application of small-scale horizontal axis wind turbines (SHAWTs) has drawn interest in certain areas where the energy demand is minimal. These turbines, operating mostly at low Reynolds number (Re) and low tip speed ratio (λ) applications, can be used as stand-alone systems. The present study aims at the design, development, and testing of a series of SHAWT models. On the basis of aerodynamic characteristics, four SHAWT models viz., M1, M2, M3, and M4 composed of E216, SG6043, NACA63415, and NACA0012 airfoils, respectively have been developed. Initially, the rotors are designed through blade element momentum theory (BEMT), and their power coefficient have been evaluated. Thence, the developed rotors are tested in a low-speed wind tunnel to find their rotational frequency, power and power coefficient at design and off-design conditions. From BEMT analysis, M1 shows a maximum power coefficient (Cpmax) of 0.37 at λ = 2.5. The subsequent wind tunnel tests on M1, M2, M3, and M4 at 9 m/s show the Cpmax values to be 0.34, 0.30, 0.28, and 0.156, respectively. Thus, from the experiments, the M1 rotor is found to be favourable than the other three rotors, and its Cpmax value is found to be about 92% of BEMT prediction. Further, the effect of pitch angle (θp) on Cp of the model rotors is also examined, where M1 is found to produce a satisfactory performance within ±5° from the design pitch angle (θp, design).

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Xiuli Si ◽  
Xiaoxin Wu ◽  
Feng You ◽  
Hongliang Yuan ◽  
Yien Xu ◽  

For an electric power grid that has large penetration levels of variable renewable energy including wind generation and photovoltaics, the system frequency stability is jeopardized, which is manifest in lowering frequency nadir and settling frequency. This paper suggests an enhanced primary frequency response strategy of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) in association with pitch angle control. The DFIG works in de-loaded operation with a certain reserve power via pitch angle control prior to disturbances for frequency regulation. To address this, a function of the pitch angle is employed that decreases the pitch angle with time to slowly feed the active power to the power gird. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed primary frequency response strategy including the settling frequency and frequency nadir.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 235
Gebreel Abdalrahman ◽  
Mohamed A. Daoud ◽  
William W. Melek ◽  
Fue-Sang Lien ◽  
Eugene Yee

A few studies have been conducted recently in order to improve the aerodynamic performance of Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbines with straight blades (H-type VAWTs). The blade pitch angle control is proposed to enhance the performance of H-type VAWTs. This paper aims to investigate the performance of an H-type VAWT in terms of its power output and self-starting capability using an intelligent blade pitch control strategy based on a multi-layer perceptron artificial neural network (MLP-ANN) method. The performance of the proposed blade pitch controller is investigated by adding a conventional controller (PID) to the MLP-ANN controller (i.e., a hybrid controller). The dynamics of an H-type VAWT is mathematically modeled in a nonlinear state space for the stability analysis in the sense of Lyapunov. The effectiveness of the proposed pitch control system is validated by building an H-type VAWT prototype model that is extensively tested outdoors under different conditions for both fixed and variable pitch angle configurations. Results demonstrated that the blade-pitching technique enhanced the power output of an H-type VAWT by approximately 22%. The hybrid controller that used a high percentage of the MLP-ANN controller achieved a better control performance by reducing the overshoot of the control response at high rotor speeds.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 79
Jonatán Felipe ◽  
Marta Sigut ◽  
Leopoldo Acosta

U-V disparity is a technique that is commonly used to detect obstacles in 3D scenes, modeling them as a set of vertical planes. In this paper, the authors describe the general lines of a method based on this technique for fully reconstructing 3D scenes, and conduct an analytical study of its performance and sensitivity to errors in the pitch angle of the stereoscopic vision system. The equations of the planes calculated for a given error in this angle yield the deviation with respect to the ideal planes (with a zero error in the angle) for a large test set consisting of planes with different orientations, which is represented graphically to analyze the method’s qualitative and quantitative performance. The relationship between the deviation of the planes and the error in the pitch angle is observed to be linear. Two major conclusions are drawn from this study: first, that the deviation between the calculated and ideal planes is always less than or equal to the error considered in the pitch angle; and second, that even though in some cases the deviation of the plane is zero or very small, the probability that a plane of the scene deviates from the ideal by the greatest amount possible, which matches the error in the pitch angle, is very high.

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