medical decisions
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Mariam Chichua ◽  
Eleonora Brivio ◽  
Davide Mazzoni ◽  
Gabriella Pravettoni

AbstractThe commentary presents reflections on the literature on post-treatment cancer patient regret. Even though a lot of effort has been made to increase patient satisfaction by engaging them in medical decisions, patient regret remains present in clinical settings. In our commentary, we identify three main aspects of shared decision-making that previously have been shown to predict patient regret. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for physicians involved in the shared decision-making process. In addition, we make methodological suggestions for future research in the field.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261715
Sylwia Płaczkowska ◽  
Małgorzata Terpińska ◽  
Agnieszka Piwowar

Background The results of examinations of laboratory parameters are the basis of appropriate medical decisions. The availability of reliable and accurate reference intervals (RIs) for each laboratory parameter is an integral part of its appropriate interpretation. Each medical laboratory should confirm their RIs. Up-to-date reference intervals for thyroid function hormones are still a matter of ongoing controversy. The aim of the study was the application of the indirect Hoffman method to determine RIs for TSH and fT4 based on the large data pools stored in laboratory information systems and the comparison of these RIs to generally used RIs. Material and methods The TSH and fT4 routine examination results of hospitalized and outpatient populations were collected over five years (2015–2019), and reference limits were established by the improved Hoffmann method after the exclusion of outliers. Comparative verification of established RIs was conducted with the RIs values provided by test manufacturers and literature data. Results Various RIs were observed in different age groups in the examined populations. For TSH, RIs varied between different age groups, with a narrower range of RIs in the studied adult population and a shift of both reference boundaries toward higher values in comparison to manufacturers’ data among children. RIs estimated for fT4 were very similar to the manufacturer and literature data. Conclusion Thyroid hormone levels change during a person’s lifetime and vary between sexes, but this difference does not always influence the clinical interpretation of laboratory results in the context of RIs. The use of indirect methods is justified due to the ease and low cost of their application.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 51-60
E. P. Tretyakova

Within the framework of this article, the author considers the features regarding the application and use of artificial intelligence (AI) in medical practice. This includes complex issues related to the personal liability of a doctor when making decisions on diagnostics and treatment based on an algorithm proposal (a system for supporting medical decisions), as well as possible options for the responsibility of the algorithm (AI) developer. The analysis provides an overview of the existing system for holding medical professionals accountable, as well as an assessment of possible options for the distribution of responsibility in connection with the widespread introduction of AI into the work of doctors alongside the possible introduction of AI into standard medical care. The author considers the possibility of establishing more serious requirements for the collection of information on the side effects of such devices for an AI registered as a medical device. Using the method of legal analysis and the comparative legal method, the author analyzes the current global trends in the distribution of responsibility for harm in such cases where there is an error and/or inaccuracy in making a medical decision; as a result of this, the author demonstrates possible options for the distribution of the roles of the healthcare professional and AI in the near future.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Zilong Zhou ◽  
Lele Cong ◽  
Xianling Cong

Organoids are in vitro self-assembling, organ-like, three-dimensional cellular structures that stably retain key characteristics of the respective organs. Organoids can be generated from healthy or pathological tissues derived from patients. Cancer organoid culture platforms have several advantages, including conservation of the cellular composition that captures the heterogeneity and pharmacotypic signatures of the parental tumor. This platform has provided new opportunities to fill the gap between cancer research and clinical outcomes. Clinical trials have been performed using patient-derived organoids (PDO) as a tool for personalized medical decisions to predict patients’ responses to therapeutic regimens and potentially improve treatment outcomes. Living organoid biobanks encompassing several cancer types have been established, providing a representative collection of well-characterized models that will facilitate drug development. In this review, we highlight recent developments in the generation of organoid cultures and PDO biobanks, in preclinical drug discovery, and methods to design a functional organoid-on-a-chip combined with microfluidic. In addition, we discuss the advantages as well as limitations of human organoids in patient-specific therapy and highlight possible future directions.

Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 60
Gan Li ◽  
Chuanfeng Han ◽  
Pihui Liu

Background: The rapid growth of the elderly population poses a huge challenge for people to access medical services. The key to get rid of the dilemma is for patients to go firstly to primary medical institutions. Existing studies have identified numerous factors that can affect patients’ health institution choice. However, we currently know little about the role of Internet use in the patients’ medical decisions. The objective of this study is to explore health-seeking behavior and institution choice under the background of the Internet era from the perspective of older adults, and to analyze whether the Internet could guide patients to the appropriate medical institution so as to accomplish hierarchical treatment. Methods: The dataset comprises 9416 people aged 45 or above from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS), which, through multistage cluster sampling, was conducted in 2011, 2013, and 2015. Logistic regression, PSM, and FE model are used to estimate the influence of Internet use on the health care decision-making behavior. Results: Internet use has a significant positive impact on the self-treatment of common diseases (β = 0.05, p < 0.05). In terms of medical institution choices, those who use Internet are more inclined to choose top-level hospitals than community health service institutions to treat common diseases (β = 0.06, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The Internet has lowered the obstacles to learning about common ailments, resulting in a substitution impact of self-treatment for hospital care. However, Internet use may aggravate older adults’ perception of the risk of disease, which exacerbates the tendency of going to higher-level medical institutions for medical treatment. The finding of the study is useful for further rational planning and utilization of the Internet in order to guide patients to appropriate medical institution, which helps to improve the efficiency of the overall medical and health services.

2021 ◽  
pp. 026921632110585
Catherine L Auriemma ◽  
Helen O’Donnell ◽  
Julia Jones ◽  
Zoe Barbati ◽  
Eda Akpek ◽  

Background: Seriously ill patients rate several health outcomes as states worse than death. It is unclear what factors underlie such valuations, and whether consideration of such states is useful when making medical decisions. Aim: We sought to (1) use qualitative approaches to identify states worse than death, (2) identify attributes common to such undesirable health states, and (3) determine how participants might use information on these states in making medical decisions. Design: Qualitative study of semi-structured interviews utilizing content analysis with constant comparison techniques. Setting, Participants: We interviewed adults age 65 or older with serious illnesses after discharge home from one of two urban, academic hospitals. Eligible patients were purposively sampled to achieve balance in gender and race. Results: Of 29 participants, 15 (52%) were female, and 15 were white (52%), with a median age of 72 (interquartile range 69, 75). Various physical, cognitive, and social impairments were identified as states worse than death. The most commonly reported attributes underlying states worse than death were perceived burden on loved ones and inability to maintain human connection. Patients believed information on states worse than death must be individualized, and were concerned their opinions could change with time and fluctuations in health status. Conclusions: Common factors underlying undesirable states suggest that for care to be patient-centered it must also be family-centered. Patients’ views on using states worse than death in decision making highlight barriers to using avoidance of such states as a quality measure, but also suggest opportunities for eliciting patients’ values.

Holli H. Seitz ◽  
Jesse G. Grady

Abstract OBJECTIVE To adapt the 3 scales of the Autonomy Preference Index to veterinary medicine and validate the 3 new scales to measure pet owner preferences for autonomy and information when making medical decisions for their pets. SAMPLE 10 small-animal veterinarians and 10 small-animal clients at a veterinary school–based community practice (pilot study) and 311 small-animal clients of the practice (validation study), of which 47 participated in a follow-up survey. PROCEDURES Wording of items in the Autonomy Preference Index was adapted, and instrument wording was finalized on the basis of feedback obtained in the pilot study to create 3 scales: the Veterinary General Decision-Making Preferences Scale (VGDMPS), Veterinary Clinical Decision-Making Preferences Scale (VCDMPS), and Veterinary Information-Seeking Preferences Scale (VISPS). The 3 scales were then validated by means of administering them to small-animal clients in a clinical setting. RESULTS The 3 scales had acceptable reliability and validity, but clients expressed concern over item wording in the VGDMPS during the pilot study. Overall, results showed that clients had a very high preference for information (mean ± SD VISPS score, 4.78 ± 0.36 on a scale from 1 to 5). Preferences for autonomy varied, but mean values reflected a low-to-moderate desire for autonomy in clinical decision-making (mean ± SD VCDMPS score, 2.04 ± 0.62 on a scale from 1 to 5). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The VCDMPS was a reliable and valid instrument for measuring client preferences for autonomy in clinical decision-making. Veterinarians could potentially use this instrument to better understand pet owner preferences and tailor their communication approach accordingly.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (12) ◽  
pp. 1203-1213
Junbo He ◽  
Tingkui Wu ◽  
Chen Ding ◽  
Beiyu Wang ◽  
Ying Hong ◽  

Anterior cervical surgery (ACS) owes its development to various pioneering individuals whose revolutionary works form key advances and guide current medical decisions. This bibliometric study aimed to identify, analyse and visualize the main features of the most-cited papers in ACS. The citation count for the top 100 most-cited articles ranged from 148 to 1,197, and citations per year ranged from 3.1 to 89.8. The articles were published from 1958 to 2016, with the 2000s being the most active decade. There was an inverse correlation between the average citations per year since publication and article age. The oldest as well as most-cited two articles were both published in 1958 by Smith and Robinson, and Cloward, respectively. In their studies, the authors individually described the technique of anterior cervical discectomy with fusion (ACDF). The most popular keywords were: ‘fusion’ (22), ‘spine’ (20), ‘cervical spine’ (16), ‘complications’ (15), ‘arthrodesis’ (13), ‘interbody fusion’ (13), ‘bone morphogenetic protein’ (13), and ‘radiculopathy’ (12). ACDF was the most frequent surgical procedure (80%), while cervical disc arthroplasty is of gradual greater impact. The surgical techniques of ACDF have remained unaltered for over 60 years. More attempts are needed to promote its development. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:1203-1213. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.210074

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