inverse correlation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kaixuan Lv ◽  
Lingyu Kong ◽  
Mei Yang ◽  
Linlin Zhang ◽  
Shangmin Chu ◽  

Atherosclerosis (AS) seriously impairs the health of human beings and is manifested initially as endothelial cells (ECs) impairment and dysfunction in vascular intima, which can be alleviated through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) induced by stromal-cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α). A strong inverse correlation between HDL and AS has been proposed. The aim of the present work is to investigate whether 4F, an apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I, major component protein of HDL) mimic peptide, can upregulate SDF-1α in mice and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the underlying mechanism. The protein levels of SDF-1α were measured by ELISA assay. Protein levels of HIF-1α, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) were evaluated by Western blotting analysis. The results show that L-4F significantly upregulates protein levels of HIF-1α, Akt, and ERK, which can be inhibited by the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, or ERK inhibitor, PD98059, respectively. Particularly, LY294002 can downregulate the levels of p-ERK, while PD98059 cannot suppress that of p-Akt. D-4F can upregulate the levels of HIF, p-Akt, and p-ERK in the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava from mice. These results suggest that 4F promotes SDF-1α expression in ECs through PI3K/Akt/ERK/HIF-1α signaling pathway.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 93-97
Linus Francis ◽  
Davis Manuel

Background: This study was designed to find the prevalence of anxiety and depression in school-going children with epilepsy.Methods:All the patients with epilepsy presenting during the study period underwent detailed clinical and EEG evaluation. Hospital Anxiety and Depression score (HADS) was used to screen for anxiety and depression.Results:We identified 190 patients with epilepsy during the study period. Out of these 30 (15.8%) were diagnosed as having treatment resistance epilepsy. Anxiety was diagnosed in 114 (60%) and depression in 62 (32.6%). Patients with drug resistant epilepsy were found to have statistically significant markers in the form of higher scores for depression and anxiety, and lower IQ scores. Frequency of GTCS (Generaized Tonic Clonic Seizures) showed inverse correlation with IQ scores and direct correlation to the anxiety/depression scores.Conclusion:We conclude that anxiety and depression in school-going children with epilepsy is common and that it has a correlation with treatment resistance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Raquel de Souza Vieira ◽  
Marilda Savoia Nascimento ◽  
Isaú Henrique Noronha ◽  
José Ronnie Carvalho Vasconcelos ◽  
Luiz Alberto Benvenuti ◽  

A variety of signaling pathways are involved in the induction of innate cytokines and CD8+ T cells, which are major players in protection against acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Previous data have demonstrated that a TBK-1/IRF3-dependent signaling pathway promotes IFN-β production in response to Trypanosoma cruzi, but the role for STING, a main interactor of these proteins, remained to be addressed. Here, we demonstrated that STING signaling is required for production of IFN-β, IL-6, and IL-12 in response to Trypanosoma cruzi infection and that STING absence negatively impacts activation of IRF-dependent pathways in response to the parasite. We reported no significant activation of IRF-dependent pathways and cytokine expression in RAW264.7 macrophages in response to heat-killed trypomastigotes. In addition, we showed that STING is essential for T. cruzi DNA-mediated induction of IFN-β, IL-6, and IL-12 gene expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that STING-knockout mice have significantly higher parasitemia from days 5 to 8 of infection and higher heart parasitism at day 13 after infection. Although we observed similar heart inflammatory infiltrates at day 13 after infection, IFN-β, IL-12, CXCL9, IFN-γ, and perforin gene expression were lower in the absence of STING. We also showed an inverse correlation between parasite DNA and the expression of CXCL9, IFN-γ, and perforin genes in the hearts of infected animals at day 13 after infection. Finally, we reported that STING signaling is required for splenic IFN-β and IL-6 expression early after infection and that STING deficiency results in lower numbers of splenic parasite-specific IFN-γ and IFN-γ/perforin-producing CD8+ T cells, indicating a pivotal role for STING signaling in immunity to Trypanosoma cruzi.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jing Yang ◽  
Jing Hai ◽  
Xuecai Dong ◽  
Mengjie Zhang ◽  
Shufeng Duan

Recent studies have confirmed the existence and key roles of microRNA (miRNAs) in cancer drug resistance, including cervical cancer (CC). The present study aims to establish a novel role for miR-92a-3p and its associated gene networks in cisplatin (DDP) resistance of CC. First, the disparities in miRNA expression between CC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were screened based on GSE19611 microarray data that retrieved from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and we identified several miRs that were significantly downregulated or upregulated in CC tissues including miR-92a-3p. Moreover, miR-92a-3p was significantly up-regulated in DDP-resistant cells and was the most differently expressed miRNA. Functionally, knockdown of miR-92a-3p increased the sensitivity of DDP-resistant cells to DDP via inhibiting cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and promoting apoptosis. Conversely, overexpression of miR-92a-3p significantly induced DDP resistance in CC parental cells including HeLa and SiHa cells. Moreover, Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) was identified as a direct target of miR-92a-3p, and an obvious inverse correlation was observed between the expression of miR-92a-3p and KLF4 in 40 pairs of cancer tissues. Furthermore, KLF4 knockdown reversed the promoting effect of miR-92a-3p inhibition on DDP sensitivity in DDP-resistant CC cells. Besides, high expression of miR-92a-3p was associated with DDP resistance, as well as a short overall survival in clinic. Taken together, these findings provide important evidence that miR-92a-3p targets KLF4 and is significant in DDP resistance in CC, indicating that miR-92a-3p may be an attractive target to increase DDP sensitivity in clinical CC treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
David Clofent ◽  
Eva Polverino ◽  
Almudena Felipe ◽  
Galo Granados ◽  
Marta Arjona-Peris ◽  

Background: Interstitial lung sequelae are increasingly being reported in survivors of COVID-19 pneumonia. An early detection of these lesions may help prevent the development of irreversible lung fibrosis. Lung ultrasound (LUS) has shown high diagnostic accuracy in interstitial lung disease (ILD) and could likely be used as a first-line test for post-COVID-19 lung sequelae.Methods: Single-center observational prospective study. Follow-up assessments of consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia were conducted 2–5 months after the hospitalization. All patients underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs), high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and LUS. Radiological alterations in HRCT were quantified using the Warrick score. The LUS score was obtained by evaluating the presence of pathological B-lines in 12 thoracic areas (range, 0–12). The correlation between the LUS and Warrick scores was analyzed.Results: Three hundred and fifty-two patients who recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia were recruited between July and September 2020. At follow-up, dyspnea was the most frequent symptom (69.3%). FVC and DLCO alterations were present in 79 (22.4%) and 234 (66.5%) patients, respectively. HRCT showed relevant interstitial lung sequelae (RILS) in 154 (43.8%) patients (Warrick score ≥ 7). The LUS score was strongly correlated with the HRCT Warrick score (r = 0.77) and showed a moderate inverse correlation with DLCO (r = −0.55). The ROC curve analysis revealed that a LUS score ≥ 3 indicated an excellent ability to discriminate patients with RILS (sensitivity, 94.2%; specificity, 81.8%; negative predictive value, 94.7%).Conclusions: LUS could be implemented as a first-line procedure in the evaluation of Post-COVID-19 interstitial lung sequelae. A normal LUS examination rules out the presence of these sequelae in COVID-19 survivors, avoiding the need for additional diagnostic tests such as HRCT.

Takaaki Miyata ◽  
Takayasu Mizushima ◽  
Nobuyuki Miyamoto ◽  
Takahiro Yamada ◽  
Koji Hase ◽  

Abstract Dietary factors, affect Akkermansia muciniphila (AM) abundance in the colon, have attracted attention, driven by the inverse correlation between AM abundance and metabolic disorders. We prepared skate-skin mucin (SM), porcine stomach mucin (PM), and rat gastrointestinal mucin (RM). SM contained more sulfated sugars and threonine than PM or RM. Rats were fed a control diet or diets including SM, PM, or RM (15 g/kg), or SM (12 g/kg) from five different threonine contents for 14 d. Cecal total bacteria and AM were less and more numerous, respectively, in SM-fed rats than the others, but SM did not affect microbial species-richness. Low-threonine SM did not induce AM proliferation. The in vitro fermentation with human feces showed that the rate of AM increase was greater with SM than PM. Collectively, heavy SM sulfation facilitates a priority supply of SM-derived amino sugars and threonine that promotes AM proliferation in rats and human feces.

Francesca Torrini ◽  
Laura Caponi ◽  
Andrea Bertolini ◽  
Pasquale Palladino ◽  
Francesca Cipolli ◽  

AbstractAn original biomimetic enzyme-linked immunoassay (BELISA) to target the small peptide hormone gonadorelin is presented. This peptide has been recently listed among the substances banned in sports by the World Antidoping Agency (WADA) since its misuse by male athletes triggers testosterone increase. Hence, in response to this emerging issue in anti-doping controls, we proposed BELISA which involves the growth of a polynorepinephrine (PNE)–based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) directly on microwells. PNE, a polydopamine (PDA) analog, has recently displayed impressive performances when it was exploited for MIP preparation, giving even better results than PDA. Gonadorelin quantification was accomplished via a colorimetric indirect competitive bioassay involving the competition between biotinylated gonadorelin linked to the signal reporter and the unlabeled analyte. These compete for the same MIP binding sites resulting in an inverse correlation between gonadorelin concentration and the output color signal (λ = 450 nm). A detection limit of 277 pmol L−1 was achieved with very good reproducibility in standard solutions (avCV% = 4.07%) and in urine samples (avCV% = 5.24%). The selectivity of the assay resulted adequate for biological specimens and non-specific control peptides. In addition, the analytical figures of merit were successfully validated by mass spectrometry, the reference anti-doping benchtop platform for the analyte. BELISA was aimed to open real perspectives for PNE-based MIPs as alternatives to antibodies, especially when the target analyte is a poorly or non-immunogenic small molecule, such as gonadorelin. Graphical abstract

André Antunes ◽  
Christophe Domingos ◽  
Luísa Diniz ◽  
Cristina P. Monteiro ◽  
Mário C. Espada ◽  

The present study sought to investigate if faster upper body oxygen uptake (VO2) and hemoglobin/myoglobin deoxygenation ([HHb]) kinetics during heavy intensity exercise were associated with a greater upper body repeated-sprint ability (RSA) performance in a group of judokas and in a group of individuals of heterogenous fitness level. Eight judokas (JT) and seven untrained healthy participants (UT) completed an incremental step test, two heavy intensity square-wave transitions and an upper body RSA test consisting of four 15 s sprints, with 45 s rest, from which the experimental data were obtained. In the JT group, VO2 kinetics, [HHb] kinetics and the parameters determined in the incremental test were not associated with RSA. However, when the two groups were combined, the amplitude of the primary phase VO2 and [HHb] was positively associated with the accumulated work in the four sprints (ΣWork). Additionally, maximal aerobic power (MAP), peak VO2 and the first ventilatory threshold (VT1) showed a positive correlation with ΣWork and an inverse correlation with the decrease in peak power output (Dec-PPO) between the first and fourth sprints. Faster VO2 and [HHb] kinetics do not seem to be associated with an increased upper body RSA in JT. However, other variables of aerobic fitness seem to be associated with an increased upper body RSA performance in a group of individuals with heterogeneous fitness level.

2022 ◽  
Rebecca C Richmond ◽  
Laurence J Howe ◽  
Karl Heilbron ◽  
Samuel Jones ◽  
Junxi Liu ◽  

Spouses may affect each other's sleeping behaviour. In 47,420 spouse-pairs from the UK Biobank, we found a weak positive phenotypic correlation between spouses for self-reported sleep duration (r=0.11; 95% CI=0.10, 0.12) and a weak inverse correlation for chronotype (diurnal preference) (r=-0.11; -0.12, -0.10), which replicated in up to 127,035 23andMe spouse-pairs. Using accelerometer data on 3,454 UK Biobank spouse-pairs, the correlation for derived sleep duration was similar to self-report (r=0.12; 0.09, 0.15). Timing of diurnal activity was positively correlated (r=0.24; 0.21, 0.27) in contrast to the inverse correlation for chronotype. In Mendelian randomization analysis, positive effects of sleep duration (mean difference=0.13; 0.04, 0.23 SD per SD) and diurnal activity (0.49; 0.03, 0.94) were observed, as were inverse effects of chronotype (-0.15; -0.26, -0.04) and snoring (-0.15; -0.27, -0.04). Findings support the notion that an individual's sleep may impact that of their partner, with implications for sleep health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Agnieszka Uryga ◽  
Nathalie Nasr ◽  
Magdalena Kasprowicz ◽  
Karol Budohoski ◽  
Marek Sykora ◽  

Introduction: Common consequences following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are cerebral vasospasm (CV), impaired cerebral autoregulation (CA), and disturbance in the autonomic nervous system, as indicated by lower baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). The compensatory interaction between BRS and CA has been shown in healthy volunteers and stable pathological conditions such as carotid atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the inverse correlation between BRS and CA would be lost in patients after aSAH during vasospasm. A secondary objective was to analyze the time-trend of BRS after aSAH.Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed at the Neuro-Critical Care Unit of Addenbrooke's Hospital (Cambridge, UK) between June 2010 and January 2012. The cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) was measured in the middle cerebral artery using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). The arterial blood pressure (ABP) was monitored invasively through an arterial line. CA was quantified by the correlation coefficient (Mxa) between slow oscillations in ABP and CBFV. BRS was calculated using the sequential cross-correlation method using the ABP signal.Results: A total of 73 patients with aSAH were included. The age [median (lower-upper quartile)] was 58 (50–67). WFNS scale was 2 (1–4) and the modified Fisher scale was 3 (1–3). In the total group, 31 patients (42%) had a CV and 42 (58%) had no CV. ABP and CBFV were higher in patients with CV during vasospasm compared to patients without CV (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between Mxa and BRS in patients with CV, neither during nor before vasospasm. In patients without CV, a significant, although moderate correlation was found between BRS and Mxa (rS = 0.31; p = 0.040), with higher BRS being associated with worse CA. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant worsening of BRS after aSAH in patients with CV (Rp = −0.42; p < 0.001).Conclusions: Inverse compensatory correlation between BRS and CA was lost in patients who developed CV after aSAH, both before and during vasospasm. The impact of these findings on the prognosis of aSAH should be investigated in larger studies.

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