in utero
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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 101057
Shupeng Dong ◽  
Xiaochun Xie ◽  
Yujie Chen ◽  
Gang Long ◽  
Qiming Liang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Ana Carolina Cardoso dos Santos Durão ◽  
Wesley Nogueira Brandão ◽  
Vitor Bruno ◽  
Lídia Emmanuela W. Spelta ◽  
Stephanie de Oliveira Duro ◽  

The embryonic stage is the most vulnerable period for congenital abnormalities. Due to its prolonged developmental course, the central nervous system (CNS) is susceptible to numerous genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences. During embryo implantation, the CNS is more vulnerable to external influences such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), increasing the risk for delayed fetal growth, sudden infant death syndrome, and immune system abnormalities. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of in utero exposure to ETS on neuroinflammation in the offspring of pregnant mice challenged or not with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After the confirmation of mating by the presence of the vaginal plug until offspring birth, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either 3R4F cigarettes smoke (Kentucky University) or compressed air, twice a day (1h each), for 21 days. Enhanced glial cell and mixed cell cultures were prepared from 3-day-old mouse pups. After cell maturation, both cells were stimulated with LPS or saline. To inhibit microglia activation, minocycline was added to the mixed cell culture media 24 h before LPS challenge. To verify the influence of in utero exposure to ETS on the development of neuroinflammatory events in adulthood, a different set of 8-week-old animals was submitted to the Autoimmune Experimental Encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. The results indicate that cells from LPS-challenged pups exposed to ETS in utero presented high levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and decreased cell viability. Such a proinflammatory environment could modulate fetal programming by an increase in microglia and astrocytes miRNA155. This scenario may lead to the more severe EAE observed in pups exposed to ETS in utero.

2022 ◽  
Joseph Kuchling ◽  
Betty Jurek ◽  
Mariya Kents ◽  
Jakob Kreye ◽  
Christian Geis ◽  

Introduction: While decreased hippocampal connectivity and disruption of functional networks are established MRI features in human anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, the underlying pathophysiology for brain network alterations remains poorly understood. Application of patient-derived monoclonal antibodies against the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR allows for the investigation of potential functional connectivity alterations in experimental murine NMDAR antibody disease models. Objective: To explore functional connectivity changes in NR1 antibody mouse models using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). Methods: Adult C57BL/6J mice (n=10) were intrathecally injected with a recombinant human NR1 antibody over 14 days and then studied using rs-fMRI at 7 Tesla. In addition, a newly established mouse model with in utero exposure to a human recombinant NR1 antibody characterized by a neurodevelopmental disorder (NR1-offspring) was investigated with rs-fMRI at the age of 8 weeks (n=15) and 10 months (n=14). Mice exposed to isotype-matched control antibodies served as controls. Independent component analysis (ICA) and dual regression analysis were performed to compare functional connectivity between NMDAR antibody mouse models and control mice. Results: Adult NR1-antibody injected mice showed significantly impaired functional connectivity within the dentate gyrus of the left hippocampus in comparison to controls, resembling impaired hippocampal functional connectivity patterns observed in human patients with NMDAR encephalitis. Similarly, analyses showed significantly reduced functional connectivity in the dentate gyrus in NR1-offspring compared after 8 weeks, and impaired connectivity in the dentate gyrus and CA3 hippocampal subregion in NR1-offspring at the age of 10 months. Conclusion: Functional connectivity changes within the hippocampus resulting from both direct application and in utero exposure to NMDAR antibodies can be modeled in experimental murine systems. With this translational approach, we successfully reproduced functional MRI alterations previously observed in human NMDAR encephalitis patients. Future experimental studies will identify the detailed mechanisms that cause functional network alterations and may eventually allow for non-invasive monitoring of disease activity and therapeutic effects in autoimmune encephalitis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (3) ◽  
pp. 95-99
Karina Sarango-Amay ◽  
Alberth Muñoz-Gualan

Schizencephaly is a rare congenital brain malformation characterized by clefts in the cerebral cortex, it is classified in Type I (open lip) and Type II (close-lip). Patients with schizencephaly present seizures, hydrocephalus, motor and mental deficits. Ultrasound is used for in-utero and newborns patients’ diagnosis, and MRI or CT for already born patients. The management of schizencephaly is conservative, with rehabilitation in motor or mental deficits, medication or surgery for seizures and shunt in hydrocephalus with increased intracranial pressure. In the literature, only few giant bilateral cases have been reported. We report a case of giant bilateral open lip schizencephaly, in a 10-day old male patient, presenting with mild hypotonia and no seizures. This case is rare because the relatively benign features compared to other reported cases.

Horacio G. Carvajal ◽  
Vipul Sharma ◽  
Lisa S. Goessling ◽  
Taylor C. Merritt ◽  
Anoop K. Brar ◽  

Longbo Zhang ◽  
Stephanie A. Getz ◽  
Angelique Bordey

Precise regulation of gene expression during development in cortical neurons is essential for the establishment and maintenance of neuronal connectivity and higher-order cognition. Dual in utero electroporation provides a precise and effective tool to label and manipulate gene expression in multiple neuronal populations within a circuit in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. In addition, this technique allows for morphophysiological investigations into neuronal development and connectivity following cell-specific gene manipulations. Here, we detail the dual in utero electroporation protocol.

Fahim Rejanur Tasin ◽  
Asif Ahmed ◽  
Debasish Halder ◽  
Chanchal Mandal
In Utero ◽  

2022 ◽  
Hamish Scott ◽  
Alicia Byrne ◽  
Peer Arts ◽  
Thuong Ha ◽  
Karin Kassahn ◽  

Abstract Perinatal death, of a fetus or newborn, is a devastating event for families. Following nationwide multicentre recruitment, we assessed ‘genomic autopsy’ as an adjunct to standard autopsy for 200 families who experienced perinatal death, and provided a definite or candidate genetic diagnosis in 105 families. From this understudied cohort, half of the (candidate) diagnoses were phenotype expansions or novel disease genes, revealing previously unknown in-utero presentations of existing developmental disorders, and genomic disorders that are likely incompatible with life. Among the definite diagnoses, 43% were recessively or dominantly inherited, posing a 25% or 50% recurrence risk for future pregnancies. Ten families used their diagnosis for preimplantation or prenatal diagnosis of 12 pregnancies, facilitating the delivery of ten healthy newborns and management of two affected pregnancies. We emphasize the clinical importance of genomic investigations of perinatal death, with short turn-around times, enabling accurate counselling and options for families to prevent recurrence.

Danilo Buonsenso ◽  
Simonetta Costa ◽  
Lucia Giordano ◽  
Francessca Priolo ◽  
Arianna Turriziani Colonna ◽  

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