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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
B. Ahmad ◽  
I. Ilahi ◽  
A. M. Yousafzai ◽  
M. Attaullah ◽  
A. Rahim ◽  
...  

Abstract The study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Zizyphus oxyphyla leaves methanolic (ZOX-LME), on serum liver, kidney and hematology along with other serum parameters in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rabbits. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, six rabbits in each. These were: group NC (normal control), group, TC (toxic control) and group ST i.e. silymarine administered group at dose rate (50) mg/kg body weight (BW). Group ET1 and group ET2 treated with (ZOX-LME) at dose 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW. CCl4 administration caused significant (P> 0.05) impairment in serum liver enzymes, blood factors and other serum indices. Treatment with (ZOX-LME) significantly (P<0.05) reduced and normalized the levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hematological indices. Also significant (P< 0.05) reduction was observed in creatinine, urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and albumin and glucose concentrations. The altered levels of lipid profile and serum electrolytes (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K, and P) were significantly (P<0.05) change toward normal levels with (ZOX-LME) feeding. In addition (ZOX-LME) ingestion caused significant improvement in GSH, GST and CAT levels, while reducing the TBARS levels, exhibited antioxidant capacity. Also (ZOX-LME) showed increase inhibition against percent scavenging of 2, 2-diphenile-1-picrylehydrazyle (DPPH) free radical. Significant (P<0.05) normalizing effects were observed with high dose 400 mg/kg BW of (ZOX-LME and were equivalent to silymarine administered groups. The histological study of liver supported the hepatoprotective and renal curative activity of (ZOX-LME).


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nguyen Thanh Nhu ◽  
Shu-Yun Xiao ◽  
Yijie Liu ◽  
V. Bharath Kumar ◽  
Zhen-Yang Cui ◽  
...  

Neural mitochondrial dysfunction, neural oxidative stress, chronic neuroinflammation, toxic protein accumulation, and neural apoptosis are common causes of neurodegeneration. Elamipretide, a small mitochondrially-targeted tetrapeptide, exhibits therapeutic effects and safety in several mitochondria-related diseases. In neurodegeneration, extensive studies have shown that elamipretide enhanced mitochondrial respiration, activated neural mitochondrial biogenesis via mitochondrial biogenesis regulators (PCG-1α and TFAM) and the translocate factors (TOM-20), enhanced mitochondrial fusion (MNF-1, MNF-2, and OPA1), inhibited mitochondrial fission (Fis-1 and Drp-1), as well as increased mitophagy (autophagy of mitochondria). In addition, elamipretide has been shown to attenuate neural oxidative stress (hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, and ROS), neuroinflammation (TNF, IL-6, COX-2, iNOS, NLRP3, cleaved caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18), and toxic protein accumulation (Aβ). Consequently, elamipretide could prevent neural apoptosis (cytochrome c, Bax, caspase 9, and caspase 3) and enhance neural pro-survival (Bcl2, BDNF, and TrkB) in neurodegeneration. These findings suggest that elamipretide may prevent the progressive development of neurodegenerative diseases via enhancing mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial fusion, and neural pro-survival pathway, as well as inhibiting mitochondrial fission, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, toxic protein accumulation, and neural apoptosis. Elamipretide or mitochondrially-targeted peptide might be a targeted agent to attenuate neurodegenerative progression.


2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Huiyuan Zhu ◽  
Dexi Bi ◽  
Youhua Zhang ◽  
Cheng Kong ◽  
Jiahao Du ◽  
...  

AbstractThe ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and very-low-carbohydrate diet regimen that mimics the metabolism of the fasting state to induce the production of ketone bodies. The KD has long been established as a remarkably successful dietary approach for the treatment of intractable epilepsy and has increasingly garnered research attention rapidly in the past decade, subject to emerging evidence of the promising therapeutic potential of the KD for various diseases, besides epilepsy, from obesity to malignancies. In this review, we summarize the experimental and/or clinical evidence of the efficacy and safety of the KD in different diseases, and discuss the possible mechanisms of action based on recent advances in understanding the influence of the KD at the cellular and molecular levels. We emphasize that the KD may function through multiple mechanisms, which remain to be further elucidated. The challenges and future directions for the clinical implementation of the KD in the treatment of a spectrum of diseases have been discussed. We suggest that, with encouraging evidence of therapeutic effects and increasing insights into the mechanisms of action, randomized controlled trials should be conducted to elucidate a foundation for the clinical use of the KD.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sahar Javadi ◽  
Yue Li ◽  
Jie Shen ◽  
Lucy Zhao ◽  
Yao Fu ◽  
...  

Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most prevalent inherited intellectual disability and one of the most common monogenic form of autism, is caused by a loss of FMRP translational regulator 1 (FMR1). We have previously shown that FMR1 represses the levels and activities of ubiquitin ligase MDM2 in young adult FMR1-deficient mice and treatment by a MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3 rescues both hippocampal neurogenic and cognitive deficits in FMR1-deficient mice when analyzed shortly after the administration. However, it is unknown whether Nutlin-3 treatment can have long-lasting therapeutic effects. Methods: We treated 2-month-old young adult FMR1-deficient mice with Nutlin-3 for 10 days and then assessed the persistent effect of Nutlin-3 on both cognitive functions and adult neurogenesis when mice were 6-month-old mature adults. To investigate the mechanisms underlying persistent effects of Nutlin-3, we analyzed proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells isolated from these mice and assessed the transcriptome of the hippocampal tissues of treated mice. Results: We found that transient treatment with Nutlin-3 of 2-month-old young adult FMR1-deficient mice prevents the emergence of neurogenic and cognitive deficits in mature adult FXS mice at 6-month of age. We further found that the long-lasting restoration of neurogenesis and cognitive function might not be mediated by changing intrinsic properties of adult neural stem cells. Transcriptomic analysis of the hippocampal tissue demonstrated that transient Nultin-3 treatment leads to significant expression changes in genes related to extracellular matrix, secreted factors, and cell membrane proteins in FMR1-deficient hippocampus.


2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Xuehua Chen ◽  
Yongquan Huang ◽  
Hui Chen ◽  
Ziman Chen ◽  
Jiaxin Chen ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Insufficient radiofrequency ablation (IRFA) can promote the local recurrence and distal metastasis of residual hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which makes clinical treatment extremely challenging. In this study, the malignant transition of residual tumors after IRFA was explored. Then, arsenic-loaded zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 nanoparticles ([email protected] NPs) were constructed, and their therapeutic effect on residual tumors was studied. Results Our data showed that IRFA can dramatically promote the proliferation, induce the metastasis, activate the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and accelerate the angiogenesis of residual tumors. Interestingly, we found, for the first time, that extensive angiogenesis after IRFA can augment the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and enhance the enrichment of ZIF-8 nanocarriers in residual tumors. Encouraged by this unique finding, we successfully prepared [email protected] NPs with good biocompatibility and confirmed that they were more effective than free arsenic trioxide (ATO) in sublethal heat-induced cell proliferation suppression, apoptosis induction, cell migration and invasion inhibition, and EMT reversal in vitro. Furthermore, compared with free ATO, [email protected] NPs exhibited remarkably increased therapeutic effects by repressing residual tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Conclusions This work provides a new paradigm for the treatment of residual HCC after IRFA. Graphical Abstract


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 192-199
Author(s):  
Mahesh Kumar D

Background: Silver Nanoparticles are drawing significant attention from the scientific community to explore a wide range of its medical applications. Human body is under constant stress due to free radicals generated by the physiological and pathological conditions in the body. Scavenging systems or Antioxidants can help alleviate the damages caused by these radicals which can influence the course of progress in several chronic diseases with an inflammatory background. External antioxidants supplement and facilitate the overwhelmed scavenging systems in the body.Silver Nanoparticles can enhance the therapeutic effects of phytochemicals. Aim: To Synthesize silver nanoparticles using the phytochemical Hesperidin and studying its Free radical scavenging activity. Methods: Silver Nanoparticles are synthesized using chemical reduction method. The synthesis is confirmed using spectrophotometric studies. Free Radical scavenging activity is detected using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH •) free radical scavenging assay. Results: Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized which was confirmed by the change in color of the solution and peak absorbance peak at 420 nM on spectrophotometric studies.Hesperidin Silver Nanoparticles exhibited higher free radical scavenging activity when compared with pure hesperidin and standard Ascorbic acid. Conclusion: Hesperidin can ideally be used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and the synthesized Silver Nanoparticles enhances the free radical scavenging activity of Hesperidin which can further be evaluated by In Vivo studies.


2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Bin Duan ◽  
Xinxi Wang

Objectives: To study the therapeutic effects of combined tamsulosin hydrochloride and terazosin treatment for patients with chronic prostatitis Type-III b. Methods: This study involved 180 patients with chronic prostatitis Type-III b treated between January 2018 and December 2020 conducted at Nanhua Hospital Affiliated to Nanhua University. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups: one receiving oral terazosin hydrochloride tablets only (control group), and one orally receiving both tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained-release tablets and terazosin hydrochloride tablets (observation group). Outcome measurements included symptom scoring, inflammatory cytokine levels, as well as white blood cell and lecithin body counts in the prostatic fluid. Results: After 30 days of treatment, the observation group showed greater treatment effectiveness (86.67% vs. 73.33%, P<0.05). QLS, USS, PS, and NIH-CPSI symptom scores were lower in the observation group than the control group (P<0.05). No differences in adverse event distribution and incidence were noted. EPS IL-2 increased more in the observation group, while PGE-2, MIP-1α, and MIP-2 decreased more in the observation group. WBC levels decreased more in the observation group, while lecithin body levels increased more in the observation group. Conclusion: The combination of tamsulosin hydrochloride and terazosin for the treatment of patients with chronic prostatitis Type-III b has a significant effect. This approach reduced patient symptoms, lowered inflammatory biomarkers, and generally improved quality of life. This approach appears to have clinical value worthy of future investigation. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4931 How to cite this:Duan B, Wang X. The effectiveness of tamsulosin hydrochloride with terazosin combination therapy for chronic prostatitis Type-III b. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4931 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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