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2022 ◽  
Vol 72 ◽  
pp. 80-90
Melissa A. Walker ◽  
Maria Miranda ◽  
Amanda Allred ◽  
Vamsi K. Mootha

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 ◽  
pp. 102-111
Zhen Zhuang ◽  
Donglan Liu ◽  
Jing Sun ◽  
Fang Li ◽  
Jincun Zhao

2022 ◽  
Joseph Kuchling ◽  
Betty Jurek ◽  
Mariya Kents ◽  
Jakob Kreye ◽  
Christian Geis ◽  

Introduction: While decreased hippocampal connectivity and disruption of functional networks are established MRI features in human anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, the underlying pathophysiology for brain network alterations remains poorly understood. Application of patient-derived monoclonal antibodies against the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR allows for the investigation of potential functional connectivity alterations in experimental murine NMDAR antibody disease models. Objective: To explore functional connectivity changes in NR1 antibody mouse models using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). Methods: Adult C57BL/6J mice (n=10) were intrathecally injected with a recombinant human NR1 antibody over 14 days and then studied using rs-fMRI at 7 Tesla. In addition, a newly established mouse model with in utero exposure to a human recombinant NR1 antibody characterized by a neurodevelopmental disorder (NR1-offspring) was investigated with rs-fMRI at the age of 8 weeks (n=15) and 10 months (n=14). Mice exposed to isotype-matched control antibodies served as controls. Independent component analysis (ICA) and dual regression analysis were performed to compare functional connectivity between NMDAR antibody mouse models and control mice. Results: Adult NR1-antibody injected mice showed significantly impaired functional connectivity within the dentate gyrus of the left hippocampus in comparison to controls, resembling impaired hippocampal functional connectivity patterns observed in human patients with NMDAR encephalitis. Similarly, analyses showed significantly reduced functional connectivity in the dentate gyrus in NR1-offspring compared after 8 weeks, and impaired connectivity in the dentate gyrus and CA3 hippocampal subregion in NR1-offspring at the age of 10 months. Conclusion: Functional connectivity changes within the hippocampus resulting from both direct application and in utero exposure to NMDAR antibodies can be modeled in experimental murine systems. With this translational approach, we successfully reproduced functional MRI alterations previously observed in human NMDAR encephalitis patients. Future experimental studies will identify the detailed mechanisms that cause functional network alterations and may eventually allow for non-invasive monitoring of disease activity and therapeutic effects in autoimmune encephalitis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Lavinia Floreani ◽  
Federico Ansaloni ◽  
Damiano Mangoni ◽  
Elena Agostoni ◽  
Remo Sanges ◽  

Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements that made up about half the human genome. Among them, the autonomous non-LTR retrotransposon long interspersed nuclear element-1 (L1) is the only currently active TE in mammals and covers about 17% of the mammalian genome. L1s exert their function as structural elements in the genome, as transcribed RNAs to influence chromatin structure and as retrotransposed elements to shape genomic variation in somatic cells. L1s activity has been shown altered in several diseases of the nervous system. Huntington disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the HTT gene which leads to a gradual loss of neurons most prominently in the striatum and, to a lesser extent, in cortical brain regions. The length of the expanded CAG tract is related to age at disease onset, with longer repeats leading to earlier onset. Here we carried out bioinformatic analysis of public RNA-seq data of a panel of HD mouse models showing that a decrease of L1 RNA expression recapitulates two hallmarks of the disease: it correlates to CAG repeat length and it occurs in the striatum, the site of neurodegeneration. Results were then experimentally validated in HttQ111 knock-in mice. The expression of L1-encoded proteins was independent from L1 RNA levels and differentially regulated in time and tissues. The pattern of expression L1 RNAs in human HD post-mortem brains showed similarity to mouse models of the disease. This work suggests the need for further study of L1s in HD and adds support to the current hypothesis that dysregulation of TEs may be involved in neurodegenerative diseases.

2022 ◽  
Lewis A Macdonald ◽  
Gillian C A Taylor ◽  
Jennifer M Brisbane ◽  
Ersi Christodoulou ◽  
Lucy Scott ◽  

Auxin-inducible degrons are a chemical genetic tool for targeted protein degradation and are widely used to study protein function in cultured mammalian cells. Here we develop CRISPR-engineered mouse lines that enable rapid and highly specific degradation of tagged endogenous proteins in vivo. Most but not all cell types are competent for degradation. Using mouse genetics, we show that degradation kinetics depend upon the dose of the tagged protein, ligand, and the E3 ligase subunit Tir1. Rapid degradation of condensin I and condensin II, two essential regulators of mitotic chromosome structure, revealed that both complexes are individually required for cell division in precursor lymphocytes, but not in their differentiated peripheral lymphocyte derivatives. This generalisable approach provides unprecedented temporal control over the dose of endogenous proteins in mouse models, with implications for studying essential biological pathways and modelling drug activity in mammalian tissues.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Fengming Ding ◽  
Lei Han ◽  
Qiang Fu ◽  
Xinxin Fan ◽  
Rong Tang ◽  

Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infection increases risks of exacerbations and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to elucidate the role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis. We examined the expression and influences of IL-23/IL-17A in patients with stable COPD (n = 33) or acute COPD exacerbations with P. aeruginosa infection (n = 34). A mouse model of COPD (C57BL/6) was used to investigate the role of IL-17A in host inflammatory responses against P. aeruginosa infection through the application of IL-17A–neutralizing antibody or recombinant IL-17A. We found that P. aeruginosa infection increased IL-23/17A signaling in lungs of both COPD patients and COPD mouse models. When COPD mouse models were treated with neutralizing antibody targeting IL-17A, P. aeruginosa induced a significantly less polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration and less bacterial burden in their lungs compared to those of untreated counterparts. The lung function was also improved by neutralizing antibody. Furthermore, IL-17A-signaling blockade significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α, CXCL1, CXCL15 and MMP-9, and increased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and IL-1Ra. The application of mouse recombinant IL-17A exacerbated P. aeruginosa-mediated inflammatory responses and pulmonary dysfunction in COPD mouse models. A cytokine protein array revealed that the expression of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) was down-regulated by IL-17A, and exogenous RBP4-recombinant protein resulted in a decrease in the severity of P. aeruginosa-induced airway dysfunction. Concurrent application of IL-17A-neutralizing antibody and ciprofloxacin attenuated airway inflammation and ventilation after inoculation of P. aeruginosa in COPD mouse models. Our results revealed that IL-17 plays a detrimental role in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa airway infection during acute exacerbations of COPD. Targeting IL-17A is a potential therapeutic strategy in controlling the outcomes of P. aeruginosa infection in COPD patients.

2022 ◽  
Sanzana Hoque ◽  
Marie Sjogren ◽  
Valerie Allamand ◽  
Kinga Gawlik ◽  
Naomi Franke ◽  

Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Skeletal muscle wasting alongside central pathology is a well-recognized phenomenon seen in patients with HD and HD mouse models. HD muscle atrophy progresses with disease and affects prognosis and quality of life. Satellite cells, progenitors of mature skeletal muscle fibers, are essential for proliferation, differentiation, and repair of muscle tissue in response to muscle injury or exercise. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of mutant HTT on the differentiation and regeneration capacity of HD muscle by employing in vitro mononuclear skeletal muscle cell isolation and in vivo acute muscle damage model in R6/2 mice. We found that, similar to R6/2 adult mice, neonatal R6/2 mice also exhibit a significant reduction in myofiber width and morphological changes in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles compared to WT mice. Cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced acute muscle damage in R6/2 and WT mice showed that the Pax7+ satellite cell pool was dampened in R6/2 mice at 4 weeks post-injection, and R6/2 mice exhibited an altered inflammatory profile in response to acute damage. Our results suggest that, in addition to the mutant HTT degenerative effects in mature muscle fibers, expression of mutant HTT in satellite cells might alter developmental and regenerative processes to contribute to the progressive muscle mass loss in HD. Taken together, the results presented here encourage further studies evaluating the underlying mechanisms of satellite cell dysfunction in HD mouse models.

2022 ◽  
Adela M Francis-Malave ◽  
Santiago Martinez Gonzalez ◽  
Caren Pichardo ◽  
Torri D Wilson ◽  
Luis G Rivera ◽  

Previous studies have reported sex differences in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, including differences in visceral pain perception. Despite this, sex differences in behavioral manifestations of visceral pain and underlying pathology of the gastrointestinal tract have been largely understudied in preclinical research. In this study, we evaluated potential sex differences in spontaneous visceral nociceptive responses, referred abdominal hypersensitivity, disease progression and bowel pathology in mouse models of acute and persistent colon inflammation. Our experiments show that females exhibit more visceral nociceptive responses and referred abdominal hypersensitivity than males in the context of acute but not persistent colon inflammation. We further demonstrate that, following acute and persistent colon inflammation, visceral pain-related behavioral responses in females and males are distinct, with increases in licking of the abdomen only observed in females and increases in abdominal contractions only seen in males. During persistent colon inflammation, males exhibit worse disease progression than females, which is manifested as worse physical appearance and higher weight loss. However, no measurable sex differences were observed in persistent inflammation-induced bowel pathology, stool consistency or fecal blood. Overall, our findings demonstrate that visceral pain-related behaviors and disease progression in the context of acute and persistent colon inflammation are sex-dependent, highlighting the importance of considering sex as a biological variable in future mechanistic studies of visceral pain as well as in the development of diagnostics and therapeutic options for chronic gastrointestinal diseases.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 112
Qing Kong ◽  
Jinping Gu ◽  
Ruohan Lu ◽  
Caihua Huang ◽  
Xiaomin Hu ◽  

Viral myocarditis (VMC) is an inflammatory heart condition which can induce dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of VMC into DCM remain exclusive. Here, we established mouse models of VMC and DCM by infecting male BALB/c mice with Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), and performed NMR-based metabonomic analyses of mouse sera. The mouse models covered three pathological stages including: acute VMC (aVMC), chronic VMC (cVMC) and DCM. We recorded 1D 1H-NMR spectra on serum samples and conducted multivariate statistical analysis on the NMR data. We found that metabolic profiles of these three pathological stages were distinct from their normal controls (CON), and identified significant metabolites primarily responsible for the metabolic distinctions. We identified significantly disturbed metabolic pathways in the aVMC, cVMC and DCM stages relative to CON, including: taurine and hypotaurine metabolism; pyruvate metabolism; glycine, serine and threonine metabolism; glycerolipid metabolism. Additionally, we identified potential biomarkers for discriminating a VMC, cVMC and DCM from CON including: taurine, valine and acetate for aVMC; glycerol, valine and leucine for cVMC; citrate, glycine and isoleucine for DCM. This work lays the basis for mechanistically understanding the progression from acute VMC to DCM, and is beneficial to exploitation of potential biomarkers for prognosis and diagnosis of heart diseases.

eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Athina Georgiadou ◽  
Claire Dunican ◽  
Pablo Soro-Barrio ◽  
Hyun Jae Lee ◽  
Myrsini Kaforou ◽  

Recent initiatives to improve translation of findings from animal models to human disease have focussed on reproducibility but quantifying the relevance of animal models remains a challenge. Here, we use comparative transcriptomics of blood to evaluate the systemic host response and its concordance between humans with different clinical manifestations of malaria and five commonly used mouse models. Plasmodium yoelii 17XL infection of mice most closely reproduces the profile of gene expression changes seen in the major human severe malaria syndromes, accompanied by high parasite biomass, severe anemia, hyperlactatemia, and cerebral microvascular pathology. However, there is also considerable discordance of changes in gene expression between the different host species and across all models, indicating that the relevance of biological mechanisms of interest in each model should be assessed before conducting experiments. These data will aid the selection of appropriate models for translational malaria research, and the approach is generalizable to other disease models.

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