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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 18-21
Author(s):  
Anil Kumar Gupta ◽  
Gaurav Jung Shah ◽  
Ram Jiban Prasad

Introduction: The mandibular foramen is located on the medial surface of the ramus of mandible through which inferior alveolar nerve and vessels pass and supply the lower jaw. For dentists inferior alveolar nerve block is important to anesthetize the lower jaw for conducting various surgical procedures. Aims: To determine the accurate position of mandibular foramen through which inferior alveolar nerve and vessels were passing and supply the lower jaw and its clinical importance. Methods: This study was conducted on 35 dry mandible bones consisting of 70 mandibular foramens of unknown sex. All the important parameters were studied using vernier caliper. Results: The mean distance of mandibular foramen from mandibular notch was 21.00 mm on right side and 20.29 mm on left side, from posterior border was 12.63 mm on right side and 12.37 mm on left side, from angle of mandible was 20.60 mm on right side and 20.46 mm on left side, from base of the mandible was 23.57 mm on right side and 23.6 mm on left side, from anterior border was 16.74 mm on right side and 16.89 mm on left side. Conclusion: The accurate position of mandibular foramen varies. The knowledge of the average distance of mandibular foramen from various landmarks is useful for dental anesthesia and also helps to avoid complications.


Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 59
Author(s):  
Yong-Hua Wu ◽  
Yu Zhang ◽  
Dan-Qiao Fang ◽  
Jing Chen ◽  
Jing-An Wang ◽  
...  

We analyzed, for the first time, the major components and biological properties of the venom of Vespa bicolor, a wasp from South China. Using HPLC and SDS-PAGE, combined with LC–MS/MS, MALDI-TOF-MS, and NMR data to analyze V. bicolor venom (VBV), we found that VBV contains three proteins (hyaluronidase A, phospholipase A1 (two isoforms), and antigen 5 protein) with allergenic activity, two unreported proteins (proteins 5 and 6), and two active substances with large quantities (mastoparan-like peptide 12a (Vb-MLP 12a), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)). In addition, the antimicrobial activity of VBV was determined, and results showed that it had a significant effect against anaerobic bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration for Propionibacterium acnes were 12.5 µg/mL. Unsurprisingly, VBV had strong antioxidant activity because of the abundance of 5-HT. Contrary to other Vespa venom, VBV showed significant anti-inflammatory activity, even at low concentrations (1 µg/mL), and we found that Vb-MLP 12a showed pro-inflammatory activity by promoting the proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells. Cytotoxicity studies showed that VBV had similar antiproliferative effects against all tested tumor cell lines (HepG2, Hela, MCF-7, A549, and SASJ-1), with HepG2 being the most susceptible. Overall, this study on VBV has high clinical importance and promotes the development of Vespa bicolor resources.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Julie Niemann Holm-Jacobsen ◽  
Caspar Bundgaard-Nielsen ◽  
Louise Søndergaard Rold ◽  
Ann-Maria Jensen ◽  
Shakil Shakar ◽  
...  

Background: SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in a global pandemic since its outbreak in Wuhan, 2019. Virus transmission primarily occurs through close contact, respiratory droplets, and aerosol particles. However, since SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in fecal and rectal samples from infected individuals, the fecal-oral route has been suggested as another potential route of transmission. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical implications of rectal SARS-CoV-2 shedding in Danish COVID-19 patients.Methods: Hospitalized and non-hospitalized adults and children who were recently tested with a pharyngeal COVID-19 test, were included in the study. A rectal swab was collected from all participants. Hospitalized adults and COVID-19 positive children were followed with both pharyngeal and rectal swabs until two consecutive negative results were obtained. RT-qPCR targeting the envelope gene was used to detect SARS-CoV-2 in the samples. Demographic, medical, and biochemical information was obtained through questionnaires and medical records.Results: Twenty-eight of 52 (53.8%) COVID-19 positive adults and children were positive for SARS-CoV-2 in rectal swabs. Seven of the rectal positive participants were followed for more than 6 days. Two of these (28.6%) continued to test positive in their rectal swabs for up to 29 days after the pharyngeal swabs had turned negative. Hospitalized rectal positive and rectal negative adults were comparable regarding demographic, medical, and biochemical information. Furthermore, no difference was observed in the severity of the disease among the two groups.Conclusions: We provided evidence of rectal SARS-CoV-2 shedding in Danish COVID-19 patients. The clinical importance of rectal SARS-CoV-2 shedding appears to be minimal.


Author(s):  
Lisa Verbeek ◽  
Constance Vissers ◽  
Mirjam Blumenthal ◽  
Ludo Verhoeven

Purpose: This study investigated the roles of cross-language transfer of first language (L1) and attentional control in second-language (L2) speech perception and production of sequential bilinguals, taking phonological overlap into account. Method: Twenty-five monolingual Dutch-speaking and 25 sequential bilingual Turkish–Dutch-speaking 3- and 4-year-olds were tested using picture identification tasks for speech perception in L1 Turkish and L2 Dutch, single-word tasks for speech production in L1 and L2, and a visual search task for attentional control. Phonological overlap was manipulated by dividing the speech tasks into subsets of phonemes that were either shared or unshared between languages. Results: In Dutch speech perception and production, monolingual children obtained higher accuracies than bilingual peers. Bilinguals showed equal performance in L1 and L2 perception but scored higher on L1 than on L2 production. For speech perception of shared phonemes, linear regression analyses revealed no direct effects of attention and L1 on L2. For speech production of shared phonemes, attention and L1 directly affected L2. When exploring unshared phonemes, direct effects of attentional control on L2 were demonstrated not only for speech production but also for speech perception. Conclusions: The roles of attentional control and cross-language transfer on L2 speech are different for shared and unshared phonemes. Whereas L2 speech production of shared phonemes is also supported by cross-language transfer of L1, L2 speech perception and production of unshared phonemes benefit from attentional control only. This underscores the clinical importance of considering phonological overlap and supporting attentional control when assisting young sequential bilinguals' L2 development.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hamish Scott ◽  
Alicia Byrne ◽  
Peer Arts ◽  
Thuong Ha ◽  
Karin Kassahn ◽  
...  

Abstract Perinatal death, of a fetus or newborn, is a devastating event for families. Following nationwide multicentre recruitment, we assessed ‘genomic autopsy’ as an adjunct to standard autopsy for 200 families who experienced perinatal death, and provided a definite or candidate genetic diagnosis in 105 families. From this understudied cohort, half of the (candidate) diagnoses were phenotype expansions or novel disease genes, revealing previously unknown in-utero presentations of existing developmental disorders, and genomic disorders that are likely incompatible with life. Among the definite diagnoses, 43% were recessively or dominantly inherited, posing a 25% or 50% recurrence risk for future pregnancies. Ten families used their diagnosis for preimplantation or prenatal diagnosis of 12 pregnancies, facilitating the delivery of ten healthy newborns and management of two affected pregnancies. We emphasize the clinical importance of genomic investigations of perinatal death, with short turn-around times, enabling accurate counselling and options for families to prevent recurrence.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Elite Possik ◽  
Clémence Schmitt ◽  
Anfal Al-Mass ◽  
Ying Bai ◽  
Laurence Côté ◽  
...  

AbstractMetabolic stress due to nutrient excess and lipid accumulation is at the root of many age-associated disorders and the identification of therapeutic targets that mimic the beneficial effects of calorie restriction has clinical importance. Here, using C. elegans as a model organism, we study the roles of a recently discovered enzyme at the heart of metabolism in mammalian cells, glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase (G3PP) (gene name Pgp) that hydrolyzes glucose-derived glycerol-3-phosphate to glycerol. We identify three Pgp homologues in C. elegans (pgph) and demonstrate in vivo that their protein products have G3PP activity, essential for glycerol synthesis. We demonstrate that PGPH/G3PP regulates the adaptation to various stresses, in particular hyperosmolarity and glucotoxicity. Enhanced G3PP activity reduces fat accumulation, promotes healthy aging and acts as a calorie restriction mimetic at normal food intake without altering fertility. Thus, PGP/G3PP can be considered as a target for age-related metabolic disorders.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Josué Flores-Kim ◽  
Genevieve S Dobihal ◽  
Thomas G Bernhardt ◽  
David Z Rudner

Penicillin and related antibiotics disrupt cell wall synthesis in bacteria and induce lysis by misactivating cell wall hydrolases called autolysins. Despite the clinical importance of this phenomenon, little is known about the factors that control autolysins and how penicillins subvert this regulation to kill cells. In the pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp), LytA is the major autolysin responsible for penicillin-induced bacteriolysis. We recently discovered that penicillin treatment of Sp causes a dramatic shift in surface polymer biogenesis in which cell wall-anchored teichoic acids (WTAs) increase in abundance at the expense of lipid-linked lipoteichoic acids. Because LytA binds to these polymers, this change recruits the enzyme to its substrate where it cleaves the cell wall and elicits lysis. In this report, we identify WhyD (SPD_0880) as a new factor that controls the level of WTAs in Sp cells to prevent LytA misactivation and lysis. We show that WhyD is a WTA hydrolase that restricts the WTA content of the wall to areas adjacent to active PG synthesis. Our results support a model in which the WTA tailoring activity of WhyD directs PG remodeling activity required for proper cell elongation in addition to preventing autolysis by LytA.


2022 ◽  
pp. 35-43
Author(s):  
I. B. Angotoeva ◽  
N. P. Denisenko ◽  
D. A. Sychev ◽  
E. V. Schepkina ◽  
M. M. Magomedova

Introduction. A treatment for LFR for many years, the superiority of PPIs over placebos is still controversial. Of particular clinical importance is the metabolic rate of PPIs in hepatocytes using the cytochrome P450 system with the participation of the isoenzyme CYP2C19 and partially CYP3A4Аim. We set a goal to study the efficacy of omeprazole 20 mg in the treatment of LFR symptoms without esophageal syndrome in patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), depending on the polymorphism of the CYP2C19 genotype.Мaterials and мethods. After the exclusion criteria, 100 people took part in the study, 94 people completed the study.Results. According to the results, 26.6% of patients in the study group (residents of the Moscow region) with LFR symptoms without esophageal syndrome belong to fast metabolizers of CYP2C19, 4.2% to ultrafast metabolizers, 52.1% to normal metabolizers, 16% to intermediate metabolizers and 1.1% to slow CYP2C19.Conclusions. In patients with a rapid metabolism, within 1 month after discontinuation of omeprazole, it is necessary to increase the amount of omeprazole 20 mg intake up to 2 times a day in the morning and in the evening and reduce the duration of treatment to 6 weeks.


2022 ◽  
pp. 000486742110702
Author(s):  
Gordon Parker ◽  
Gabriela Tavella

Whether burnout is synonymous with stress is a question of clinical importance when considering the nosological status and management of both states. The biological changes associated with both stress and burnout suggest considerable overlap. However, we argue that the widespread acceptance by the lay community of burnout as a distinct and relatable syndrome suggests it is worthy of independent designation.


Author(s):  
Raghuvir Keni ◽  
Farmiza Begum ◽  
Karthik Gourishetti ◽  
Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry Viswanatha ◽  
Pawan Ganesh Nayak ◽  
...  

Abstract Diabetic wounds are of profound clinical importance. Despite immense efforts directed towards its management, it results in the development of amputations, following a diagnosis of diabetic foot. With a better understanding of the complexities of the microbalance involved in the healing process, researchers have developed advanced methods for the management of wounds as well as diagnostic tools (especially, for wound infections) to be delivered to clinics sooner. In this review, we address the newer developments that hope to drive the transition from bench to bedside in the coming decade.


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