regulation of gene expression
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 956
Izabela Szymczak-Pajor ◽  
Krystian Miazek ◽  
Anna Selmi ◽  
Aneta Balcerczyk ◽  
Agnieszka Śliwińska

Adipose tissue plays an important role in systemic metabolism via the secretion of adipocytokines and storing and releasing energy. In obesity, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional and characterized by hypertrophied adipocytes, increased inflammation, hypoxia, and decreased angiogenesis. Although adipose tissue is one of the major stores of vitamin D, its deficiency is detective in obese subjects. In the presented review, we show how vitamin D regulates numerous processes in adipose tissue and how their dysregulation leads to metabolic disorders. The molecular response to vitamin D in adipose tissue affects not only energy metabolism and adipokine and anti-inflammatory cytokine production via the regulation of gene expression but also genes participating in antioxidant defense, adipocytes differentiation, and apoptosis. Thus, its deficiency disturbs adipocytokines secretion, metabolism, lipid storage, adipogenesis, thermogenesis, the regulation of inflammation, and oxidative stress balance. Restoring the proper functionality of adipose tissue in overweight or obese subjects is of particular importance in order to reduce the risk of developing obesity-related complications, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Taking into account the results of experimental studies, it seemed that vitamin D may be a remedy for adipose tissue dysfunction, but the results of the clinical trials are not consistent, as some of them show improvement and others no effect of this vitamin on metabolic and insulin resistance parameters. Therefore, further studies are required to evaluate the beneficial effects of vitamin D, especially in overweight and obese subjects, due to the presence of a volumetric dilution of this vitamin among them.

2022 ◽  
Samuel Thudium ◽  
Katherine C Palozola ◽  
Eloise L'Her ◽  
Erica Korb

Epigenetic regulation plays a critical role in many neurodevelopmental disorders, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In particular, many such disorders are the result of mutations in genes that encode chromatin modifying proteins. However, while these disorders share many features, it is unclear whether they also share gene expression disruptions resulting from the aberrant regulation of chromatin. We examined 5 chromatin modifiers that are all linked to ASD despite their different roles in regulating chromatin. Specifically, we depleted Ash1L, Chd8, Crebbp, Ehmt1, and Nsd1 in parallel in a highly controlled neuronal culture system. We then identified sets of shared genes, or transcriptional signatures, that are differentially expressed following loss of multiple ASD-linked chromatin modifiers. We examined the functions of genes within the transcriptional signatures and found an enrichment in many neurotransmitter transport genes and activity-dependent genes. In addition, these genes are enriched for specific chromatin features such as bivalent domains that allow for highly dynamic regulation of gene expression. The downregulated transcriptional signature is also observed within multiple mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders that result in ASD, but not those only associated with intellectual disability. Finally, the downregulated transcriptional signature can distinguish between neurons generated from iPSCs derived from healthy donors and idiopathic ASD patients through RNA-deconvolution, demonstrating that this gene set is relevant to the human disorder. This work identifies a transcriptional signature that is found within many neurodevelopmental syndromes, helping to elucidate the link between epigenetic regulation and the underlying cellular mechanisms that result in ASD.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Chenna Swetha ◽  
Anushree Narjala ◽  
Awadhesh Pandit ◽  
Varsha Tirumalai ◽  
P. V. Shivaprasad

Abstract Background Small non-coding (s)RNAs are involved in the negative regulation of gene expression, playing critical roles in genome integrity, development and metabolic pathways. Targeting of RNAs by ribonucleoprotein complexes of sRNAs bound to Argonaute (AGO) proteins results in cleaved RNAs having precise and predictable 5` ends. While tools to study sliced bits of RNAs to confirm the efficiency of sRNA-mediated regulation are available, they are sub-optimal. In this study, we provide an improvised version of a tool with better efficiency to accurately validate sRNA targets. Results Here, we improvised the CleaveLand tool to identify additional micro (mi)RNA targets that belong to the same family and also other targets within a specified free energy cut-off. These additional targets were otherwise excluded during the default run. We employed these tools to understand the sRNA targeting efficiency in wild and cultivated rice, sequenced degradome from two rice lines, O. nivara and O. sativa indica Pusa Basmati-1 and analyzed variations in sRNA targeting. Our results indicate the existence of multiple miRNA-mediated targeting differences between domesticated and wild species. For example, Os5NG4 was targeted only in wild rice that might be responsible for the poor secondary wall formation when compared to cultivated rice. We also identified differential mRNA targets of secondary sRNAs that were generated after miRNA-mediated cleavage of primary targets. Conclusions We identified many differentially targeted mRNAs between wild and domesticated rice lines. In addition to providing a step-wise guide to generate and analyze degradome datasets, we showed how domestication altered sRNA-mediated cascade silencing during the evolution of indica rice.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-22
Guillermo Eastman ◽  
Elizabeth R. Sharlow ◽  
John S. Lazo ◽  
George S. Bloom ◽  
José R. Sotelo-Silveira

Background: Defining cellular mechanisms that drive Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis and progression will be aided by studies defining how gene expression patterns change during pre-symptomatic AD and ensuing periods of declining cognition. Previous studies have emphasized changes in transcriptome, but not translatome regulation, leaving the ultimate results of gene expression alterations relatively unexplored in the context of AD. Objective: To identify genes whose expression might be regulated at the transcriptome and translatome levels in AD, we analyzed gene expression in cerebral cortex of two AD model mouse strains, CVN (APPSwDI;NOS2 -/- ) and Tg2576 (APPSw), and their companion wild type (WT) strains at 6 months of age by tandem RNA-Seq and Ribo-Seq (ribosome profiling). Methods: Identical starting pools of bulk RNA were used for RNA-Seq and Ribo-Seq. Differential gene expression analysis was performed at the transcriptome, translatome, and translational efficiency levels. Regulated genes were functionally evaluated by gene ontology tools. Results: Compared to WT mice, AD model mice had similar levels of transcriptome regulation, but differences in translatome regulation. A microglial signature associated with early stages of Aβ accumulation was upregulated at both levels in CVN mice. Although the two mice strains did not share many regulated genes, they showed common regulated pathways related to AβPP metabolism associated with neurotoxicity and neuroprotection. Conclusion: This work represents the first genome-wide study of brain translatome regulation in animal models of AD and provides evidence of a tight and early translatome regulation of gene expression controlling the balance between neuroprotective and neurodegenerative processes in brain.

Noriyoshi Akiyama ◽  
Shoma Sato ◽  
Kentaro M Tanaka ◽  
Takaomi Sakai ◽  
Aya Takahashi

Abstract The spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression is essential to ensure robust phenotypic outcomes. Pigmentation patterns in Drosophila are determined by pigments biosynthesized in the developing epidermis and the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) of the genes involved in this process are well-characterized. Here we report that the known primary epidermal enhancer (priEE) is dispensable for the transcriptional activation of ebony (involved in light-colored pigment synthesis) in the developing epidermis of D. melanogaster. The evidence was obtained by introducing an approximately 1 kbp deletion at the priEE by genome editing. The effect of the priEE deletion on pigmentation and on the endogenous expression pattern of a mCherry-fused ebony allele was examined in the abdomen. The expression levels of the mCherry-fused ebony in the priEE-deleted strains were slightly higher than that of the control strain, indicating that the sequences outside the priEE have an ability to drive an expression of this gene in the epidermis. Interestingly, the priEE deletion resulted in a derepression of this gene in the dorsal midline of the abdominal tergites, where dark pigmentation is present in the wild-type individuals. This indicated that the priEE fragment contains a silencer. Furthermore, the endogenous expression pattern of ebony in the two additional strains with partially deleted priEE revealed that the silencer resides within a 351-bp fragment in the 5' portion of the priEE. These results demonstrated that deletion assays combined with reporter assays are highly effective in detecting the presence of positively and negatively regulating sequences within and outside the focal CREs.

Longbo Zhang ◽  
Stephanie A. Getz ◽  
Angelique Bordey

Precise regulation of gene expression during development in cortical neurons is essential for the establishment and maintenance of neuronal connectivity and higher-order cognition. Dual in utero electroporation provides a precise and effective tool to label and manipulate gene expression in multiple neuronal populations within a circuit in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. In addition, this technique allows for morphophysiological investigations into neuronal development and connectivity following cell-specific gene manipulations. Here, we detail the dual in utero electroporation protocol.

2022 ◽  
Hongchang Gu ◽  
Liang Wang ◽  
Xueze Lv ◽  
Weifang Yang ◽  
Yu Chen ◽  

Abstract The regulation of gene expression is a complex process involving organism function and phenotypic diversity, and is caused by cis- and trans- regulation. While prior studies identified the regulatory pattern of the autosome rewiring in hybrids, the role of gene regulation in W sex chromosomes is not clear due to their degradation and sex-limit expression. Here, we developed reciprocal crosses of two chicken breeds, White Leghorn and Cornish Game, which exhibited broad differences of gender-related traits, and assessed the expression of the genes on W chromosome to disentangle the contribution of cis- and trans-factors to expression divergence. We found that there was not appear to be an association between female fecundity and W chromosome gene expression, that 44% of expressed genes had divergent expression between breeds in both tissues, with only 17% of them showing greater expression in White Leghorn. We observed that the proportion of trans-acting genes in W chromosome was higher than cis-regulatory divergence. There were most parental divergence expression genes in muscle, also more heterosis compared with other two tissues. A strong dominant impact of Cornish alleles in brain, while obvious crosses-specific regulatory patterns appeared in liver. Taken together, this work describes the regulatory divergence of W-linked genes between two contrasting breeds and indicates sex chromosomes have a unique regulation and expression mechanism.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 772
Rosaura Rodicio ◽  
Hans-Peter Schmitz ◽  
Jürgen J. Heinisch

The milk yeast Kluyveromyces lactis degrades glucose through glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway and follows a mainly respiratory metabolism. Here, we investigated the role of two reactions which are required for the final steps of glucose degradation from both pathways, as well as for gluconeogenesis, namely fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). In silico analyses identified one gene encoding the former (KlFBA1), and three genes encoding isoforms of the latter (KlTDH1, KlTDH2, KlGDP1). Phenotypic analyses were performed by deleting the genes from the haploid K. lactis genome. While Klfba1 deletions lacked detectable FBA activity, they still grew poorly on glucose. To investigate the in vivo importance of the GAPDH isoforms, different mutant combinations were analyzed for their growth behavior and enzymatic activity. KlTdh2 represented the major glycolytic GAPDH isoform, as its lack caused a slower growth on glucose. Cells lacking both KlTdh1 and KlTdh2 failed to grow on glucose but were still able to use ethanol as sole carbon sources, indicating that KlGdp1 is sufficient to promote gluconeogenesis. Life-cell fluorescence microscopy revealed that KlTdh2 accumulated in the nucleus upon exposure to oxidative stress, suggesting a moonlighting function of this isoform in the regulation of gene expression. Heterologous complementation of the Klfba1 deletion by the human ALDOA gene renders K. lactis a promising host for heterologous expression of human disease alleles and/or a screening system for specific drugs.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 234
Veronika Kinterová ◽  
Jiří Kaňka ◽  
Alexandra Bartková ◽  
Tereza Toralová

SCF-dependent proteolysis was first discovered via genetic screening of budding yeast almost 25 years ago. In recent years, more and more functions of SCF (Skp1-Cullin 1-F-box) ligases have been described, and we can expect the number of studies on this topic to increase. SCF ligases, which are E3 ubiquitin multi-protein enzymes, catalyse protein ubiquitination and thus allow protein degradation mediated by the 26S proteasome. They play a crucial role in the degradation of cell cycle regulators, regulation of the DNA repair and centrosome cycle and play an important role in several diseases. SCF ligases seem to be needed during all phases of development, from oocyte formation through fertilization, activation of the embryonic genome to embryo implantation. In this review, we summarize known data on SCF ligase-mediated degradation during oogenesis and embryogenesis. In particular, SCFβTrCP and SCFSEL-10/FBXW7 are among the most important and best researched ligases during early development. SCFβTrCP is crucial for the oogenesis of Xenopus and mouse and also in Xenopus and Drosophila embryogenesis. SCFSEL-10/FBXW7 participates in the degradation of several RNA-binding proteins and thereby affects the regulation of gene expression during the meiosis of C. elegans. Nevertheless, a large number of SCF ligases that are primarily involved in embryogenesis remain to be elucidated.

STEMedicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. e117
Dan Li ◽  
Ming-Liang Tang

Background: Due to the excellent reliable traceability and superparamagnetic properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) are widely used for the applications in the field of biomedicine, including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the regulation of SPIOs on the gene expressions in the stem cells is not clear. Methods: In this study, by RNA-Seq analysis, we analyzed the gene expression pattern in the neural stem cells (NSCs) treated with SPIOs in the presence or absence of static magnetic field (SMF). Results: It was found that SPIOs with SMF regulated more gene expression in NSCs, while most of these genes have been previously reported to play a crucial role in NSCs fate decision. Conclusions: Our findings reveal the ability of SPIOs and SMF in the regulation of gene expression in NSCs, which may provide an experimental basis for its applications.

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