neuronal development
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Yongyang Liu ◽  
Yaxin Lu ◽  
Zhiyong Tang ◽  
Yuheng Cao ◽  
Dehua Huang ◽  

Axonal transport plays a significant role in the establishment of neuronal polarity, axon growth, and synapse formation during neuronal development. The axon of a naturally growing neuron is a highly complex and multifurcated structure with a large number of bends and branches. Nowadays, the study of dynamic axonal transport in morphologically complex neurons is greatly limited by the technological barrier. Here, a sparse gene transfection strategy was developed to locate fluorescent mCherry in the lysosome of primary neurons, thus enabling us to track the lysosome-based axonal transport with a single-particle resolution. Thereby, several axonal transport models were observed, including forward or backward transport model, stop-and-go model, repeated back-and-forth transport model, and cross-branch transport model. Then, the accurate single-particle velocity quantification by TrackMate revealed a highly heterogeneous and discontinuous transportation process of lysosome-based axonal transport in freely orientated axons. And, multiple physical factors, such as the axonal structure and the size of particles, were disclosed to affect the velocity of particle transporting in freely orientated axons. The combined single-particle fluorescence tracking and TrackMate assay can be served as a facile tool for evaluating axonal transport in neuronal development and axonal transport-related diseases.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 257
Khadidja Kessas ◽  
Zhor Chouari ◽  
Imen Ghzaiel ◽  
Amira Zarrouk ◽  
Mohamed Ksila ◽  

Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that participate in a wide range of metabolic processes, including energy production and biomolecule synthesis. The morphology and distribution of intracellular mitochondria change dynamically, reflecting a cell’s metabolic activity. Oxidative stress is defined as a mismatch between the body’s ability to neutralise and eliminate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). A determination of mitochondria failure in increasing oxidative stress, as well as its implications in neurodegenerative illnesses and apoptosis, is a significant developmental process of focus in this review. The neuroprotective effects of bioactive compounds linked to neuronal regulation, as well as related neuronal development abnormalities, will be investigated. In conclusion, the study of secondary components and the use of mitochondrial features in the analysis of various neurodevelopmental diseases has enabled the development of a new class of mitochondrial-targeted pharmaceuticals capable of alleviating neurodegenerative disease states and enabling longevity and healthy ageing for the vast majority of people.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 484
Luke Erber ◽  
Shirelle Liu ◽  
Yao Gong ◽  
Phu Tran ◽  
Yue Chen

Iron and oxygen deficiencies are common features in pathophysiological conditions, such as ischemia, neurological diseases, and cancer. Cellular adaptive responses to such deficiencies include repression of mitochondrial respiration, promotion of angiogenesis, and cell cycle control. We applied a systematic proteomics analysis to determine the global proteomic changes caused by acute hypoxia and chronic and acute iron deficiency (ID) in hippocampal neuronal cells. Our analysis identified over 8600 proteins, revealing similar and differential effects of each treatment on activation and inhibition of pathways regulating neuronal development. In addition, comparative analysis of ID-induced proteomics changes in cultured cells and transcriptomic changes in the rat hippocampus identified common altered pathways, indicating specific neuronal effects. Transcription factor enrichment and correlation analysis identified key transcription factors that were activated in both cultured cells and tissue by iron deficiency, including those implicated in iron regulation, such as HIF1, NFY, and NRF1. We further identified MEF2 as a novel transcription factor whose activity was induced by ID in both HT22 proteome and rat hippocampal transcriptome, thus linking iron deficiency to MEF2-dependent cellular signaling pathways in neuronal development. Taken together, our study results identified diverse signaling networks that were differentially regulated by hypoxia and ID in neuronal cells.

Longbo Zhang ◽  
Stephanie A. Getz ◽  
Angelique Bordey

Precise regulation of gene expression during development in cortical neurons is essential for the establishment and maintenance of neuronal connectivity and higher-order cognition. Dual in utero electroporation provides a precise and effective tool to label and manipulate gene expression in multiple neuronal populations within a circuit in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. In addition, this technique allows for morphophysiological investigations into neuronal development and connectivity following cell-specific gene manipulations. Here, we detail the dual in utero electroporation protocol.

2022 ◽  
Michaela Fenckova ◽  
Villo Muha ◽  
Daniel Mariyappa ◽  
Marica Catinozzi ◽  
Ignacy Czajewski ◽  

O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible co-/post-translational modification involved in a multitude of cellular processes. The addition and removal of O-GlcNAc modification is controlled by two conserved enzymes, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAc hydrolase (OGA). Mutations in OGT have recently been discovered to cause a novel Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation (OGT-CDG) that is characterized by intellectual disability. The mechanisms by which OGT-CDG mutations affect cognition remain unclear. We manipulated O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAc hydrolase activity in Drosophila and demonstrate an important role of O-GlcNAcylation in habituation learning and synaptic development at the larval neuromuscular junction. Introduction of patient-specific missense mutations into Drosophila O-GlcNAc transferase using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, leads to deficits in locomotor function and habituation learning. The habituation deficit can be corrected by blocking O-GlcNAc hydrolysis, indicating that OGT-CDG mutations affect cognitive function via reduced protein O-GlcNAcylation. This study establishes a critical role for O-GlcNAc cycling and disrupted O-GlcNAc transferase activity in cognitive dysfunction. These findings suggest that blocking O-GlcNAc hydrolysis is a potential treatment strategy for OGT-CDG.

2022 ◽  
Smita Yadav ◽  
Sujin Byeon ◽  
Bailey Werner ◽  
Reilly Falter ◽  
Kristian Davidsen ◽  

Septins are a family of cytoskeletal proteins that regulate several important aspects of neuronal development. Septin 7 (Sept7) is enriched at the base of dendritic spines in excitatory neurons and mediates both spine formation and spine-synapse maturation. Phosphorylation at a conserved C-terminal tail residue of Sept7 mediates its translocation into the dendritic spine head to allow spine-synapse maturation. The mechanistic basis for postsynaptic stability and compartmentalization conferred by phosphorylated Sept7, however, is not known. We report herein the proteomic identification of Sept7 phosphorylation dependent neuronal interactors. Using Sept7 C-terminal phosphopeptide pulldown and biochemical assays, we show that the 14-3-3 family of proteins specifically interact with Sept7 when phosphorylated at the T426 residue. Biochemically, we validate the interaction between Sept7 and 14-3-3 isoform gamma, and show that 14-3-3 gamma is also enriched in mature dendritic spine head. Further, we demonstrate that interaction of phosphorylated Sept7 with 14-3-3 protects it from dephosphorylation, as expression of a 14-3-3 antagonist significantly decreases phosphorylated Sept7 in neurons. This study identifies 14-3-3 proteins as an important physiological regulator of Sept7 function in neuronal development.

Cell ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 185 (1) ◽  
pp. 218
Jie Wang ◽  
Yi Miao ◽  
Rebecca Wicklein ◽  
Zijun Sun ◽  
Jinzhao Wang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Chad R Camp ◽  
Lindsey Shapiro ◽  
Anna Vlachos ◽  
Riley E Perszyk ◽  
Nima Shariatzadeh ◽  

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are excitatory glutamate-gated ion channels that are expressed throughout the central nervous system. NMDARs mediate calcium entry into cells, and are involved in a host of neurological functions, including neuronal development and maturation. The GluN2A subunit, encoded by the GRIN2A gene, has a slightly delayed expression pattern, with low transcript levels during embryonic development that peak in the early neonatal period. Given its unique expression pattern and ability to speed up the synaptic time course after incorporation into the postsynaptic density compared to other GluN2 subunits, the GluN2A subunit is well positioned to participate in synaptic maturation and circuit refinement. By using Grin2a knockout mice, we show that the loss of GluN2A signaling impacts parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneuron development in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Specifically, Grin2a knockout mice have 33% more parvalbumin-positive cells in CA1 compared to wild type controls, with no impact on cholecystokinin-positive cell density. By using immunohistochemical colocalization staining and electrophysiological recordings, we demonstrate that these excess parvalbumin cells do eventually incorporate into the hippocampal network and participate in phasic inhibition, although their presynaptic release probability may be dampened. Moreover, we show that although the morphology of Grin2a knockout parvalbumin-positive cells is unaffected, key measures of intrinsic excitability and action-potential firing properties show age-dependent alterations. Preadolescent (P20-25) parvalbumin-positive cells have an increased input resistance, longer membrane time constant, longer action-potential half-width, a lower current threshold for depolarization-induced block of action-potential firing, and a decrease in peak action-potential firing rate. Each of these electrophysiological measures becomes corrected in adulthood, reaching wild type levels, suggesting a delay of electrophysiological maturation. The circuit and behavioral implications of delayed parvalbumin-positive interneuron maturation are not known; however, we find that neonatal Grin2a knockout mice are more susceptible to lipopolysaccharide and febrile-induced seizures, consistent with a critical role for early GluN2A signaling in neuronal development and maintenance of excitatory-inhibitory balance. These results could provide insights into how loss-of-function GRIN2A human variants can generate an epileptic phenotype.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 275
Laura Ziegon ◽  
Martin Schlegel

Netrins belong to the family of laminin-like secreted proteins, which guide axonal migration and neuronal growth in the developing central nervous system. Over the last 20 years, it has been established that netrin-1 acts as a chemoattractive or chemorepulsive cue in diverse biological processes far beyond neuronal development. Netrin-1 has been shown to play a central role in cell adhesion, cell migration, proliferation, and cell survival in neuronal and non-neuronal tissue. In this context, netrin-1 was found to orchestrate organogenesis, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis, and inflammation. In inflammation, as in neuronal development, netrin-1 plays a dichotomous role directing the migration of leukocytes, especially monocytes in the inflamed tissue. Monocyte-derived macrophages have long been known for a similar dual role in inflammation. In response to pathogen-induced acute injury, monocytes are rapidly recruited to damaged tissue as the first line of immune defense to phagocyte pathogens, present antigens to initiate the adaptive immune response, and promote wound healing in the resolution phase. On the other hand, dysregulated macrophages with impaired phagocytosis and egress capacity accumulate in chronic inflammation sites and foster the maintenance—and even the progression—of chronic inflammation. In this review article, we will highlight the dichotomous roles of netrin-1 and its impact on acute and chronic inflammation.

2021 ◽  
Ryohei Iwata ◽  
Pierre Casimir ◽  
Emir Erkol ◽  
Leila Boubakar ◽  
Melanie Planque ◽  

The evolution of species involves changes in the timeline of key developmental programs. Among these, neuronal development is considerably prolonged in the human cerebral cortex compared with other mammals, leading to brain neoteny. Here we explore whether mitochondria influence the species-specific properties of cortical neuron maturation. By comparing human and mouse cortical neuronal maturation at high temporal and cell resolution, we found a slower pattern of mitochondria development in human cortical neurons compared with the mouse, together with lower mitochondria metabolic activity, particularly oxidative phosphorylation. Stimulation of mitochondria metabolism in human neurons resulted in accelerated maturation, leading to excitable and complex cells weeks ahead of time. Our data identify mitochondria as important regulators of the pace of neuronal development underlying human-specific features of brain evolution.

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