necrosis factor alpha
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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Ana Carolina Cardoso dos Santos Durão ◽  
Wesley Nogueira Brandão ◽  
Vitor Bruno ◽  
Lídia Emmanuela W. Spelta ◽  
Stephanie de Oliveira Duro ◽  

The embryonic stage is the most vulnerable period for congenital abnormalities. Due to its prolonged developmental course, the central nervous system (CNS) is susceptible to numerous genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences. During embryo implantation, the CNS is more vulnerable to external influences such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), increasing the risk for delayed fetal growth, sudden infant death syndrome, and immune system abnormalities. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of in utero exposure to ETS on neuroinflammation in the offspring of pregnant mice challenged or not with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After the confirmation of mating by the presence of the vaginal plug until offspring birth, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either 3R4F cigarettes smoke (Kentucky University) or compressed air, twice a day (1h each), for 21 days. Enhanced glial cell and mixed cell cultures were prepared from 3-day-old mouse pups. After cell maturation, both cells were stimulated with LPS or saline. To inhibit microglia activation, minocycline was added to the mixed cell culture media 24 h before LPS challenge. To verify the influence of in utero exposure to ETS on the development of neuroinflammatory events in adulthood, a different set of 8-week-old animals was submitted to the Autoimmune Experimental Encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. The results indicate that cells from LPS-challenged pups exposed to ETS in utero presented high levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and decreased cell viability. Such a proinflammatory environment could modulate fetal programming by an increase in microglia and astrocytes miRNA155. This scenario may lead to the more severe EAE observed in pups exposed to ETS in utero.

2022 ◽  
pp. 153537022110669
Hassan Ahmed ◽  
Urooj Amin ◽  
Xiaolun Sun ◽  
Demetrius R Pitts ◽  
Yunbo Li ◽  

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin, can trigger septic shock, a severe form of inflammation-mediated sepsis with a very high mortality rate. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this endotoxin remain to be defined and detoxification of LPS is yet to be established. Macrophages, a type of immune cells, initiate a key response responsible for the cascade of events leading to the surge in inflammatory cytokines and immunopathology of septic shock. This study was undertaken to determine whether the LPS-induced inflammation in macrophage cells could be ameliorated via CDDO-IM (2-cyano-3,12 dioxooleana-1,9 dien-28-oyl imidazoline), a novel triterpenoid compound. Data from this study show that gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokine genes such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were considerably increased by treatment with LPS in macrophages differentiated from ML-1 monocytes. Interestingly, LPS-induced increase in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels is reduced by CDDO-IM. In addition, endogenous upregulation of a series of antioxidant molecules by CDDO-IM provided protection against LPS-induced cytotoxicity in macrophages. LPS-mediated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) transcriptional activity was also noted to decrease upon treatment with CDDO-IM in macrophages suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB signaling. This study would contribute to improve our understanding of the detoxification of endotoxin LPS by the triterpenoid CDDO-IM.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Leyi Zhang ◽  
Chenglong Lu ◽  
Li Kang ◽  
Yingji Li ◽  
Wenjing Tang ◽  

Abstract Background Astrocytic activation might play a significant role in the central sensitization of chronic migraine (CM). However, the temporal characteristics of the astrocytic activation in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) and the molecular mechanism under the process remain not fully understood. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the duration and levels change of astrocytic activation and to explore the correlation between astrocytic activation and the levels change of cytokines release. Methods We used a mice model induced by recurrent dural infusion of inflammatory soup (IS). The variation with time of IS-induced mechanical thresholds in the periorbital and hind paw plantar regions were evaluated using the von Frey filaments test. We detected the expression profile of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the TNC through immunofluorescence staining and western blot assay. We also investigated the variation with time of the transcriptional levels of GFAP and ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) through RNAscope in situ hybridization analysis. Then, we detected the variation with time of cytokines levels in the TNC tissue extraction and serum, including c-c motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), c-c motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), c-c motif chemokine ligand 7 (CCL7), c-c motif chemokine ligand 12 (CCL12), c-x-c motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), c-x-c motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 17A (IL-17A). Results Recurrent IS infusion resulted in cutaneous allodynia in both the periorbital region and hind paw plantar, ranging from 5 d (after the second IS infusion) to 47 d (28 d after the last infusion) and 5 d to 26 d (7 d after the last infusion), respectively. The protein levels of GFAP and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of GFAP and Iba1 significantly increased and sustained from 20 d to 47 d (1 d to 28 d after the last infusion), which was associated with the temporal characteristics of astrocytic activation in the TNC. The CCL7 levels in the TNC decreased from 20 d to 47 d. But the CCL7 levels in serum only decreased on 20 d (1 d after the last infusion). The CCL12 levels in the TNC decreased on 22 d (3 d after the last infusion) and 33 d (14 d after the last infusion). In serum, the CCL12 levels only decreased on 22 d. The IL-10 levels in the TNC increased on 20 d. Conclusions Our results indicate that the astrocytic activation generated and sustained in the IS-induced mice model from 1 d to 28 d after the last infusion and may contribute to the pathology through modulating CCL7, CCL12, and IL-10 release.

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 162
Renáta Szabó ◽  
Zsuzsanna Szabó ◽  
Denise Börzsei ◽  
Alexandra Hoffmann ◽  
Zelma Nadin Lesi ◽  

Over the last decades, growing interest has turned to preventive and therapeutic approaches for achieving successful aging. Oxidative stress and inflammation are fundamental features of cardiovascular diseases; therefore, potential targets of them can improve cardiac outcomes. Our study aimed to examine the involvement of the endocannabinoid system, especially the CB1 receptor blockade, on inflammatory and oxidant/antioxidant processes. Twenty-month-old female and male Wistar rats were divided into rimonabant-treated and aging control (untreated) groups. Rimonabant, a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, was administered at the dose of 1 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 2 weeks. Cardiac amounts of ROS, the antioxidant glutathione and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the activity and concentration of the heme oxygenase (HO) enzyme were detected. Among inflammatory parameters, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme activity were measured. Two weeks of low dose rimonabant treatment significantly reduced the cardiac ROS via boosting of the antioxidant defense mechanisms as regards the HO system, and the SOD and glutathione content. Consistently, the age-related inflammatory response was alleviated. Rimonabant-treated animals showed significantly decreased NF-κB, TNF-α, and MPO levels. Our findings prove the beneficial involvement of CB1 receptor blocker rimonabant on inflammatory and oxidative damages to the aging heart.

Taeheon Lee ◽  
Chae-Bin Na ◽  
Dasom Kim ◽  
Hae Jung Han ◽  
Jongbok Yun ◽  

Abstract. Objectives: To determine whether SNPs of osteoarthritis (OA)-related genes predict the effect of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum (CZ) extract in OA patients with OA. Subjects/methods: To analyze correlations between CZ extract effects in humans and their genotypes, 121 Korean patients with OA were recruited. Patients ingested 600 mg/day of the CZ extract GCWB106 (one tablet daily), including 250-mg CZ, or placebo (one tablet daily) for 12 weeks. Twenty SNPs were genotyped in 11 genes associated with OA pathogenesis, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and 9 genes involved in OA-related dietary intervention. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (K-WOMAC) were measured as indicators of GCWB106 effect. Statistical comparisons were performed using Kruskal-Wallis tests to identify associations between these scales and genotyped loci in patients with OA. Results: Three SNPs ( PPARG rs3856806, MMP13 rs2252070, and ZIP2 rs2234632) were significantly associated with the degree of change in VAS pain score. Homozygous CC genotype carriers of rs3856806, G allele carriers (GA or GG) of rs2252070, and T allele carriers (GT or TT) of rs2234632 showed lower VAS score (i.e., less severe symptoms) in the GCWB106 group (n=53) than the placebo group (n=57) (p=0.026, p=0.009, and p=0.025, respectively). Gene–gene interaction effects on GCWB106-mediated pain relief were then examined, and it was found that the addition of each genotype resulted in a greater decrease in VAS pain score in the GCWB106 group (p=0.0024) but not the placebo group (p=0.7734). Conclusions: These novel predictive markers for the pain-relieving effects of GCWB106 may be used in the personalized treatment of patients with OA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (6) ◽  
pp. 669-684
G. B. Dikke ◽  
V. V. Ostromenskii ◽  
Yu. G. Kucheryavaya

Aim: to evaluate the efficacy of azoximer bromide along with a combined antimicrobial drug in treatment of patients with aerobic vaginitis (AV).Materials and Methods. There was conducted a prospective, randomized, parallel group study with enrolled 60 patients diagnosed with AV and 10 apparently healthy women (control group III). Group I (n = 30) received azoximer bromide (10 vaginal insertion according to the scheme, course of 10 days) and a combined antimicrobial drug, while Group II (n = 30) received only antimicrobial drug (course of 10 days). Microscopy of vaginal discharge smears, polymerase chain reaction method was used, detection of cytokines – interleukins (IL) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in vaginal washings was performed by ELISA. The study of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) was performed by ELISA, and DNA-containing strands ejected by neutrophils were determined by fluorescence method.Results. Recovery from disease was found in 100 % (30/30) and 86.7 % (26/30) in group I and group II, respectively. After treatment, serum level of IL-8 was revealed to decline in group I from 35.2 to 5.5 pg/ml (p = 0.05), in group II – from 33.4 to 5.3 pg/ml (p = 0.04), also not differ (p > 0.05) from the control values (5.2 pg/ml). The level of IL-1β also decreased after treatment in group I from 51.5 to 15.1 pg/ml (p = 0.002), in group II – from 57.9 to 20.1 pg/ml (p = 0.03), which also did not differ (p > 0.05) from the control values (16.7 pg/ml). The IL-10 level in both main groups decreased slightly (from 0.26 and 0.24 to 0.16 pg/ml in both groups), which was higher by 1.8-fold than in the control group (0.09 pg/ml; p < 0.001). The number of ejected NETs in both main groups decreased significantly after treatment, reaching control level. No side effects were observed, compliance and acceptability were 100 % in both groups. The frequency of AV relapses within 3 months was observed in 3.3 % (1/30) and 14.3 % (4/28) patients, after 6 months – in 14.3 % (4/28) and in 20.0 % (5/25) patients in groups I and II, respectively. Using the logit regression model, demonstrated that AV relapse might occur with a 50 %-probability at TNF-α level < 0.1 pg/ml after treatment (sensitivity – 67 %, specificity – 79 %). The risk of relapses in group I, in contrast to group II, showed a downward trend.Conclusions. The use of azoximer bromide and a combined broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug is effective in AV treatment, exerts a modulating effect on immune response parameters contributes to lowering relapse rate.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
José Rodrigues do Carmo Neto ◽  
Arthur Wilson Florêncio da Costa ◽  
Yarlla Loyane Lira Braga ◽  
Fernanda Hélia Lucio ◽  
Ana Luisa Monteiro dos Santos Martins ◽  

The objective of this study was to evaluate the histopathological changes caused by infection with the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) in the acute and chronic experimental phases. C57Bl/6 mice were infected with 1000 trypomastigote forms of the Colombian strain of T. cruzi. After 30 days (acute phase) and 90 days (early chronic phase) of infection, the animals were euthanized, and the colon was collected and divided into two parts: proximal and distal. The distal portion was used for histopathological analysis, whereas the proximal portion was used for quantification of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, the weight of the animals and parasitemia were assessed. The infection induced gradual weight loss in the animals. In addition, the infection induced an increase in interferon gamma (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the intestine in the acute phase, in which this increase continued until the early chronic phase. The same was observed in relation to the presence of intestinal inflammatory infiltrates. In relation to interleukin (IL)-10, there was an increase only in the early chronic phase. The Colombian strain infection was also able to induce neuronal loss in the myenteric plexus and deposition of the collagen fibers during the acute phase. The Colombian strain of T. cruzi is capable of causing histopathological changes in the intestine of infected mice, especially in inducing neuronal destructions. Thus, this strain can also be used to study the intestinal form of Chagas disease in experimental models.

Eileen J. Murray ◽  
Serena B. Gumusoglu ◽  
Donna A. Santillan ◽  
Mark K. Santillan

Preeclampsia (PreE) is a placental disorder characterized by hypertension (HTN), proteinuria, and oxidative stress. Individuals with PreE and their children are at an increased risk of serious short- and long-term complications, such as cardiovascular disease, end-organ failure, HTN, neurodevelopmental disorders, and more. Currently, delivery is the only cure for PreE, which remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among pregnant individuals and neonates. There is evidence that an imbalance favoring a pro-inflammatory CD4+ T cell milieu is associated with the inadequate spiral artery remodeling and subsequent oxidative stress that prime PreE’s clinical symptoms. Immunomodulatory therapies targeting CD4+ T cell mechanisms have been investigated for other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, and the application of these prevention tactics to PreE is promising, as we review here. These immunomodulatory therapies may, among other things, decrease tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), cytolytic natural killer cells, reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine production [e.g. interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-6], stimulate regulatory T cells (Tregs), inhibit type 1 and 17 T helper cells, prevent inappropriate dendritic cell maturation, and induce anti-inflammatory cytokine action [e.g. IL-10, Interferon gamma (IFN-γ)]. We review therapies including neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against TNF-α, IL-17, IL-6, and CD28; statins; 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, a synthetic hormone; adoptive exogenous Treg therapy; and endothelin-1 pathway inhibitors. Rebalancing the maternal inflammatory milieu may allow for proper spiral artery invasion, placentation, and maternal tolerance of foreign fetal/paternal antigens, thereby combatting early PreE pathogenesis.

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