Resource Security
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0259795
Author(s):  
Jean-Daniel Bontemps

The current increase in European forest resources forms a singularity across the globe. Whether this trend will persist, and how biological and economic trends feature it form crucial issues to green economy challenges and C sequestration. The present screening of Forest Europe 2015 statistics explored the features, inertia and limits of this expansion, and its relationships with countries’ development, forest management and trade, intense in this area of the world. Persisting footprint of past demographic pressure on forests was identified, with opposed traces on their area and growing stock density. Steady growing stock (GS) increases, proportional to GS, not density-limited, and sustained by forest area increases, supported the view of an inflationary forest dynamic. Economic development and liberalism fostered both forest exploitation and production, yielding no significant impact on GS changes. Wood exports exerted a tension on forest exploitation and GS changes, thus lowering GS inflation but providing a resource security margin in the face of expected climate threats. Conflicting a common view, GS inflation and moderate felling-to-increment ratios make increased use of wood resources and C sequestration reconcilable, and GS expansion timely for ongoing EU forest policy processes. Anticipated adverse impacts of ongoing climate change were not clearly identified in these statistics.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 143-148
Author(s):  
Shubham Gandhi ◽  
Drumil Newaskar ◽  
Rohan Apte ◽  
Preet Aligave

Lithium is one of the foremost valuable metal which is widely used for manufacturing batteries and also has other uses in solar panels, ceramics, glasses and pharmaceuticals. Lithium is third most abundant element after hydrogen and helium but the most lithium deposits are only in Bolivia (21 million tons), Argentina (17 million tons), Chile (9 million tons), Australia (6.8 million tons), China (4.5 million tons). Bolivia, Argentina, Chile forms so called lithium triangle. Due to depleting reserves of fossil fuels and its harmful impact on the environment has forced the globe to shift to Lithium-ion batteries which is much eco-friendlier alternative. India’s push for electric vehicles (EV) may cause a considerable change in its energy security priorities, with securing lithium supplies, a key material for creating batteries, becoming as important as buying oil and gas fields overseas. India doesn't have enough lithium reserves for manufacturing lithium-ion batteries. The majority electric vehicles within the country run on imported batteries, mostly from China. At present a lithium-ion battery accounts for 40% of the overall cost of an electrical vehicle. Khanij Bidesh Pvt Ltd is a venture firm of three central public sector enterprises namely National Aluminum Company (Nalco), Hindustan Copper Ltd (HCL), Mineral Exploration Company Ltd (MECL). The KABIL would do identification, acquisition, exploration, development, mining and processing of strategic minerals overseas for commercial use and meeting country’s requirement of those minerals. The mission is to not allow India to fall in a very vulnerable position with a probable threat of supply squeeze as went on within the case of petroleum, with India being the world’s third largest oil importer and to amass cobalt and lithium mines in addition on get into purchase agreements of those minerals. This may help in achieving resource security with regard to strategic minerals.


2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (4) ◽  
pp. 77-88
Author(s):  
Pavlo Hrytsenko ◽  
Viacheslav Voronenko ◽  
Yevhen Kovalenko ◽  
Tetiana Kurman ◽  
Vitalii Omelianenko

The development of innovation activities is of great importance on the path to achieving the goals of sustainable development. Success on this path is closely related to the presence of comparable information on the development of innovation activities at the regional level. The aim of the paper is to assess the development of innovation activities in the regions of Ukraine and identify differences in results. The study is performed using relative indicators for the assessment of the development of innovation activities in the regions of Ukraine. The indicators were averaged and normalized. To analyze how innovation activities change over time, the dynamic indices based on the geometric mean of the growth rate of the relative indicators were used. The obtained results have significant differences in the regions being assessed. Most regions have a heterogeneous development of innovation activities. At the same time, they are at the top and bottom of the rankings of the regions in different indicators of the development of innovation activities. Only Cherkasy and Zaporizhzhia oblasts are at the top of the rankings in at least 75% of indicators. However, in 2017‒2019, all indicators improved in at least 29% of regions. In addition, 75% of indicators improved in at least 54% of regions. Therefore, over time, most regions progressed in the development of innovation activities. Management decisions for the development of innovation activities should be complex for all regions and implemented primarily in the regions where there is no improvement over time. AcknowledgmentsThe paper is prepared within the scientific research project “Sustainable development and resource security: from disruptive technologies to digital transformation of Ukrainian economy” (No. 0121U100470).


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Avi Gopstein ◽  
Nelson Hastings ◽  
Larry Feldman ◽  
Ravi Agarwal ◽  
Nadya Bartol

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Lele Zhang ◽  
Liming Gao

Quantifying drought and wetness fluctuations is of great significance to the regional ecological environment and water resource security, especially in the fragile Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). In this paper, the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) was calculated based on the observed data and China Meteorological Forcing Dataset (CMFD) in the QTP for the period of 1979–2015, and the drought and wetness evolution based on the SPEI series and respective contribution of temperature and precipitation were also analyzed. Results indicated that meteorological stations are mainly concentrated in the eastern part of the plateau, which cannot reflect the drought and wetness trend of the whole QTP. The linear trend and Mann–Kendall test revealed that SPEI series calculated based on CMFD data at 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, and 24-month time scales all showed significant upward trend p < 0.01 , indicating that the QTP as a whole tended to be wetter. Spatially, the regions with significant drying p < 0.1 and increased drought probability were mainly concentrated in the Qaidam Basin and the southern part of the QTP, and the mean contribution rates of temperature and precipitation variability to SPEI trend in these regions were 60% and −11%, respectively. The regions with significant wetting p < 0.1 and decreased drought probability were mainly concentrated in the northeast, central, and western parts of the plateau, and the mean contribution rates of temperature and precipitation variability to SPEI trend were −9% and 61% in these regions. From the statistics in different climatic regions, most of the arid and humid regions in the QTP tended to be drier, while the semiarid regions tended to be wetter.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (15) ◽  
pp. 8498
Author(s):  
Liejia Huang ◽  
Yue Feng ◽  
Boqing Zhang ◽  
Weiyan Hu

The security of cultivated land resources is closely related to a country’s food security, economic security and social security, and as such is always the top priority of those responsible for the governance and administration of state affairs. The study area is 13 prefecture-level cities in Hubei Province. An entropy weight method, comprehensive index method, spatial analysis and obstacle degree model are employed to explore the spatio-temporal characteristics and obstacle factors of cultivated land resources in quantity, quality and ecological security. The study shows that (1) the security level of cultivated land resources in Hubei Province showed an upward trend between 2010 and 2019. The land resources’ quality and ecological security showed an upward trend, while quantity security showed a downward trend. (2) The security of cultivated land resources presents obvious spatial differences, generally showing a decreasing trend from west to east. Among them, quantity security presents a spatial pattern of being high in the central, low in the east and lower in the west of Hubei Province. Quality security presents a spatial pattern of being high in the central region and low in the east and west. Ecological security presents a spatial pattern of being high in the west and low in the east. (3) The main obstacles to its security in quantity, in quality and in ecology are obviously different. Finally, some countermeasures are put forward to ensure the security of cultivated land resources from the perspectives of quantity, quality and ecological security, and to assist with the implementation of different protection policies in the western, central and eastern areas of Hubei. This study expands the content and perspective of cultivated land resources security and has a certain novelty in the selection of the index of water resources per unit of land area, and the application of the obstacle degree model expands the research on the influencing factors of cultivated land resource security.


Author(s):  
Jun Ruan ◽  
Gang He

Abstract The study of water resource security is a basic scientific issue that must be faced in the construction of the ecological environment. To examine the status of regional water resources security in the Huaihe Eco-economic Belt, this study builds a comprehensive evaluation index system based on the ‘Driving-Pressure-State-Impact-Response’ (DPSIR) framework, combines the entropy weight method and Lotka-Volterra symbiosis model to calculate the water resources security status from 2010 to 2018. Then the fixed effects regression model is used to analyze the factors affecting the water resources system. The results show that (1) The status of water resources security in the Huaihe Eco-economic Belt decreased from 2011 to 2017 and, thereby transitioning from a safe to a dangerous state. The coordination index of the economic system and water resource system was only −0.17 in 2017, and the partial development model benefited the economy but damaged the water resources. (2) The security status of 25 prefecture-level cities improved significantly, and the number of cities with status of alert or above increased from 11 to 15. However, there are apparent differences among the regions. The status has shifted to ‘north and south being better than east and west’. The water resources security status of Jining, Linyi, and Lu'an have improved, whereas Yancheng, Taizhou, Pingdingshan, and other cities showed rather poor development during 2017. (3) The correlation coefficient of the economic system was −0.154 and hindered the development of the water resources system. The correlation coefficients of the added value of the tertiary industry and the expenditure on energy conservation and environmental protection was 0.699 and 0.180 respectively and played a positive role in promoting the water resources system. It is necessary to optimize and adjust the industrial structure and protect the environment. HIGHLIGHT The Lotka-Volterra symbiosis model is introduced to the paper and has good applicability in water resources security research.The Huaihe Eco-economic Belt is taken as the research area and the empirical results are conducive to promoting the development and implementation of national strategies.ArcGIS software is used to visualize the results and the dynamic change of water resources security status.


2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (2) ◽  
pp. 480-494
Author(s):  
Leonid Melnyk ◽  
Oleksandr Kubatko ◽  
Oleksandr Matsenko ◽  
Yevgen Balatskyi ◽  
Kostyantyn Serdyukov

The study’s relevance relates to the transformation of the human capital reproduction during the transition to a new socio-economic model and changes (digitalization, cyberization, customization, etc.) that are now taking place within Industries 4.0 and 5.0. The purpose of the study is to formulate the content and key directions of learning processes based on modeling and the formation of digital twins for the production and consumption of goods. The research method is based on the analysis of structural links in socio-economic systems, where the potential of human capital is realized. The study describes a trialectic model for the system development mechanism, which gives grounds to distinguish three types of essential components of implementing the specialists’ competencies (material, information, and communication). Based on the concept of “system of systems”, the necessity of multifunctional training of specialists for socio-economic systems is substantiated and shown on the list of personal knowledge/skills in the renewable energy sector. Recent trends in the reproduction of human capital, such as intellectualization, increased communication, internationalization, acquisition of skills, customization, and communication with consumers, are stated in line with Industries 4.0 and 5.0. The potential for future research is aimed at harmonizing relations between humans and cyber-physical systems, motivating the needs for self-development, and using disruptive technologies in the reproduction of human capital. AcknowledgmentThe publication contains the results of research of the European Commission grants “Jean Monnet Chair in EU Economic Policies and Civil Society” (619878-EPP-1-2020-1-UA-EPPJMO-CHAIR) and EU legislative, economic and social transition to sustainable society within Industry 4.0 and 5.0 (619997-EPP-1-2020-1-UA-EPPJMO-CHAIR).The paper is prepared within the scientific research projects “Sustainable development and resource security: from disruptive technologies to digital transformation of Ukrainian economy” (No. 0121U100470) and “Fundamentals of the phase transition to the additive economy: from disruptive technologies to institutional socialization of decisions” No. 0121U109557), funded by the general fund of the state budget of Ukraine.


Author(s):  
Ashley Hazel ◽  
Gillian Meeks ◽  
Nita Bharti ◽  
John Jakurama ◽  
Justy Matundu ◽  
...  

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