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2022 ◽  
Vol 210 ◽  
pp. 114456
Ke Lin ◽  
Anmin Hu ◽  
Yunwen Wu ◽  
Huiqin Ling ◽  
Tao Hang ◽  

Sudhi Sharma ◽  
Miklesh Prasad Yadav ◽  
Babita Jha

The paper aims to analyse the impact of the COVID outbreak on the currency market. The study considers spot rates of seven major currencies (i.e., EUR/USD, USD/JPY, GBP/USD, AUD/USD, USD/CAD, USD/CHF, and CHF/JPY). To capture the impact of the outbreak on returns and the volatility of returns of seven currencies during pandemic, the study has segregated in two window periods (i.e., pre- [1st Jan 2019 to 31st Dec, 2019] and post-outbreak of COVID-19 [1st Jan, 2020 to 22nd Dec, 2020]). The study has applied various methods and models (i.e., econometric-based compounded annual growth rate [CAGR], dummy variable regression, and generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity [GARCH]). The result of the study captures the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on three currencies—USD/JPY, AUD/USD, and USD/CHF—and positive significant impact on EUR/USD, GBP/USD, USD/CAD, and CHF/JPY. Investors can take short position in these while having long position in other currencies. The inferences drawn from the analysis are providing insight to investors and hedgers.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. Abbas ◽  
Asia Iqbal ◽  
K. M. Anjum ◽  
S. Sherzada ◽  
U. Atique ◽  

Abstract We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.

CA Naveen Kumar Tiwari

Abstract: In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyse the implications of tax reforms after the economic liberalization in 1991 with respect to collection of indirect tax revenue of the Government of India during the last two decades (2000-20). The composition of indirect tax revenue of the Government has undergone a drastic change during the last two decades. Post implementation of the GST Act, the levy of Central Excise has been restricted to petroleum and tobacco products and GST has evolved as the major contributor to the indirect tax revenue collections followed by the Customs Duty. Comparative analysis of indirect tax collections of the Central Government with respect to its growth, share in gross tax revenue, percentage of GDP and composition has been done for the period from 2000-01 to 2019-20. The current study has revealed the growth rate of indirect taxes has not only been uneven but also declined during the year 2001-02, 2008-09 and 2009-10. The share of indirect tax in the gross tax revenue has also gradually declined from 63% in 2000-01 to 46% in 2019- 20%. The indirect tax-GDP ratio has remained stagnant in the range of 3.5 to 5.5 % during the last two decades.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 113-118
Kai-Yun Zhang ◽  
Jia-Rui Yang ◽  
Wei-Qiang Qiu ◽  

AIM: To explore the efficacy of the orthokeratology lens for anisometropic myopia progression. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed. Cycloplegic refraction and axial length (AL) were collected from 50 children (10.52±1.72y) who visited Peking University Third Hospital from July 2015 to August 2020. These children's one eyes (Group A) received monocular orthokeratology lenses at first, after different durations (12.20±6.94mo), their contralateral eyes (Group B) developed myopia and receive orthokeratology as well. The data in 1-year of binocular period were recorded. AL growth rate (difference of follow-up and baseline per month) were compared between two groups by paired t test. Interocular differences of AL were compared by Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: During monocular period, the AL growth rate of the Group A (0.008±0.022 mm/mo) was significantly slower than that of the Group B (0.038±0.018 mm/mo; P<0.0001). However, during binocular period, the AL growth rate of the Group A (0.026±0.014 mm/mo) was significantly faster than that of the Group B (0.016±0.015 mm/mo; P<0.0001). The AL difference between both eyes was 0.6 (0.46) mm, then significantly decreased to 0.22 (0.39) mm when started binocular treatment (P<0.0001). However, it was significantly increased to 0.30 (0.32) mm after a year (P<0.0001), but still significantly lower than baseline (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The orthokeratology lens is efficient for control the AL elongation of monocular myopia eyes and reduce anisometropia. For the condition that the contralateral eyes develop myopia and receive orthokeratology lens later, there is no efficiency observed on control interocular difference of AL during binocular treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 90 (3) ◽  
Gregor J. Gassner ◽  
Magnus Svärd ◽  
Florian J. Hindenlang

AbstractThe focus of the present research is on the analysis of local energy stability of high-order (including split-form) summation-by-parts methods, with e.g. two-point entropy-conserving fluxes, approximating non-linear conservation laws. Our main finding is that local energy stability, i.e., the numerical growth rate does not exceed the growth rate of the continuous problem, is not guaranteed even when the scheme is non-linearly stable and that this may have adverse implications for simulation results. We show that entropy-conserving two-point fluxes are inherently locally energy unstable, as they can be dissipative or anti-dissipative. Unfortunately, these fluxes are at the core of many commonly used high-order entropy-stable extensions, including split-form summation-by-parts discontinuous Galerkin spectral element methods (or spectral collocation methods). For the non-linear Burgers equation, we further demonstrate numerically that such schemes cause exponential growth of errors during the simulation. Furthermore, we encounter a similar abnormal behaviour for the compressible Euler equations, for a smooth exact solution of a density wave. Finally, for the same case, we demonstrate numerically that other commonly known split-forms, such as the Kennedy and Gruber splitting, are also locally energy unstable.

2022 ◽  
Man In Lam ◽  
Kinga Vojnits ◽  
Michael Zhao ◽  
Sepideh Pakpour ◽  
Piers Macnaughton

Built environments play a key role in the transmission of infectious diseases. Ventilation rates, air temperature and humidity affect airborne transmission while cleaning protocols, material properties and light exposure can influence viability of pathogens on surfaces. We investigated how indoor daylight intensity and spectrum through electrochromic (EC) windows can impact the growth rate and viability of indoor pathogens on different surface materials (polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fabric, polystyrene (PS), and glass) compared to traditional blinds. Our results showed that tinted EC windows let in higher energy, shorter wavelength daylight than those with clear window and blind. The growth rates of pathogenic bacteria and fungi were significantly lower in spaces with EC windows compared to blinds: nearly 100% growth rate reduction was observed when EC windows were in their clear state followed by 41-100% reduction in bacterial growth rate and 26-42% reduction in fungal growth rate when EC windows were in their darkest tint. Moreover, bacterial viabilities were significantly lower on PVC fabric when they were exposed to indoor light at EC-tinted window. These findings are deemed fundamental to the design of healthy modern buildings, especially those that encompass sick and vulnerable individuals.

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 134
Qi Jiang ◽  
Hengde Zhang ◽  
Fei Wang ◽  
Fei Wang

Haze is a majorly disastrous type of weather in China, especially central and eastern of China. The development of haze is mainly caused by highly concentrated fine particles (PM2.5) on a regional scale. Here, we present the results from an autumn and winter study conducted from 2013 to 2020 in seven highly polluted areas (27 representative stations) in central and eastern China to analyze the growth mechanism of PM2.5. At the same time, taking Beijing Station as an example, the characteristics of aerosol composition and particle size in the growth phase are analyzed. Taking into account the regional and inter-annual differences of fine particles (PM2.5) distribution, the local average PM2.5 growth value of the year is used as the boundary value for dividing slow, rapid, and explosive growth (only focuses on the hourly growth rate greater than 0). The average value of PM2.5 in the autumn and winter of each regional representative station shows a decreasing trend as a whole, especially after 2017, whereby the decreasing trend was significant. The distribution value of +ΔPM2.5 (PM2.5 hourly growth rate) in the north of the Huai River is lower than that in the south of the Huai River, and both of the +ΔPM2.5 after 2017 showed a significant decreasing trend. The average PM2.5 threshold before the explosive growth is 70.8 µg m−3, and the threshold that is extremely prone to explosive growth is 156 µg m−3 to 277 µg m−3 in north of the Huai River. For the area south of the Huai River, the threshold for PM2.5 explosive growth is relatively low, as a more stringent threshold also puts forward stricter requirements on atmospheric environmental governance. For example, in Beijing, the peak diameters gradually shift to larger sizes when the growth rate increases. The number concentration increasing mainly distributed in Aitken mode (AIM) and Accumulation mode (ACM) during explosive growth. Among the various components of submicron particulate matter (PM1), organic aerosol (OA), especially primary OA (POA), have become one of the most critical components for the PM2.5 explosive growth in Beijing. During the growth period, the contribution of secondary particulate matter (SPM) to the accumulated pollutants is significantly higher than that of primary particulate matter (PPM). However, the proportion of SPM gradually decreases when the growth rate increases. The contribution of the PPM can reach 48% in explosive growth. Compared to slow and rapid growth, explosive growth mainly occurs in the stable atmosphere of higher humidity, lower pressure, lower temperature, small winds, and low mixed layers.

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