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Author(s):  
CA Naveen Kumar Tiwari

Abstract: In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyse the implications of tax reforms after the economic liberalization in 1991 with respect to collection of indirect tax revenue of the Government of India during the last two decades (2000-20). The composition of indirect tax revenue of the Government has undergone a drastic change during the last two decades. Post implementation of the GST Act, the levy of Central Excise has been restricted to petroleum and tobacco products and GST has evolved as the major contributor to the indirect tax revenue collections followed by the Customs Duty. Comparative analysis of indirect tax collections of the Central Government with respect to its growth, share in gross tax revenue, percentage of GDP and composition has been done for the period from 2000-01 to 2019-20. The current study has revealed the growth rate of indirect taxes has not only been uneven but also declined during the year 2001-02, 2008-09 and 2009-10. The share of indirect tax in the gross tax revenue has also gradually declined from 63% in 2000-01 to 46% in 2019- 20%. The indirect tax-GDP ratio has remained stagnant in the range of 3.5 to 5.5 % during the last two decades.


Author(s):  
CA Naveen Kumar Tiwari

Abstract: Economic and political policy interventions were reflected on the economic development of the countries with respect to improving economic and social well-being of poor, market productivity and considerable growth rate in GDP. Specifically, in Indian context, these economic decisions have been a considerable influence on inclusive growth of the nation. It is evidence that India embarked on economic reforms in July, 1991, from the effect of a balance of payment crisis. The government initiated economic reforms basically is to provide an environment of sustainable growth and stability. Thereby the LPG (Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization) system has come to the picture for economic progress of the country. Thepresent study investigates the linkage between foreign trade trends of India and its economic development in the light of economic reforms in India since 25 years (1991-2016). The outcomes of the study strongly support that there is a causal relationship between exports to GDP and GDP to exports and also causality between imports to exports in India.


2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Shadma Shahid ◽  
Mohammad Ashraf Parray ◽  
George Thomas ◽  
Rahela Farooqi ◽  
Jamid Ul Islam

Purpose Due to a staggering growth rate in the recent past, halal products have attained a significant attention of marketers across countries. However, marketing practitioners seek to have detailed understanding of what drives consumers of different demographics towards this product category so as to better market and position themselves in the competitive landscape. Correspondingly, this study aims to provide insights into the Muslim women consumers’ halal cosmetics purchase behaviour and examines the variables (and their interplay) when purchasing such products. Design/methodology/approach The data for the study were collected through a self-administered questionnaire from 371 Muslim respondents from India. The data were analysed through structural equation modelling using AMOS 22.0 SEM software. Findings The findings of this study reveal that religious knowledge, religious commitment and halal certification(s) affect consumers’ actual purchase behaviour of halal cosmetics, which subsequently drives their repurchase intention. The findings further reveal a non-significant effect of religious orientation with both the actual purchase behaviour and repurchase intention towards halal cosmetics. Additionally, actual purchase behaviour of halal cosmetics is found to positively affect customers’ repurchase intentions. Originality/value Despite the recent growth of overall beauty industry, this particular segment of halal cosmetics has a huge potential given the phenomenal preference that Muslim consumers have shown in such niche. Therefore, this paper contributes towards examining the key factors influencing consumers purchase behaviour towards halal cosmetics in India that can be capitalized on.


2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 79-92
Author(s):  
R. R. Asmyatullin ◽  
I. A. Aydrus ◽  
Nagy Szabolcs

The global pharmaceutical market is one of the most innovative and dynamically developing sectors of the global economy. In addition, this industry can be considered highly profitable. Its role has especially increased in the context during the coronavirus pandemic. This article examines trade relations between Russia and Hungary in the pharmaceutical sector. For the Hungarian economy, the pharmaceutical industry is one of the traditional and most innovative sectors of the economy: about 86% of the manufactured products are exported. Hungary is among the top 20 largest exporting and importing countries of pharmaceutical products. The main partners of Hungary are the EU countries. Russia remains an important partner of Hungary in the export of pharmaceutical products, however, it we should note the downward trend of the Russian share in Hungarian exports, due to the sanctions policy on the part of the EU. After the imposition of sanctions in 2014, the growth rate of the Russian pharmaceutical market slowed down, which also negatively affected the volume of trade cooperation with European partners. Russia has traditionally been a major importer in the global pharmaceutical market. An important problem is the reduction of drug import dependence and the expansion of exports. For Russia, this will be possible thanks to the development of unique innovative products. Hungary is an attractive country for the development and expansion of Russia's trade relations in the global pharmaceutical market. For both countries, the pharmaceutical industry is strategically important. The situation with the coronavirus pandemic has shown that political differences can be leveled. Hungary became the first European country to conclude a contract with Russia for the supply of Sputnik V coronavirus vaccine. Thus, there is a high economic potential to make up for the lost pharmaceutical relationship between the two countries.


2022 ◽  
Vol 90 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Gregor J. Gassner ◽  
Magnus Svärd ◽  
Florian J. Hindenlang

AbstractThe focus of the present research is on the analysis of local energy stability of high-order (including split-form) summation-by-parts methods, with e.g. two-point entropy-conserving fluxes, approximating non-linear conservation laws. Our main finding is that local energy stability, i.e., the numerical growth rate does not exceed the growth rate of the continuous problem, is not guaranteed even when the scheme is non-linearly stable and that this may have adverse implications for simulation results. We show that entropy-conserving two-point fluxes are inherently locally energy unstable, as they can be dissipative or anti-dissipative. Unfortunately, these fluxes are at the core of many commonly used high-order entropy-stable extensions, including split-form summation-by-parts discontinuous Galerkin spectral element methods (or spectral collocation methods). For the non-linear Burgers equation, we further demonstrate numerically that such schemes cause exponential growth of errors during the simulation. Furthermore, we encounter a similar abnormal behaviour for the compressible Euler equations, for a smooth exact solution of a density wave. Finally, for the same case, we demonstrate numerically that other commonly known split-forms, such as the Kennedy and Gruber splitting, are also locally energy unstable.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Man In Lam ◽  
Kinga Vojnits ◽  
Michael Zhao ◽  
Sepideh Pakpour ◽  
Piers Macnaughton

Built environments play a key role in the transmission of infectious diseases. Ventilation rates, air temperature and humidity affect airborne transmission while cleaning protocols, material properties and light exposure can influence viability of pathogens on surfaces. We investigated how indoor daylight intensity and spectrum through electrochromic (EC) windows can impact the growth rate and viability of indoor pathogens on different surface materials (polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fabric, polystyrene (PS), and glass) compared to traditional blinds. Our results showed that tinted EC windows let in higher energy, shorter wavelength daylight than those with clear window and blind. The growth rates of pathogenic bacteria and fungi were significantly lower in spaces with EC windows compared to blinds: nearly 100% growth rate reduction was observed when EC windows were in their clear state followed by 41-100% reduction in bacterial growth rate and 26-42% reduction in fungal growth rate when EC windows were in their darkest tint. Moreover, bacterial viabilities were significantly lower on PVC fabric when they were exposed to indoor light at EC-tinted window. These findings are deemed fundamental to the design of healthy modern buildings, especially those that encompass sick and vulnerable individuals.


Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 134
Author(s):  
Qi Jiang ◽  
Hengde Zhang ◽  
Fei Wang ◽  
Fei Wang

Haze is a majorly disastrous type of weather in China, especially central and eastern of China. The development of haze is mainly caused by highly concentrated fine particles (PM2.5) on a regional scale. Here, we present the results from an autumn and winter study conducted from 2013 to 2020 in seven highly polluted areas (27 representative stations) in central and eastern China to analyze the growth mechanism of PM2.5. At the same time, taking Beijing Station as an example, the characteristics of aerosol composition and particle size in the growth phase are analyzed. Taking into account the regional and inter-annual differences of fine particles (PM2.5) distribution, the local average PM2.5 growth value of the year is used as the boundary value for dividing slow, rapid, and explosive growth (only focuses on the hourly growth rate greater than 0). The average value of PM2.5 in the autumn and winter of each regional representative station shows a decreasing trend as a whole, especially after 2017, whereby the decreasing trend was significant. The distribution value of +ΔPM2.5 (PM2.5 hourly growth rate) in the north of the Huai River is lower than that in the south of the Huai River, and both of the +ΔPM2.5 after 2017 showed a significant decreasing trend. The average PM2.5 threshold before the explosive growth is 70.8 µg m−3, and the threshold that is extremely prone to explosive growth is 156 µg m−3 to 277 µg m−3 in north of the Huai River. For the area south of the Huai River, the threshold for PM2.5 explosive growth is relatively low, as a more stringent threshold also puts forward stricter requirements on atmospheric environmental governance. For example, in Beijing, the peak diameters gradually shift to larger sizes when the growth rate increases. The number concentration increasing mainly distributed in Aitken mode (AIM) and Accumulation mode (ACM) during explosive growth. Among the various components of submicron particulate matter (PM1), organic aerosol (OA), especially primary OA (POA), have become one of the most critical components for the PM2.5 explosive growth in Beijing. During the growth period, the contribution of secondary particulate matter (SPM) to the accumulated pollutants is significantly higher than that of primary particulate matter (PPM). However, the proportion of SPM gradually decreases when the growth rate increases. The contribution of the PPM can reach 48% in explosive growth. Compared to slow and rapid growth, explosive growth mainly occurs in the stable atmosphere of higher humidity, lower pressure, lower temperature, small winds, and low mixed layers.


Author(s):  
E.-H. Kim ◽  
J. R. Johnson ◽  
K. Nykyri

The Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) instability of magnetohydrodynamic surface waves at the low latitude boundary layer is examined using both an eigenfrequency analysis and a time-dependent wave simulation. The analysis includes the effects of sheared flow and Alfvén velocity gradient. When the magnetosheath flows are perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field direction, unstable KH waves that propagate obliquely to the sheared flow direction occur at the sheared flow surface when the Alfvén Mach number is higher than an instability threshold. Including a shear transition layer between the magnetosphere and magnetosheath leads to secondary KH waves (driven by the sheared flow) that are coupled to the resonant surface Alfvén wave. There are remarkable differences between the primary and the secondary KH waves, including wave frequency, the growth rate, and the ratio between the transverse and compressional components. The secondary KH wave energy is concentrated near the shear Alfvén wave frequency at the magnetosheath with a lower frequency than the primary KH waves. Although the growth rate of the secondary KH waves is lower than the primary KH waves, the threshold condition is lower, so it is expected that these types of waves will dominate at a lower Mach number. Because the transverse component of the secondary KH waves is stronger than that of the primary KH waves, more efficient wave energy transfer from the boundary layer to the inner magnetosphere is also predicted.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anna Oleshkevich ◽  
Elena Yarygina

The functional activity stimulation of cell cultures was tested in MDBK cell culture, photobacteria AliivibriofischeriandHalobacteriumhalobium. Theaim of the investigation was to increase the ”yield” of the cells using an environmentallysafe stimulant and membrane-tropic agent that isalso safe for the experimenter. Ultrasonicwaves were used.Experimental ultrasonic exposure varied within the following limits: time from 1 to 300 sec, SATA-intensity of 0.01–2.0 W/cm2, generation frequency of 0.88 or 2.64 MHz, standing or traveling wave. The modulation frequency range was within 0.1–150 Hz. The devices used were: UST-1-01F, UST-5 and UST1.02C. The modulating generators were G3–112 and CP–110.Stimulation of MDBK cell growth was initiated by US-intensity of 0.03–0.05 W/cm2 , with an exposure of 5–30 sec.Exposure to ultrasound with an intensity of 0.2–0.4 W/cm2 (for 3 min) had a stimulating effect on bioluminescence and was associated with an increase in the growth rate ofA. fischeri. The findings indicated that 0.4 W/cm2ultrasonic intensity and modulation frequencies from 0.25 to 0.7 Hz can stimulate the growth of archaea.It was revealed that the maximum proliferation index in all cases of stimulant application was noted in cultures with minimal initial proliferative activity in the control.The authors expect thatthese results on the possibilities of acoustic continuous and modulated waves can be applied for biotechnological purposes to develop a new biotechnological method. Keywords: cell culture, ultrasound, proliferation, stimulation


Aging ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mohammad Haroon ◽  
Heleen E. Boers ◽  
Astrid D. Bakker ◽  
Niek G.C. Bloks ◽  
Willem M.H. Hoogaars ◽  
...  

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