geometric mean
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-37
Robert A. Sowah ◽  
Bernard Kuditchar ◽  
Godfrey A. Mills ◽  
Amevi Acakpovi ◽  
Raphael A. Twum ◽  

Class imbalance problem is prevalent in many real-world domains. It has become an active area of research. In binary classification problems, imbalance learning refers to learning from a dataset with a high degree of skewness to the negative class. This phenomenon causes classification algorithms to perform woefully when predicting positive classes with new examples. Data resampling, which involves manipulating the training data before applying standard classification techniques, is among the most commonly used techniques to deal with the class imbalance problem. This article presents a new hybrid sampling technique that improves the overall performance of classification algorithms for solving the class imbalance problem significantly. The proposed method called the Hybrid Cluster-Based Undersampling Technique (HCBST) uses a combination of the cluster undersampling technique to under-sample the majority instances and an oversampling technique derived from Sigma Nearest Oversampling based on Convex Combination, to oversample the minority instances to solve the class imbalance problem with a high degree of accuracy and reliability. The performance of the proposed algorithm was tested using 11 datasets from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Metric Data Program data repository and University of California Irvine Machine Learning data repository with varying degrees of imbalance. Results were compared with classification algorithms such as the K-nearest neighbours, support vector machines, decision tree, random forest, neural network, AdaBoost, naïve Bayes, and quadratic discriminant analysis. Tests results revealed that for the same datasets, the HCBST performed better with average performances of 0.73, 0.67, and 0.35 in terms of performance measures of area under curve, geometric mean, and Matthews Correlation Coefficient, respectively, across all the classifiers used for this study. The HCBST has the potential of improving the performance of the class imbalance problem, which by extension, will improve on the various applications that rely on the concept for a solution.

10.29007/7sj7 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Xuan Dai Le ◽  
Tuan Cuong Pham ◽  
Thi Hong Van Nguyen ◽  
Nhat Minh Tran ◽  
Van Vinh Dang

In this paper we consider two matrix equations that involve the weighted geometric mean. We use the fixed point theorem in the cone of positive definite matrices to prove the existence of a unique positive definite solution. In addition, we study the multi-step stationary iterative method for those equations and prove the corresponding convergence. A fidelity measure for quantum states based on the matrix geometric mean is introduced as an application of matrix equation.

Füsun Can ◽  
Zeynep Ece Kuloğlu ◽  
Rojbin El ◽  
Gülen Esken ◽  
Yeşim Tok ◽  

Objective: There is a need for the immunogenicity of different boosters after widely used inactivated vaccine regimens. We aimed to determine the effects of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac boosters on the humoral and cellular immunity of individuals who had two doses of CoronaVac vaccination. Methods: The study was conducted in three centers (Koc University Hospital, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Hospital, and Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical School Hospital) in Istanbul. Individuals who had two doses of CoronaVac and no history of COVID-19 were included. The baseline blood samples were collected three to five months after two doses of CoronaVac. Follow-up samples were taken one and three months after third doses of CoronaVac or one dose of mRNA BNT162b2 boosters. Neutralizing antibody titers were detected by plaque reduction assay. T cell responses were evaluated by Elispot assay and flow cytometry. Results: We found a 3.38-fold increase in neutralizing antibody titers (Geometric Mean Titer [GMT], 78.69) one month after BNT162b2 booster and maintained at the three months (GMT, 80). However, in the CoronaVac group, significantly lower GMTs than BNT162b2 after 1 month and 3 months (21.44 and 28.44, respectively) indicated the weak immunogenicity of the CoronaVac booster (p<0.001). In the ELISpot assay, IL-2 levels after BNT162b2 were higher than baseline and CoronaVac booster (p<0.001) and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher than baseline (P<0.001). The CD8+CD38+CD69+ and CD4+CD38+CD69+ T cells were stimulated significantly at the 3 month of the BNT162b2 boosters. Conclusion: The neutralizing antibody levels after three months of the BNT162b2 booster were higher than the antibody levels after CoronaVac. On the other hand, specific T cells might contribute to immune protection. By considering the waning immunity, we suggest a new booster dose with BNT162b2 for the countries that already have two doses of primary CoronaVac regimens.

2022 ◽  
Kirsten E Lyke ◽  
Robert L Atmar ◽  
Clara P. Dominguez Islas ◽  
Christine M. Posavad ◽  
Daniel Szydlo ◽  

As part of an ongoing study assessing homologous and heterologous booster vaccines, following primary EUA series, we assessed neutralization of D614G and Omicron variants prior to and 28 days after boost. Subset analysis was done in six combinations (N = 10/group): four homologous primary-booster combinations included mRNA-1273 two-dose priming followed by boosting with 100-μg or 50-μg mRNA-1273, Ad26.COV2.S single-dose priming followed by Ad26.COV2.S booster and BNT162b2 two-dose priming followed by BNT162b2 boosting; and two heterologous primary-booster combinations: BNT162b2 followed by Ad26.COV2.S and Ad26.COV2.S followed by BNT162b2. Neutralizing antibody (Nab) titers to D614G on the day of boost (baseline) were detected in 85-100% of participants, with geometric mean titers (GMT) of 71-343 in participants who received an mRNA vaccine series versus GMTs of 35-41 in participants primed with Ad26.OV2.S. Baseline NAb titers to Omicron were detected in 50-90% of participants who received an mRNA vaccine series (GMT range 12.8-24.5) versus 20-25% among participants primed with Ad26.COV2.S. The booster dose increased the neutralizing GMT in most combinations to above 1000 for D614G and above 250 for Omicron by Day 29. Homologous prime-boost Ad26.COV2.S had the lowest NAb on Day 29 (D614G GMT 128 and Omicron GMT 45). Results were similar between age groups. Most homologous and heterologous boost combinations examined will increase humoral immunity to the Omicron variant.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 118
Supattra Rungmaitree ◽  
Charin Thepthai ◽  
Zheng Quan Toh ◽  
Noppasit Musiwiraphat ◽  
Alan Maleesatharn ◽  

HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) acquisition and HPV-associated diseases. This study set out to determine whether a two-dose (2D) HPV vaccination schedule was sufficient in HIV-infected adolescents with immune reconstitution (IR) following antiretroviral treatment. Participants aged 9–15 years who had CD4 cell counts > 500 cells/mm3 and HIV-1 RNA < 40 copies/mL for at least one year were assigned to the 2D schedule, while older participants or those without IR received a three-dose (3D) schedule. Antibodies to HPV-16 and -18 were measured using a pseudovirion-based neutralization assay. A total of 96 subjects were enrolled; 31.3% and 68.7% received the 2D and 3D schedule, respectively. Of these, 66.7% and 57.6% of the 2D and 3D participants, respectively, were male. The seroconversion rates for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were 100% in all cases, except for HPV-18 in males who received the 3D schedule (97.4%). In males, the anti-HPV-16 geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 6859.3 (95% confidence interval, 4394.3–10,707.1) and 7011.1 (4648.8–10,573.9) in the 2D and 3D groups (p = 0.946), respectively, and the anti-HPV-18 GMTs were 2039.3 (1432.2–2903.8) and 2859.8 (1810.0–4518.4) in the 2D and 3D (p = 0.313) groups, respectively. In females, the anti-HPV-16 GMTs were 15,758.7 (8868.0–28,003.4) and 26,241.6 (16,972.7–40,572.3) in the 2D and 3D groups (p = 0.197), respectively, and the anti-HPV-18 GMTs were 5971.4 (3026.8–11,780.6) and 9993.1 (5950.8–16,781.1) in the 2D and 3D groups (p = 0.271), respectively. In summary, a 2D schedule is as immunogenic in young adolescents with IR as a 3D schedule in older subjects and those without IR.

Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 111
Hsin-Chieh Wu ◽  
Yu-Cheng Lin ◽  
Tin-Chih Toly Chen

With the widespread vaccination against COVID-19, people began to resume regional tourism. Outdoor attractions, such as leisure agricultural parks, are particularly attractive because they are well ventilated and can prevent the spread of COVID-19. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the considerations around choosing a leisure agricultural park are different from usual, and will be affected by uncertainty. Therefore, this research proposes a fuzzy collaborative intelligence (FCI) approach to help select leisure agricultural parks suitable for traveler groups during the COVID-19 pandemic. The proposed FCI approach combines asymmetrically calibrated fuzzy geometric mean (acFGM), fuzzy weighted intersection (FWI), and fuzzy Vise Kriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (fuzzy VIKOR), which is a novel attempt in this field. The effectiveness of the proposed FCI approach has been verified by a case study in Taichung City, Taiwan. The results of the case study showed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, travelers (especially traveler groups) were very willing to go to leisure agricultural parks. In addition, the most important criterion for choosing a suitable leisure agricultural park was the ease of maintaining social distance, while the least important criterion was the distance from a leisure agricultural park. Further, the successful recommendation rate using the proposed methodology was as high as 90%.

2022 ◽  
Shi Zou ◽  
Mengmeng Wu ◽  
Fangzhao Ming ◽  
Songjie Wu ◽  
Wei Guo ◽  

Abstract Background: Multi-types COVID-19 vaccines have shown safety and efficacy against COVID-19 in adults. Although current guidelines encourage people living with HIV(PLWH) to take COVID-19 vaccines, whether their immune response to COVID-19 vaccines is distinct from HIV-free individuals is still unclear. Methods: Between March to June 2021, 48 PLWH and 40 HNC, aged 18 to 59 years, were enrolled in the study in Wuchang district of Wuhan city. All of them received inactivated COVID-19 vaccine at day 0 and the second dose at day 28. The primary safety outcome was the combined adverse reactions within 7days after each injection. The primary immunogenicity outcomes were neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) responses by chemiluminescence and total specific IgM and IgG antibodies responses by ELISA and colloidal gold at baseline (day 0), day 14, day 28, day 42, and day 70.Results: In total, the study included 46 PLWH and 38 HNC who finished 70 days’ follow-up. The frequency of adverse reactions to the first and second dose was not different between PLWH (30% and 11%) vs HNC (32% and 24%). There were no serious adverse events. NAbs responses among PLWH peaked at day 70, while among HNC peaked at day 42. At day 42, the geometric mean concentration (GMC) and seroconversion rate of nAbs among PLWH were 4.46 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL (95% CI, 3.18-5.87) and 26% (95% CI, 14-41), which were lower than that among HNC [GMC (18.28 BAU/mL, 95% CI, 10.33-32.33), seroconversion rate (63%, 95% CI, 44-79)]. IgG responses among both PLWH and HNC peaked at day 70. At day 70, the geometric mean ELISA units (GMEU) and seroconversion rate of IgG among PLWH were 0.193 ELISA units (EU)/mL (95% CI, 0.119-0.313) and 51% (95% CI, 34-69), which was lower than that among HNC [GMEU (0.379 BAU/mL, 95% CI, 0.224-0.653), seroconversion rate (86%, 95% CI, 64-97)]. Conclusion: Early humoral immune response to the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was weaker and delayed among the PLWH population than that among HNC. This observation remained consistent regardless of a high CD4 count and a low HIV viral load suppressed by antiretroviral therapy (ART).

PLoS Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. e1003865
Zacchaeus Anywaine ◽  
Houreratou Barry ◽  
Omu Anzala ◽  
Gaudensia Mutua ◽  
Sodiomon B. Sirima ◽  

Background Reoccurring Ebola outbreaks in West and Central Africa have led to serious illness and death in thousands of adults and children. The objective of this study was to assess safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the heterologous 2-dose Ad26.ZEBOV, MVA-BN-Filo vaccination regimen in adolescents and children in Africa. Methods and findings In this multicentre, randomised, observer-blind, placebo-controlled Phase II study, 131 adolescents (12 to 17 years old) and 132 children (4 to 11 years old) were enrolled from Eastern and Western Africa and randomised 5:1 to receive study vaccines or placebo. Vaccine groups received intramuscular injections of Ad26.ZEBOV (5 × 1010 viral particles) and MVA-BN-Filo (1 × 108 infectious units) 28 or 56 days apart; placebo recipients received saline. Primary outcomes were safety and tolerability. Solicited adverse events (AEs) were recorded until 7 days after each vaccination and serious AEs (SAEs) throughout the study. Secondary and exploratory outcomes were humoral immune responses (binding and neutralising Ebola virus [EBOV] glycoprotein [GP]-specific antibodies), up to 1 year after the first dose. Enrolment began on February 26, 2016, and the date of last participant last visit was November 28, 2018. Of the 263 participants enrolled, 217 (109 adolescents, 108 children) received the 2-dose regimen, and 43 (20 adolescents, 23 children) received 2 placebo doses. Median age was 14.0 (range 11 to 17) and 7.0 (range 4 to 11) years for adolescents and children, respectively. Fifty-four percent of the adolescents and 51% of the children were male. All participants were Africans, and, although there was a slight male preponderance overall, the groups were well balanced. No vaccine-related SAEs were reported; solicited AEs were mostly mild/moderate. Twenty-one days post-MVA-BN-Filo vaccination, binding antibody responses against EBOV GP were observed in 100% of vaccinees (106 adolescents, 104 children). Geometric mean concentrations tended to be higher after the 56-day interval (adolescents 13,532 ELISA units [EU]/mL, children 17,388 EU/mL) than the 28-day interval (adolescents 6,993 EU/mL, children 8,007 EU/mL). Humoral responses persisted at least up to Day 365. A limitation of the study is that the follow-up period was limited to 365 days for the majority of the participants, and so it was not possible to determine whether immune responses persisted beyond this time period. Additionally, formal statistical comparisons were not preplanned but were only performed post hoc. Conclusions The heterologous 2-dose vaccination was well tolerated in African adolescents and children with no vaccine-related SAEs. All vaccinees displayed anti-EBOV GP antibodies after the 2-dose regimen, with higher responses in the 56-day interval groups. The frequency of pyrexia after vaccine or placebo was higher in children than in adolescents. These data supported the prophylactic indication against EBOV disease in a paediatric population, as licenced in the EU. Trial registration NCT02564523.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Sharon K. Sagiv ◽  
Stephen Rauch ◽  
Katherine R. Kogut ◽  
Carly Hyland ◽  
Robert B. Gunier ◽  

Abstract Introduction Previous studies show evidence for associations of prenatal exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides with poorer childhood neurodevelopment. As children grow older, poorer cognition, executive function, and school performance can give rise to risk-taking behaviors, including substance abuse, delinquency, and violent acts. We investigated whether prenatal OP exposure was associated with these risk-taking behaviors in adolescence and young adulthood in a Mexican American cohort. Methods We measured urinary dialkyl phosphates (DAPs), non-specific metabolites of OPs, twice (13 and 26 weeks gestation) in pregnant women recruited in 1999–2000 in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study, a birth cohort set in a primarily Latino agricultural community in the Salinas Valley, California. We followed up children throughout their childhood and adolescence; at the 18-year visit, adolescent youth (n = 315) completed a computer-based questionnaire which included questions about substance use, risky sexual activity, risky driving, and delinquency and police encounters. We used multivariable models to estimate associations of prenatal total DAPs with these risk-taking behaviors. Results The prevalence of risk-taking behaviors in CHAMACOS youth ranged from 8.9% for smoking or vaping nicotine to 70.2% for committing a delinquent act. Associations of total prenatal DAPs (geometric mean = 132.4 nmol/L) with risk-taking behavior were generally null and imprecise. Isolated findings included a higher risk for smoking or vaping nicotine within the past 30 days (relative risk [RR] per 10-fold increase in prenatal DAPs = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.56) and driving without a license (RR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.25, 2.42). There were no consistent differences by sex or childhood adversity. Discussion We did not find clear or consistent evidence for associations of prenatal OP exposure with risk-taking behaviors in adolescence/early adulthood in the CHAMACOS population. Our small sample size may have prevented us from detecting potentially subtle associations of early life OP exposure with these risk-taking behaviors.

2022 ◽  
Collince Jared Omondi ◽  
Otambo O Wilfred ◽  
David Odongo ◽  
Kevin O. Ochwedo ◽  
Antony Otieno ◽  

Abstract Background Long lasting insecticidal bednets (LLINs) have been the primary vector control strategy until indoor residual spraying (IRS) was added in Homa Bay and Migori Counties in western Kenya. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of LLINs integrated with organophosphate-based (Actellic 300 CS) IRS on the prevalence of asymptomatic and submicroscopic Plasmodium species infections in Homa Bay County. Methods Four consecutive community cross-sectional surveys for Plasmodium species infection were conducted in residents of Homa Bay County, Kenya commencing immediately before and 2 years after introduction of annual IRS. Finger-prick blood samples were obtained to prepare thick and thin smears for microscopic determination and qPCR diagnosis of Plasmodium genus, P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale infection. Results Plasmodium spp. infection prevalence by microscopy was 18.5% before IRS and 14.2%, 3.3% and 1.3% after two annual rounds of IRS (χ²= 186.9, df = 3, p < 0.0001). Submicroscopic (blood smear negative, qPCR positive) parasitemia was 50.4% before IRS and 43.2%, 68.0% and 80.7% after IRS (χ²= 31.98, df = 3, p < 0.0001). Geometric mean density of P. falciparum parasitemia decreased over the 2-year study period (ANOVA, F = 28.95, df = 3, 243, p < 0.0001). The proportion of blood smear positive asymptomatic infections that included P. falciparum did not significantly change over the study period. In contrast, the proportion of asymptomatic submicroscopic P. falciparum infections trended upward following introduction of IRS (pre-IRS 48.2% versus post-IRS 41.6%, 61.3% and 75.4%; (χ²= 24.00, df = 3, p = 0.0002). Conclusions These data suggest that two annual rounds of IRS integrated with LLIN significantly reduced the prevalence of Plasmodium parasitemia, whereas the proportion of submicroscopic infections that included P. falciparum parasite increases. Strategies that aim at reducing the number of asymptomatic submicroscopic infections should be considered to diminish cryptic P. falciparum transmission and enhance malaria control.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document