visual analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 64
Giedrė Beconytė ◽  
Andrius Balčiūnas ◽  
Aurelija Šturaitė ◽  
Rita Viliuvienė

This paper proposes a method for quantitative evaluation of perception deviations due to generalization in choropleth maps. The method proposed is based on comparison of class values assigned to different aggregation units chosen for representing the same dataset. It is illustrated by the results of application of the method to population density maps of Lithuania. Three spatial aggregation levels were chosen for comparison: the 1 × 1 km statistical grid, elderships (NUTS3), and municipalities (NUTS2). Differences in density class values between the reference grid map and the other two maps were calculated. It is demonstrated that a perceptual fallacy on the municipality level population map of Lithuania leads to a misinterpretation of data that makes such maps frankly useless. The eldership level map is, moreover, also largely misleading, especially in sparsely populated areas. The method proposed is easy to use and transferable to any other field where spatially aggregated data are mapped. It can be used for visual analysis of the degree to which a generalized choropleth map is liable to mislead the user in particular areas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (4) ◽  
pp. 118-125
A. B. Neuzorava ◽  
S. V. Skirkovsky

During the COVID-19, pandemics or worsening virus situation, taxi and regular-route bus drivers are recommended to work in medical masks. However, the quantitative and qualitative influence of wearing protective face masks on safety of driving vehicles has not been previously studied. Therefore, this became the objective of preliminary studies to determine the specifics of the influence of a face protective mask on the change in psychophysiological qualities of a car driver as a factor in safety eventuality under urban traffic conditions.The method of an open-ended survey of 108 healthy adult drivers was used to obtain a quantitative subjective assessment of the effect of face masks on changing driving safety conditions and a comfortable emotional state while driving. A qualitative analysis of assessment of the level of psychophysiological qualities of drivers wearing and not wearing a face mask was carried out using Meleti hardware-software complex.A sharp decrease in neuropsychic functions with a simultaneous increase in quality of thinking and visual analysis of the traffic situation was revealed regarding the drivers wearing a face protective mask compared to those driving without a mask while the level of psychomotor reaction remains unchanged regardless of the gender of the driver.The subjective assessment of survey participants of the effect of a face mask on professionally important, psychophysiological characteristics of drivers revealed a significant (41,7 %) or insignificant (20,4 %) decrease in reaction, while 38 % of drivers did not notice significant changes in driving because of the effect of the mask.Based on these results, it is assumed that the face mask may serve as a predictor of a road pre-accident situation.To assess the effect of the face mask on the driver, a coefficient of eventuality of reducing road safety is proposed. It is recommended to use it as an additional factor in a situational pandemic environment when developing recommendations for the use of face masks for car and bus drivers, and when analysing the causes of road accidents. 

2022 ◽  
Min Zhao ◽  
Chang Tian ◽  
Xin Di ◽  
Xin Jin ◽  
Shan Cong ◽  

Abstract The pathogenesis of sarcoidosis, which involves several systems, is unclear, and its pathological type is non-caseating epithelioid granulomas. tRNA-derived small RNA (tsRNA) is a novel class of short non-coding RNAs with potential regulatory functions. However, whether tsRNA contributes to sarcoidosis pathogenesis remains unclear. Deep sequencing technology was used to identify alterations in tsRNA expression profiles between patients with sarcoidosis and healthy controls. A total of 360 tsRNAs were identified for exact matches. Among them, the expression of three tRNAs (tiRNA-Glu-TTC-001, tiRNA-Lys-CTT-003, and tRF-Ser-TGA-007) was markedly regulated in sarcoidosis and validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of various tsRNAs was significantly correlated with age, the number of affected systems, and calcium levels in the blood. Additionally, target prediction and bioinformatics analyses revealed that these tsRNAs may play roles in chemokine, cAMP, cGMP-PKG, retrograde endorphin, and FoxO signalling pathways. The Cytoscape software was used for visual analysis to obtain 10 hub genes of each target tsRNA. Among the hub genes, APP, PRKACB, ARRB2, and NR5A1 finding may participate in the occurrence and development of sarcoidosis through immune inflammation. This study provides novel insights to explore tsRNA as a novel and efficacious pathogenic target of sarcoidosis.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 562
Marcin Kociołek ◽  
Michał Kozłowski ◽  
Antonio Cardone

The perceived texture directionality is an important, not fully explored image characteristic. In many applications texture directionality detection is of fundamental importance. Several approaches have been proposed, such as the fast Fourier-based method. We recently proposed a method based on the interpolated grey-level co-occurrence matrix (iGLCM), robust to image blur and noise but slower than the Fourier-based method. Here we test the applicability of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to texture directionality detection. To obtain the large amount of training data required, we built a training dataset consisting of synthetic textures with known directionality and varying perturbation levels. Subsequently, we defined and tested shallow and deep CNN architectures. We present the test results focusing on the CNN architectures and their robustness with respect to image perturbations. We identify the best performing CNN architecture, and compare it with the iGLCM, the Fourier and the local gradient orientation methods. We find that the accuracy of CNN is lower, yet comparable to the iGLCM, and it outperforms the other two methods. As expected, the CNN method shows the highest computing speed. Finally, we demonstrate the best performing CNN on real-life images. Visual analysis suggests that the learned patterns generalize to real-life image data. Hence, CNNs represent a promising approach for texture directionality detection, warranting further investigation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 26
Dhivakar Rajendran ◽  
Rajarajan Ramalingame ◽  
Anurag Adiraju ◽  
Hanen Nouri ◽  
Olfa Kanoun

Dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in solvents and/or polymers is essential to reach the full potential of the CNTs in nanocomposite materials. Dispersion of CNTs is especially challenging due to the van-der-Waals attraction forces between the CNTs, which let them tend to re-bundle and/or re-aggregate. This paper presents a brief analysis of the quality and stability of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (fMWCNT) dispersion on polar solvents. A comparative study of functionalized CNT dispersion in water, methyl, and alcohol-based organic solvents has been carried out and the dispersion has been characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy, electrochemical characterization such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Visual analysis of the dispersion has been investigated for up to 14 days to assess the dispersion’s stability. Based on the material characterization, it was observed that the degree of affinity fMWCNT with -COOH group highly depends on the polarity of the solvent, where the higher the polarity, the better the interaction of fMWCNT with solvents.

Roland Barthel ◽  
Ezra Haaf ◽  
Michelle Nygren ◽  
Markus Giese

AbstractVisual analysis of time series in hydrology is frequently seen as a crucial step to becoming acquainted with the nature of the data, as well as detecting unexpected errors, biases, etc. Human eyes, in particular those of a trained expert, are well suited to recognize irregularities and distinct patterns. However, there are limits as to what the eye can resolve and process; moreover, visual analysis is by definition subjective and has low reproducibility. Visual inspection is frequently mentioned in publications, but rarely described in detail, even though it may have significantly affected decisions made in the process of performing the underlying study. This paper presents a visual analysis of groundwater hydrographs that has been performed in relation to attempts to classify groundwater time series as part of developing a new concept for prediction in data-scarce groundwater systems. Within this concept, determining the similarity of groundwater hydrographs is essential. As standard approaches for similarity analysis of groundwater hydrographs do not yet exist, different approaches were developed and tested. This provided the opportunity to carry out a comparison between visual analysis and formal, automated classification approaches. The presented visual classification was carried out on two sets of time series from central Europe and Fennoscandia. It is explained why and where visual classification can be beneficial but also where the limitations and challenges associated with the approach lie. It is concluded that systematic visual analysis of time series in hydrology, despite its subjectivity and low reproducibility, should receive much more attention.

H. Rashidan ◽  
A. Abdul Rahman ◽  
I. A. Musliman ◽  
G. Buyuksalih

Abstract. 3D city models are increasingly being used to represent the complexity of today’s urban areas, as they aid in understanding how different aspects of a city can function. For instance, several municipalities and governmental organisations have constructed their 3D city models for various purposes. These 3D models, which are normally complex and contain semantics information, have typically been used for visualisation and visual analysis purposes. However, most of the available 3D models open datasets contain many geometric and topological errors, e.g., missing surfaces (holes), self-intersecting surfaces, duplicate vertices, etc. These errors prevent the datasets from being used for advanced applications such as 3D spatial analysis which requires valid datasets and topology to calculate its volume, detect surface orientation, area calculation, etc. Therefore, certain repairs must be done before taking these models into actual applications, and hole-filling (of missing surfaces) is an important one among them. Several studies on the topic of automatic repair of the 3D model have been conducted by various researchers, with different approaches have been developed. Thus, this paper describes a triangular mesh approach for automatically repair invalid (missing surfaces) 3D building model (LOD2). The developed approach demonstrates an ability to repair missing surfaces (with holes) in a 3D building model by reconstructing geometries of the holes of the affected model. The repaired model is validated and produced a closed-two manifold model.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 301
Mohammed Dabboor ◽  
Ian Olthof ◽  
Masoud Mahdianpari ◽  
Fariba Mohammadimanesh ◽  
Mohammed Shokr ◽  

The Canadian RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM) has passed its early operation phase with the performance evaluation being currently active. This evaluation aims to confirm that the innovative design of the mission’s synthetic aperture radar (SAR) meets the expectations of intended users. In this study, we provide an overview of initial results obtained for three high-priority applications; flood mapping, sea ice analysis, and wetland classification. In our study, the focus is on results obtained using not only linear polarization, but also the adopted Compact Polarimetric (CP) architecture in RCM. Our study shows a promising level of agreement between RCM and RADARSAT-2 performance in flood mapping using dual-polarized HH-HV SAR data over Red River, Manitoba, suggesting smooth continuity between the two satellite missions for operational flood mapping. Visual analysis of coincident RCM CP and RADARSAT-2 dual-polarized HH-HV SAR imagery over the Resolute Passage, Canadian Central Arctic, highlighted an improved contrast between sea ice classes in dry ice winter conditions. A statistical analysis using selected sea ice samples confirmed the increased contrast between thin and both rough and deformed ice in CP SAR. This finding is expected to enhance Canadian Ice Service’s (CIS) operational visual analysis of sea ice in RCM SAR imagery for ice chart production. Object-oriented classification of a wetland area in Newfoundland and Labrador by fusion of RCM dual-polarized VV-VH data and Sentinel-2 optical imagery revealed promising classification results, with an overall accuracy of 91.1% and a kappa coefficient of 0.87. Marsh presented the highest user’s and producer’s accuracies (87.77% and 82.08%, respectively) compared to fog, fen, and swamp.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Niti Pawar ◽  
Odmara L. Barreto Chang

In the last decade, burst suppression has been increasingly studied by many to examine whether it is a mechanism leading to postoperative cognitive impairment. Despite a lack of consensus across trials, the current state of research suggests that electroencephalogram (EEG) burst suppression, duration and EEG emergence trajectory may predict postoperative delirium (POD). A mini literature review regarding evidence about burst suppression impact and susceptibilities was conducted, resulting in conflicting studies. Primarily, studies have used different algorithm values to replace visual burst suppression examination, although many studies have since emerged showing that algorithms underestimate burst suppression duration. As these methods may not be interchangeable with visual analysis of raw data, it is a potential factor for the current heterogeneity between data. Even though additional research trials incorporating the use of raw EEG data are necessary, the data currently show that monitoring with commercial intraoperative EEG machines that use EEG indices to estimate burst suppression may help physicians identify burst suppression and guide anesthetic titration during surgery. These modifications in anesthetics could lead to preventing unfavorable outcomes. Furthermore, some studies suggest that brain age, baseline impairment, and certain medications are risk factors for burst suppression and postoperative delirium. These patient characteristics, in conjunction with intraoperative EEG monitoring, could be used for individualized patient care. Future studies on the feasibility of raw EEG monitoring, new technologies for anesthetic monitoring and titration, and patient-associated risk factors are crucial to our continued understanding of burst suppression and postoperative delirium.

2022 ◽  
pp. 147035722110526
Sara Merlino ◽  
Lorenza Mondada ◽  
Ola Söderström

This article discusses how an aspect of urban environments – sound and noise – is experienced by people walking in the city; it particularly focuses on atypical populations such as people diagnosed with psychosis, who are reported to be particularly sensitive to noisy environments. Through an analysis of video-recordings of naturalistic activities in an urban context and of video-elicitations based on these recordings, the study details the way participants orient to sound and noise in naturalistic settings, and how sound and noise are reported and reexperienced during interviews. By bringing together urban context, psychosis and social interaction, this study shows that, thanks to video recordings and conversation analysis, it is possible to analyse in detail the multimodal organization of action (talk, gesture, gaze, walking bodies) and of the sensory experience(s) of aural factors, as well as the way this organization is affected by the ecology of the situation.

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