hydrological effects
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Junkui Pan ◽  
Jiawei Liu ◽  
Guoping Hu ◽  
Jiamei Su ◽  
Guangyi Qin

Resources ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 119
Tshianeo M. Ndou ◽  
Eduard M. Stam ◽  
Milingoni P. Tshisikhawe ◽  
Mercy A. Alabi ◽  
Adeyemi O. Adeeyo

There is an established link between deforestation and negative hydrological effects which may affect watersheds. The number of the cycads Encephalartos transvenosus Stapf & Burtt Davy in South Africa is drastically reducing, and they are nearly extinct. Additionally, poaching and reduction in the population of cycads in reserves may impact negatively on watersheds in protected and buffer areas since the regeneration of this plant occurs over a long period. This research aimed to study the distributions of poached cycads, evaluate the factors responsible for poaching activity and suggest possible solutions towards conservation of E. transvenosus Stapf & Burtt Davy in some of the nature reserves in Limpopo province. Field observation was used to ascertain and collect locations of poached cycads. Data was obtained through the use of a questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered to rangers for the collection of data on causes of poaching, parts poached, measures taken and challenges of rangers in the nature reserves. Processing of the collected data was done by simple statistical analysis. The total population of rangers available in the reserves was used for the determination of the sample size of rangers by Slovin’s formula. Unemployment (46%) is the leading cause for poaching in Mphaphuli Nature Reserve, while trade is a leading factor in Modjadji and Lekgalameetse (37% and 60%) respectively. Debarked cycads amount to 14 (54%) while 12 of the total (26 poached cycads) were completely removed (46%). The most effective way of stopping the poaching of cycads as perceived by the rangers is by patrolling the nature reserves. The observed poaching of Encephalartos transvenosus is alarming since this plant has a low population size which is currently confined to the Limpopo Province in South Africa only. If poaching continues in the nature reserves, all cycads have the tendency of being removed. Therefore, there is a need to continually develop strategies for the conservation of cycads. The peculiar nature and challenges of each reserve have been established and unique solutions for these nature reserves in Limpopo Province have been proposed. Better conservation of cycad species can positively impact the hydrological process of the concerned area and better help the watersheds.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 3039
Nathaniel Revell ◽  
Craig Lashford ◽  
Matthew Blackett ◽  
Matteo Rubinato

Woodland planting is gaining momentum as a potential method of natural flood management (NFM), due to its ability to break up soil and increase infiltration and water storage. In this study, a 2.2 km2 area in Warwickshire, England, planted with woodland every year from 2006 to 2012, was sampled using a Mini Disk infiltrometer (MDI). Infiltration measurements were taken from 10 and 200 cm away from the trees, from November 2019 to August 2021. Two individual hydrological models were built using the US Hydraulic Engineering Center Hydrological Modelling System (HEC-HMS), to model the effects of infiltration change on peak flows from the site throughout the summer and winter. The models were calibrated and validated using empirical data; the Nash and Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) was used as an indicator of accuracy. Results from this study show that woodland planting reduced peak flow intensity compared to impermeable land cover by an average of 6%, 2%, and 1% for 6-h, 24-h, and 96-h winter storms, respectively, and 48%, 18%, and 3% for 6-h, 24-h, and 96-h summer storms, respectively. However, grassland simulations show the greatest reduction in peak flows, being 32%, 21%, and 10%, lower than woodland for 6-, 24-, and 96-h winter storms, respectively, and 6%, 3%, and 0.5% lower than woodland for 6-, 24-, and 96-h summer storms, respectively.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Yair Aaron

Dryland areas are regarded as highly sensitive to climatic changes. A positive relationship between average annual rainfall, and environmental factors (water availability, species diversity, etc.), is often assumed for areas with an average annual rainfall of 100-300 mm. However, the global climatological models fail to address an important issue. The above assumption disregards the fact that a climate change in some dry-land areas is not limited to climatic factors. It is often accompanied by a pronounced variability in surface properties, such as the deposition of loess in a wet climatic phase, and of sand during a dry climatic phase. Needless to say, the spatial variability of the new surface properties may have variable effects on water resources and related environmental variables. In addition, the climatic models, based on average annual rainfall, disregard the rainfall characteristics at the rain-shower level, which greatly influence the degree to which rainwater will percolate, or will be transformed into runoff, thereby significantly affecting the spatial redistribution of water resources. In other words, a climate change in dryland areas would be expected to have differential hydrological effects in a sandy area, a rocky area, or in a loess covered area. Differential spatial hydrological effects would be also expected within each of the areas listed above. The present manuscript deals with the complex relationships between average annual rainfall, and environmental variables in sandy areas, at three research sites, along a rainfall gradient of 90-450 mm, in the south eastern Mediterranean area, Israel. Data obtained clearly show that average annual rainfall is not a good indicator of water resources, and ecosystem structure, in each of the sites; and the controlling factors vary from one site to another.

2021 ◽  
pp. 127008
Nian Yang ◽  
Wen Du ◽  
Lei Chen ◽  
Zhenyao Shen ◽  
Chein-Chi Chang ◽  

C. Almagro Vidal ◽  
L. Zaccarelli ◽  
F. Pintori ◽  
P. L. Bragato ◽  
E. Serpelloni

2021 ◽  
pp. 126662
Li Zongjie ◽  
Li Zongxing ◽  
Feng Qi ◽  
Wang Xufeng ◽  
Mu Yanhu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Carlos Almagro Vidal ◽  
Lucia Zaccarelli ◽  
Francesco Pintori ◽  
Pier Luigi Bragato ◽  
Enrico Serpelloni

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