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Karin Bakran-Lebl ◽  
Hans Jerrentrup ◽  
Eleni Daroglou ◽  
Wolf Peter Pfitzner ◽  
Hans-Peter Fuehrer ◽  

AbstractAedes pulcritarsis is a tree-hole breeding species with its main distribution in the Mediterranean area. Within the scope of two independent monitoring programmes, this mosquito species was detected for the first time in Austria, in the province of Lower Austria (2018, districts Mistelbach and Gaenserndorf; 2020, district Bruck an der Leitha). As the climatic and habitat situation in Central Europe seems to be generally suitable for this species, the most likely explanation for the species not being recorded previously is that it might have been overlooked in the past due to its specialized breeding habitat. However, further research on the distribution of Ae. pulcritarsis in Austria would be needed to support this hypothesis. The results from this study will contribute to the investigation of the northern distribution limit of Ae. pulcritarsis in Europe and possible changes thereof.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Waqar Ahmad ◽  
Khadija Shabbiri

AbstractThe deadly SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected more than 259,502,031 confirmed cases with 5,183,003 deaths in 223 countries during the last 22 months (Dec 2019–Nov 2021), whereas approximately 7,702,859,718, vaccine doses have been administered (WHO: as of the 24th of Nov 2021. Recent announcements of test trial completion of several new vaccines resulted in the launching of immunization for the common person around the globe highlighting a ray of hope to cope with this infection. Meanwhile, genetic variations in SARS-CoV-2 and third layer of infection spread in numerous countries emerged as a stronger prototype than the parental. New and parental SARS-CoV-2 strains appeared as a risk factor for other pre-existing diseases like cancer, diabetes, neurological disorders, kidney, liver, heart, and eye injury. This situation requires more attention and re-structuring of the currently developed vaccines and/or drugs against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although a decline in COVID-19 infection has been reported globally, an increase in COVID-19 cases in the subcontinent and east Mediterranean area could be alarming. In this review, we have summarized the current information about the SARS-CoV-2 biology, its interaction and possible infection pathways within the host, epidemiology, risk factors, economic collapse, and possible vaccine and drug development.

Speranza Claudia Panico ◽  
Valeria Memoli ◽  
Lucia Santorufo ◽  
Stefania Aiello ◽  
Rossella Barile ◽  

The knowledge of the effects of fire on soil properties is of particular concern in Mediterranean areas, where the effects of vegetation type are still scarce also. This research aimed: to assess the properties of burnt soils under different vegetation types; to highlight the soil abiotic properties driving the soil microbial biomass and activity under each vegetation type; to compare the biological response in unburnt and burnt soils under the same vegetation type, and between unburnt and burnt soils under different vegetation types. The soils were collected at a Mediterranean area where a large wildfire caused a 50% loss of the previous vegetation types (holm oak: HO, pine: P, black locust: BL, and herbs: H), and were characterized by abiotic (pH, water, and organic matter contents; N concentrations; and C/N ratios) and biotic (microbial and fungal biomasses, microbial respiration, soil metabolic quotient, and hydrolase and dehydrogenase activities) properties. The biological response was evaluated by the Integrative Biological Responses (IBR) index. Before the fire, organic matter and N contents were significantly higher in P than H soils. After the fire, significant increases of pH, organic matter, C/N ratio, microbial biomass and respiration, and hydrolase and dehydrogenase activities were observed in all the soils, especially under HO. In conclusion, the post-fire soil conditions were less favorable for microorganisms, as the IBR index decreased when compared to the pre-fire conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 91
Sara Kasmaeeyazdi ◽  
Roberto Braga ◽  
Francesco Tinti ◽  
Emanuele Mandanici

Bauxite residuals from abandoned mining sites are both an environmental challenge and a possible source of secondary raw materials. Processing of multispectral and hyperspectral images with the best available techniques can help to produce multiscale spatial maps of elements inside and around the mining sites. The authors propose a procedure for mapping elements concentration using multiple data sets at different scales and resolutions. A comparison between multispectral Sentinel-2 images and hyperspectral PRISMA processing is performed over some case studies of bauxite residues in the Mediterranean area. Specifically, a case study from Italy is composed regarding artificial canyons created by past artisanal mining activities and by stockpiles of extracted bauxite. Hyperspectral punctual measurements (spectroradiometer surveys) were taken in various zones of the bauxite site, where infield topsoil samples were also taken for X-ray fluorescence chemical analysis. Final concentration maps were estimated by performing geostatistical techniques.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 172
Justine Laoué ◽  
Catherine Fernandez ◽  
Elena Ormeño

Flavonoids are specialized metabolites largely widespread in plants where they play numerous roles including defense and signaling under stress conditions. These compounds encompass several chemical subgroups such as flavonols which are one the most represented classes. The most studied flavonols are kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin to which research attributes antioxidative properties and a potential role in UV-defense through UV-screening mechanisms making them critical for plant adaptation to climate change. Despite the great interest in flavonol functions in the last decades, some functional aspects remain under debate. This review summarizes the importance of flavonoids in plant defense against climate stressors and as signal molecules with a focus on flavonols in Mediterranean plant species. The review emphasizes the relationship between flavonol location (at the organ, tissue and cellular scales) and their function as defense metabolites against climate-related stresses. It also provides evidence that biosynthesis of flavonols, or flavonoids as a whole, could be a crucial process allowing plants to adapt to climate change, especially in the Mediterranean area which is considered as one of the most sensitive regions to climate change over the globe.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 430
Antonino D’Amico ◽  
Giuseppina Ciulla ◽  
Alessandro Buscemi ◽  
Domenico Panno ◽  
Michele Zinzi ◽  

The combination/integration of renewable energy and storage systems appears to have significant potential, achieving high-energy results with lower costs and emissions. One way to cover the thermal needs of a building is through solar energy and its seasonal storage in the ground. The SMARTEP project aims to create an experimental area that provides for the construction of a road solar thermal collector directly connected to a seasonal low-temperature geothermal storage with vertical boreholes. The storage can be connected to a ground-to-water heat pump for building acclimatization. This system will meet the requirements of visual impact and reduction of the occupied area. Nevertheless, several constraints related to the radiative properties of the surfaces and the lack of proper thermal insulation have to be addressed. The project includes the study of several configurations and suitable materials, the set-up of a dynamic simulation model and the construction of a small-scale road thermal collector. These phases allowed for an experimental area to be built. Thanks to careful investigation in the field, it will be possible to identify the characteristics and the best operation strategy to maximize the energy management of the whole system in the Mediterranean area.

Chamekh Zoubeir ◽  
Ines Zouari ◽  
Salma Jallouli ◽  
Sawsen Ayadi ◽  
Sebei Abdennour ◽  

Use of low-quality water for supplemental irrigation is expected to become soon a common practice in the Mediterranean area, where durum wheat is the main cultivated cereal. Breeding for salt stress tolerance may contribute to the improvement of wheat resilience to irrigation with brackish water. Various traits can be considered as indicators of salt stress tolerance, which include agronomical and physiological criteria. However, the complexity of salinity tolerance mechanisms, the G × E interaction and the lack of correlation between controlled and open field conditions causes uncertainty in the selection process. The present review highlights the main advantages and limitations of different agronomical and physiological traits used in screening for salt stress tolerance in wheat. Special focus is given to carbon and nitrogen isotope discrimination, that remains a bottleneck in breeding for salt stress tolerance. The use of different statistical tools to analyse data related to salt stress tolerance is also discussed in this review.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Cinzia Benincasa ◽  
Massimiliano Pellegrino ◽  
Elvira Romano ◽  
Salvatore Claps ◽  
Carmelo Fallara ◽  

The processing of olives for oil production generates the most abundant agro-industrial by-products in the Mediterranean area. The three-phase olive oil extraction process requires the addition of a large amount of water to the system, which is difficult to dispose of for its load of toxic pollutants. On the other hand, olive mill wastewater is a rich source of bioactive substances with various biological properties that can be used as ingredients in the food industry for obtaining functional and nutraceutical foods as well as in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we present the results relative to the phenolic compounds detected in dried olive mill wastewaters obtained using a spray dryer. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). In particular, the compounds here discussed are: apigenin (9.55 mg/kg dry weight), caffeic acid (2.89 mg/kg dry weight), catecol (6.12 mg/kg dry weight), p-cumaric acid (5.01 mg/kg dry weight), diosmetin (3.58 mg/kg dry weight), hydroxytyrosol (1.481 mg/kg dry weight), hydroxytyrosyl oleate (564 mg/kg dry weight), luteolin (62.38 mg/kg dry weight), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (88.55 mg/kg dry weight), luteolin-4-O-glucoside (11.48 mg/kg dry weight), oleuropein (103 mg/kg dry weight), rutin (48.52 mg/kg dry weight), tyrosol (2043 mg/kg dry weight), vanillin (27.70 mg/kg dry weight), and verbascoside (700 mg/kg dry weight). The results obtained highlighted that the use of dehumidified air as a drying medium, with the addition of maltodextrin, appears to be an effective way to produce a phenol-rich powder to be included in food formulations as well as in pharmaceutical preparations having different biological properties.

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